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Master Mechanic 

Established 1878 
Copyright 1915 by Railway Periodicals Co.. Inc. 

NEW YORK, 1915 


An Impressive Anniversary ( Erie i 

Annual Convention, C. I. I. & C. F. A. of America 

Announcement of Change 251, 

Advance of Electrification, Heavy Traction Roads 

Alternating Current & Phase 

American Car Builders' Association 

Applying Motor Drives to Old Machines 

Assigned and Pooled Engines 

Attachment for Horizontal Drilling 

Automatic Cylinder Cock 

Automatic Locomotive Stokers 

Automatic Nut Tapper 


Baldwin Locomotives for the C. B. & Q 

Becoming a Leader 

Bench Legs 

Blacksmith and the Scrap Heap 

Bingham & Garfield Gondola 

Boiler Code Completed 

Book Reviews 41. 74, 104, 143, 177, 223, 27*-), 316, 352. 

Bolt Heading Machine 

Boy Engineer 

Brake Beam Adjusting Device 

Brake Equipment Parts 

liricks without Straw 

British Thermal Unit 


Car Department Correspondence 

Car Department Paint Shop 

Car Door Question 

Car Inspectors' Convention 

Car Surplus 

Causes of Honeycomb on Flue Sheets 

Characteristics of Railway Materials 

Changing Conditions of Train Operation 

Cheap and Strong Ladder 

Coal Coke Wastage and X-Ray- 

Color of Mercury Vapor Lamps ' 


Correspondence 47, 

Correction : 

Convention of Railway Storekeepers 

Cutting Gears on Slotter 


Design, Construction and Inspection of Boilers 

Device for Truing Wheels 

Dies for Drawing Out Stock 

Dies for Safety Chain Hooks 

Don'ts for Brakemen 

Draft Difficulties in Superheated Locomotives 

Drill Press for University Test Work 

Drilling Hints 

Drilling Speeds and Feeds 

Duties of a Locomotive Engineer 

Dynamic Augment, The 

Dynamometer Car for Japanese Railways 


Educating Employes on the Frisco 

Economies of Freight Car Repairs 

Economical Practice at Burnside 

Electric Traction on Steam Roads 

Electrical Distribution for Shops 

Electrical Equipment. Maintenance and Operation , 
























A Central Testing Plant 

Advantages of Good Lockers 

An Opportune Appointment 

Atlantic City 

Both Sides of the Fence 

Car Men's Association 

C. M. & St. P. Electrification 2. 

Editorial Management 

Factors in Electrification 

Failure of System or Man 

Flue Cleaning on Superheater- 

Governmental Railroad Management 

Gaines", F. I-'., Convention Address 

Human Element, The 

Importance of the Service Test 

Machine Tools and South America 

Marking Time 

Mechanical Convention- 

Mechanical Men and the Public 

Mechanical Omniscience 

Modernizing Shop Machines 

Renewal Funds 

Roundhouse and Back Shop 

Seeking the Confidence of the People 

Shop Passage-Ways 

Standardization of Shop Methods 

Steel Ends for Freight Cars 

Successful Smoke Washing 

The Old-Time Finish 

Twentieth Century University 

Window Openings in Steel Cars 

Efficient Handling of Material in Car Shops 

Electric Locomotive Exhibit 

Electrification on the Norfolk & Western 

Engineering of the Panama Canal 

Equalizing Cut-offs, Walschaerts Valve Gear 

Equipment Department of a Railroad 

Erie All-Steel Passenger Cars 

Exchange of Tools 116. 

Executive Committee Meeting 

Extensive Electric Exhibit 

Extent of Electrification 

Facts on Friction 

Factors in Hardening Tool Steel 

Factors in the Heat Treatment of Steel. 

Factors in Successful Piece Work 

Failure of Refrigerator Car Wheels 

Files and Filing 

Forged and Rolled Steel Pistons 

Forging Castle Nuts and Grease Cup?. 

Forging Locomotive Front Section 

Forging Steel Transoms 

Food for Reflection 

Foster Locomotive Superheater 

Fuel Economy in Railroad Service 

Fuel Oil for Coast Engines on G. T. P. . 

Fuel Value of Wood 

Further Stud}' of the Apprentice System. 

General Foremen's Convention 

General News 

Good Record of the Grand Trunk. 
Golf Tournament 







50 f > 








Index. 1915 

Grinding Cylinder Heads 

Grinding the Drill Point ■ 

Grinding in Xigger-Head Rings I-." 1 . 






Hand Firing Soft Coal 

Handling Supplies at Engine Houses. 

Hays Derail 

Heat Treatment of Axles 

High Voltage Electrification 

How to Get Hurt 

Inclining the Rails 

Increased Roundhouse Expense- 

International Railway Fuel Association 

Interchange of Ideas 

International Railway General Foremen's Association... 
International Engineering Congress 

Jig for Removing No. 2.^ Steam Nozzle- 1%. 


Landis Chaser Grinder 

Laws of Friction Applied to Brakes 

Leaving Something for Discussion 

Letters to the Editor 115, 

Locomotive Counterbalancing 

Locomotive Facts and Figures 

Locomotive Characteristics 

Locomotive Outlook in England 

Lounging Cars, C. & X. W. Ry 

Long Island R. R. Shops 

Loosening Packing Rings 

Locomotive with a Water Tube Firebox 

Lubrication of Car Journals 


Machine Forging Work, C. & X. W. Ry 

M. C. B. Inspectors for Checking Repairs to Foreign Cars 

Madden Hopperless Ash Pan 

Magnet for Removing Metal 

Making Eccentric Rods 

Making and Repairing Springs 

Manufacture of Scrap Iron 

Master Boilermakers' Convention , 

Master Car Builder ciation 

Master Mechanic's Office 

Mechanical Department and the Public 

Meeting of Air Brake Association 

Mechanical Man. The 

Mechanical Side of Railroading 

Metal Band Saw 

Micro-Structure of Tool Steel 

Mikado Locomotives for the Georgia R. R 

My Attitude Towards the Store Department 

' N 

Narrow Gauge Electric Locomotive 

Nerves of an Engineer 

New Literature 43. 76, 111. 178. 218. 

New 4-4-4 "Reading" Type Locomotive 

Xew Shops of the Chicago & Alton 

New Steel Car for X. Y. Municipal Ry. Corp 

Xew Type of Gasoline Motor Car 

Novel Wood-Boring Machine 


Obituary 110. 144. 

Operating Expenses. X. & W. Ry 

< )perating Results in Brief : 

1 »ur Xew Offices in the X. Y. C. Terminal Area 

' >xy-Acetylene Welding for Boiler 


Pacific Type Locomotives. D. & H. Co 

Packing Equipment Standards 

Pneumatic Ash Handling 

Potential and Kinetic Energy 

Potential Energy of Chemical Separation 

Portable Hydro-Carbon Oil Heater 

Portable Power Plant 

Portable Pneumatic Clamps for Shoes and Wedges 

Practical Suggestions from Railway Shop Men. 

265. 311, 333. 

Prizes for a Tool-steel Name 

Present Duty of the Railroads 

Preventing Railway Electrification - 

Programme. Master Mechanics' Convention 

Programme. Master Car Builders' Convention 

P. R. R. Electrification 

P. R. R. Electric Locomotives. Performance 

Publisher's Announcement 


































Publicity on the B. & O 62 

Personal Items for Railroad Men. 

42. 73, 109. 144. 178. 214. 218. 247. 281, 314. 335. 419 


Kack xor Railway Storerooms 132 

Railroads and Coal Mines Co-operate to Prevent Accidents 18 

Railway Cars on Street Car Line- 296 

Railway General Foremen's Association 183 

Railway Income and Revenue 48 

Railway Master Mechanics' Association 224 

Railroad Xight, A. S. M. E 22 

Railroad Plush 399 

Railroads Today \\(, 

Reclaiming Scrap 45 

Reclaiming Material on the Southern Pacific 7 

Recreation Facilities for Employes 150 

Reflex Water Glass Grinding Machine 249 

Reflections on Mr. Gaines' Address 322 

Relief Associations 310 

Removing Controlling Valve Chambers 142 

Removing X'uts from Scrap Bolt- 14 

Reorganize the Commission US 

Reorganization of the U-S-L-Co 144 

Repairing Broken Cylinders by Electric Welding 206 

Repairing of Foreign Cars 3 

Results of the Boiler Inspection Law 122 

Resumption in Business 74 

Results of Impact 328 

Revised Schedule of Demurrage Charges 55 

Rushton Drifting Throttle 32'- 


eguarding the High-Speed Grinding Wheel 11 

Safety Problem of the Railroads 9 

Safety in Crane Work 65 

Safety Work B. & O .' 138 

St. Louis Car Foremen's Association 82 

Saving Electrode Holders 96 

Shop Accounting Association 4 

Selling Side The 44. 76. 112, 146, 180 

tinel Pyrometers and Pastes 43 

Shay Locomotive for the Kansas City Southern 288 

Since the Last Convention 200 

Situation in Brief 82 

Square Brake Shaft and Drop Handle Arrangement 97 

Smoke Prevention 323 

ne Interesting Old-Time Locomotives 13 f » 

Special Brake Beam for Passenger Cars 73 

Staybolts 13 

Study of the R. R. Apprenticeship System 245. 272 

Substitute for Files Triple Valve Repair Work 10 

Suburban Type Locomotives 86 

Superheater Tube Sheet Borer 134 

Swinging on Trains 99 


Talk to Young Men 39 

Through the Smoke of the Roundhouse 184 

Theory of Coal Formation 393 

The Industrial Sambrowne Belt 

The Time Is Here 62 

Transportation Problem 388 

Trailing Truck 137 

Trap Door for Coach Vestibules 305 

Traveling Engineers' Annual Convention 273. 297 

Tribute to George Westinghouse 57 

Triplex Hydraulic Pump 145 

Truck Side Frame Force- and S' 88 

Tunneling Record Broken 99 

Twenty Years Ago This Month J, 47 


Uniformity of Car Inspection 223 

Use of Superheaters on Locomotives 63 


A alue of a Locomotice in Service 100 

Valve Proportions : 212 

Veneered Steel for Passenger Coaches 32 

Ventilator for Arched Roof Cars 277 


Wash-Out Diverter 172 

Westinghouse Accident and Relief Plans 41 

What is Economy? 281 

What is the Matter with the United States ? - 

Whv I Don't Get Hurt 232 

Wilmarth Radial Drill 110 

With Brain and Hand 406 

Wood Frame Cars in Freight Trains of Todav 8 

Working Up Old Scrap .' 232 

Wrench for Westinghouse Feed Valve 142 

Wrench for Removing Glass Casings 2P» 

January, 1915 


The World's Greatest Railway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


CHARLES S. MYERS, President C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Treasurer. 

L. F. WILSON, Vice-President OWEN W. MIDDLETOX, Editor. 

CLAY C. COOPER, General Manager. 

Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 
Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, cars, equipment, 
shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 
This Publication has a larger circulation than any other among me- 
chanical department officers. Of this issue 4,300 copies are printed. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895. at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXIX Chicago, January, 1915 

No. 1 


Editorial — page 

Shop Passage-Ways 1 

The Roundhouse and Back Shop 1 

C. M. & St. P. Electrification 2 

The Present Duty of the Railroads 2 

Twenty Years Ago This Month 3 

Repairing of Foreign Cars 3 

A Shop Accounting Association 4 

Heat Treatment of Axles 5 

Reclaiming Material on the Southern Pacific 7 

Wood Frame Cars in Freight Trains of Today 8 

Safety Problem of the Railroads 9 

My Attitude Towards the Store Department 10 

A Substitute for Files for Triple Valve Repair Work 10 

Safeguarding the High-speed Grinding Wheel 11 

Staybolts 13 

Removing Nuts from Scrap Bolts 14 

C. M. & St. P. Electrification 15 

Railroads and Coal Mines Co-operate to Prevent Accidents 18 

Mechanical Side of Railroading 19 

Assigned and Pooled Engines 21 

Railroad Night, A. S. M. E 22 

Oxy- Acetylene Welding for Boiler Repairs 23 

Pacific Type Locomotives, D. & H. Co 24 

The Boy Engineer 26 

Factors in Hardening Tool Steel 27 

General Foremen's Convention 30 

Madden Hopperless Ash Pan 31 

Habit 31 

Veneered Steel for Passenger Coaches 32 

Electric Traction on Steam Roads 33 

A Talk to Young Men 39 

Forging Castle Nuts and Grease Cups 39 

Grinding the Drill Point 40 

Westinghouse Accident and Relief Plans 41 

New Books 41 

Personals 42 

New Literature 43 

Prizes for a Tool-steel Name 43 

Sentinel Pyrometers and Pastes 43 

The Selling Side 44 

Shop Passage- Ways 

The routing of materials is given considerable attention in the 
layout of the machine tools for a shop; that is, the machines are 
placed so that work may travel the least distance during its prog- 
ress to the various machines. However well the machine tool 
layout may have been devised when the shop was new, its efficiency 
will necessarily be decreased after a few years. The need of 
larger space for the storage of castings may decrease the size of a 
passage-way or may blockade a door. A new machine placed near 
a stairway may prevent materials being carried past it. Condi- 
tions are changing constantly and the average shop superintend- 
ent may often be able to make beneficial changes if he will take 
time to note the conditions, as do the efficiency men. 

If there is congestion and occasionally a blockade caused by 
material passing down an aisle, something is wrong with the 
routing of materials and the location of machine tools. Perhaps 
a new passage-way can be opened and some of the work can take 
a different course. It is hard to keep the passage-way through the 
center of the shop clear, for on occasion it is impossible not to 
encroach on this space, especially if it is not marked. Some shops 
have painted a white strip along either side, thus marking the aisle 
and it is a very good thing if the rule against encroaching on 
them is enforced. 

Often a number of machines will be seen in a shop so placed 
that a pocket is formed, making it difficult to get material in 
or out, and it becomes a dumping place for rubbish. Thus good 
floor space is wasted, bringing absolutely no return on the invest- 
ment. Or, for instance, a countershaft is placed on the floor and 
a horizontal belt is used to transmit power to the machine. Such 
cases are not frequent, especially in these days of individual mo- 
tor drive, but it illustrates how free movement may be hindered 
and good floor space wasted. The increasing use of motor drive is 
making it much easier to move a machine if it becomes necessary 
as there is no need of considering the line shaft. 

We do not advocate that extreme refinement where the time spent 
in so doing overtops the practical benefits, but we do think that if 
the men in charge of our shops would take a day every six 
months to go through the plant with a view of looking about for 
places where space is being wasted and where aisles are congested, 
that the result would be as good and much cheaper than turning 
an efficiency engineer loose in the shop. 

The Roundhouse and Back Shop 

An efficient and well equipped roundhouse and back shop can 
do much towards decreasing the time during which a locomotive 
is out of service, and while the roundhouse has not been given the 
attention it has deserved in the past, recent constructions along 
these lines indicate that more care is being taken with regard to 
its design and equipment. 

Equipment of course should be in proportion to the size and 
importance of the terminal. Most of the houses now being built, 
however, are equipped with drop pits, ventilating systems, electric 
power outlet, boiler washing systems, good lighting systems and 
some are being equipped with traveling cranes. 

Good light, heat, and ventilation are important factors in facili- 
tating roundhouse repairs, for in order to get good results from 
the roundhouse men conditions must at least be equal to those 
at repair shops. Many of the newer roundhouses are also equipped 


January, 1915 

with lockers and adequate toilet facilities, all of which help to get 
the best out of the men. 

M"ashing systems effect a great saving of energy and time, 
as well as protecting the boiler against leaky flues. Wall plugs 
for the connecting in of electrically operated tools are greatly 
to be desired if electric power is available. 

As the roundhouse and back shop are very closely in touch with 
actual operating conditions and can receive reports concerning 
defects and repairs at first hand from the engine men, it is essen- 
tial that they be in the hands of capable workmen and be supplied 
with the facilities and tools for making light repairs. Fre- 
quently the back shop is equipped with insufficient tools and oft- 
times these tools are old ones which the repair shop has thrown out. 

There are instances where back shops are equipped entirely 
with old tools thrown out of the repair shop. This is a rather 
short-sighted policy. The tools of the back shop should be the 
very best and should be so complete as to enable all light repairs 
to be handled without trouble. It means a considerable loss of 
time, and therefore earning power, to take an engine to the repair 
shop, and if a day can be saved by making the repair at the ter- 
minal, it will make quite a saving. 

The roundhouse and roundhouse foreman have been the subject 
of much abuse and it is time that more attention be paid to this 
connecting link between the mechanical and operating depart- 
ments. It is a "first-aid-to-the-injured" station and its facilities 
should be adequate. 

C. M. £? St. P. Electrification 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul has under way an electri- 
fication project which will eventually cover four engine divisions 
or a distance of about 440 miles, and it is one of the most com- 
prehensive projects of this sort which has been undertaken by any 
transcontinental line. It is also said that should the results prove 
satisfactory, the work will be extended to the coast, a distance of 
850 miles. 

This electrification is very significant as it marks the first exten- 
sive use of the water powers of the "West for trunk liue electric 
operation. The road referred to passes through a district abun- 
dantly supplied with developed and undeveloped power and the 
railway is able to purchase it for a trifle over a half cent per kil- 
owatt hour. It is expected, therefore, that a reduction in the 
present cost of steam operation will be effected and that a good 
percentage will be returned on the investment. "With the abun- 
dant supply of accessible power the chances seem bright for the 
attainment of this end. 

The success of this project will undoubtedly have considerable 
influence on future developments of this nature, for there are a 
number of roads which, through their locations, may be able to 
follow the example of the Milwaukee road and the next few years 
may see numerous developments of this sort. It is to be hoped, 
however, that the public will not sieze upon these projects as 
examples of the success and economic value of electrification in 
order to force the railroads to electrify in locabties where power 
cannot be produced at the low figure obtainable in districts well 
suppbed with water power. 

One of the interesting features of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul electrification project is the use of direct current at the high 
potential of 3,000 volts. The adoption of this voltage was due 

in a large measure to the success of the operation of 2,400 volt 
direct current installation of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific in the 
immediate territory. A comparison of steam and electric operation 
on the latter road showed a total net saving of over 20 per cent 
on the investment, together with other advantages from an oper- 
ating standpoint. 

The locomotives for use on this latest electrification project have 
a continuous rating of 3,000 horsepower, weigh complete about 260 
tons and are the most powerful yet constructed. In addition to 
the regular air brake equipment, they are designed to permit elec- 
tric braking, something which has not been done heretofore on 
motors of the size involved. The working and results of this 
project will be watched with much interest bv the railwav world. 


The railroads of this country for several years past have been 
conducting a propaganda of education before the general public 
to establish the merit and justice of their plea for higher freight 
rates. The final success crowning these efforts is represented in 
the recent decision of the Interstate Commerce Commission grant- 
ing the 5 per cent increase to railroads in Central classification 
territory. Xow the western roads are presenting their case and 
appear likely to be accorded similar treatment by the national 
commission. It is not overstating the facts to set forth positively 
that public sentiment in favor of the railroad's position has 
brought about the recent important ruling in terms largely to the 
advantage of these interests. 

Why has the public been swung around to support the railroads 
in their fight for greater revenues, when the tendency of the times 
only a few years back was all in the direction of hedging about 
the transportation companies with increasing restrictive and regu- 
lative legislation and of forcing them to put their affairs upon 
a more economical and efficient basis? 

The answer is clear. The public has been convinced by the rail- 
road's own words spoken in support of their case that the pros- 
perity of the whole country inextricably is related to the prosperity 
of the railroads, and that without the latter there can be no gen- 
eral condition of good business. 

The situation that now arises, therefore, imposes immeasurable 
responsibility upon the railroads. The soundness of their recent 
contention that the business public owes much of its well-being to 
their maintenance upon a safe financial foundation remains to be 
proved, however popularly acceptable it may now appear to be. 
It rests with the railroads of the United States to make a faithful 
effort to keep faith with the general public and to do everything 
in their power to bring about the return of good business which 
the country impatiently has been awaiting several years. 

Xo one expects or desires the railroads to buy what they do 
not need or cannot use. To do so would be poor business. On 
the other hand, it is too much for the railroads to expect they can 
wait until their earnings reach the point where they can afford to 
buy without much restrain before they decide to release orders 
worthy to be called such. If they do, they probably will have little 
reason ever to buy on a large scale. To no class of business is it 
more important to stimulate industry than to the railroads them- 
selves. Only by increased freight tonnage can their revenues ap- 
preciably expand. Whatever they do to arouse the now depressed 
iron and steel trade they will reap richly in the tonnage of raw 
material or finished product which they will be called upon to 
carry. The situation, therefore, plainly calls for reciprocal action. 

To a certain degTee the railroads can buy now and they ought 
to buy. They owe it first to themselves, but in the larger view 
they have a duty of faith to discharge with the general public 
which has supported them in their plea for help. It is apparent 
some high railroad officials appreciate the trust that rests upon 
them. They are releasing whatever purchases they prudently can. 
What the business situation of this country needs at this stage 
is a more general adoption of this policy. — The Daily Iron Trade. 

January, 1915 


/enfg^arts ^o This MorrtHi 

A review of the year 1894 showed that receivers had been ap- 
pointed for 38 railway companies, having 7,025 miles of road. 
Most of these roads were located in the west and south. 

Work was progressing steadily on the electric locomotives for the 
Baltimore & Ohio, to be used in the Baltimore tunnel. They were 
being built by the General Electric Co. and weighed in their com- 
pleted state 95 tons. Their maximum speed was 50 miles per hour, 
which was reduced to 15 miles per hour under full draw-bar pull. 

J. P. McCuen, master mechanic of the Alabama Great Southern 
at Birmingham, Ala., was appointed master mechanic of the Cin- 
cinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific at Ludlow, Ky. 

The Western Eailway Club held its January meeting in the 
•smoking room of the Auditorium hotel. A paper on "Methods 
of Obtaining Economy in the Use of Fuel on Locomotives" was 
presented by S. P. Bush, superintendent of motive power of the 
Pennsylvania Lines West, and F. A. Delano, of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy, presented a paper on English railway prac- 
tice. In his paper Mr. Bush said: "The present question relates 
to the efficiency of the men who handle the coal and the engine." 
He urged the keeping of a record of each man's work, the estab- 
lishment of fair standards of what should be done, the offering 
•of inducements and the posting of monthly reports. Among those 
who took part in the discussion were Messrs. Barr (C, M. & St. P.), 
Lyon (C. G. W.), Bhodes (C, B. & Q.), Peck (C. & W. I.), Man- 
chester (C, M. & St. P.), Herr (C. & N. W.), and MacKenzie 
(N. Y., C. & St. L.). 

F. Slater, general foreman of the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & 
Western at Kaukauna, Wis., was appointed general foreman of 
the West Chicago shops of the Chicago & North Western. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., of Chicago, was incorporated 
with $50,000 capital stock by J. W. Dnntley, James L. Clark and 
•Charles B. Williams. 

A committee consisting of Messrs. Sanderson, Pomeroy, Gentry 
and Gibbs presented a report to the Southern and Southwestern 
Eailway Club on the counterbalancing of locomotives. The report 
was a long and exhaustive one. 

The Southern California Eailway, the western end of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe was using oil on a passenger locomotive, 
having used it in freight service for some time. The burning 
apparatus was put in under the supervision of William Booth, who 
had just received a patent on-his burner. 

Mr. Garstang, superintendent of motive power, and Mr. Laws, 
mechanical engineer, of the Big Four, devised an apparatus for 
testing tail lamps. It consisted of a box having a small turn- 
table on the bottom upon which the lamp was placed. A fan con- 
nected by a 12-inch pipe entered the box at one side and provided 
the blast, the lamp being rotated as desired. 

The Atlantic Coast Line received some new engines which were 
■classed 10-32-C. They were 10-wheel engines, with four drivers, a 
4-wheel leading truck and a pair of trailers. 

The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. transferred the entire business of 
its crane department to the Brown Hoisting & Conveying Machine 
Co., of Cleveland, O. The transfer allowed the Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co. to develop its line of pulley blocks, hoists, etc. 

A correspondent said: "Will our car departments be abol- 
ished, simply remaining a small factor in the mechanical depart- 
ment? This seems to be the tendency of our present system, and 
to this is due the fact that we are no longer educating men to 
assume the responsibilities of master car builder." He further 
stated that it is a fact that the man at the head of the car de- 
department seldom becomes the head of the two departments. How- 
ever the master car builder and the car department are still very 
much alive after twenty years. . 

The American Eailway Master Mechanics' Association appointed 
a committee to report on gauges for wire and sheet metal. The 
confusion of gauges was so great that everyone felt that something 
should be done. 


By W. P. Elliott, Fmn. Car Dept., Wiggins Ferry Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. 

In March, 1913, issue of the Eailway Master Mechanic I contrib- 
uted an article on the subject of bad order, home-empty cars and 
their final disposition as to repairs. At that time I advocated the 
establishment of large central repair shops at the various large 
interchange points to take care of such cars. The M. C. B. rules 
effective October 1, 1914, require the handling line to give the 
same care to foreign cars when on its line as it does to its own 
cars, which in my opinion makes the establishment of central 
repair shops a vital necessity. As is well known, economy will 
not permit the installation of the necessary facilities at a great 
many points on lines of railroads to handle all classes of repairs. 
This is especially true at large terminals, and the problem of 
handling foreign equipment that is in a general worn-out condition 
is usually a serious one. Rule 120 is an excellent one, wherein 
it requires that cars must either be repaired or destroyed, subject 
to the discretion of the owner. The Master Car Builders had in 
mind when framing Eule 120 either the repairing or the destruc- 
tion of these cars, and if the rule is lived up to, in connection with 
Eule 1, we will undoubtedly in the course of the next few years 
see a wonderful improvement in freight car equipment. The 
question of the handling of these cars naturally falls to a great 
extent upon the various terminals, where we are the least pre- 
pared for it. If central repair shops having the facilities for 
the handling of all classes of repairs to both wood and steel cars 
were in operation, the line having in its possession cars which it 
did not feel in a position to repair could forward them to these 
shops, where they could be repaired and returned to service in a 
very short time, thus doing away with a deal of unnecessary switch- 
ing and useless correspondence, which would be a great relief to 
the various railroads, allowing them more time for attention to 
their own equipment. It would probably be impracticable for all 
roads entering a terminal to attempt to establish shops with the 
necessary facilities for handling repairs of all descriptions, for the 
reason that they as a rule confine themselves as much as possible 
to the repairing of their own cars, for which the material is 
usually received from their shops ready to be applied. 

The steel car is another very important consideration, and one 
that will have to be dealt with in the near future, and the facili- 
ties required to make that class of repairs are not, as a rule, found 
at very many points on any railroad. This class of repairs could 
be taken care of at this shop with the least possible expense, as 
they would also have the facilities for steel car work. The ma- 
terial and parts necessary for the repairs to various foreign cars 
can usually be made with a few small exceptions at a shop with 
the proper facilities, and if the proposition is gone into deeply 
enough and the co-operation of the various railroads received, a 
great many articles, for which cars are now h,eld to be procured 
from the car owner, will allow substitutions which will in no 
way impair the strength of or destroy the standard to the car. 
For instance, in several different cases lately I have found it 
necessary to order five different outside metal roofs from the car 
owner, and when the roofs were received they were all exactly 
the same type of roof. By that you see how practical it would 
be for a shop handling foreign equipment and having the con- 
fidence of the car owner, to carry in stock types of roofs especially 
that would meet many conditions. The same applies to material 
for steel car repairs, as practically all of the material necessary 
can be procured from the open market, and a great deal of it, 
such as channels, sheet iron, etc., can easily be worked into the 
various forms carried in stock. 

The necessity of holding foreign cars for material to be for- 
warded by the car owner will undoubtedly in the next few years 
be reduced to a minimum, as the Master Car Builders are making 
every effort possible to arrive at standards, and I am satisfied that 
in the course of a very short time the official in charge of a shop 
of that kind, through the good offices of the Master Car Builders, 
and his experience with the various cars and car owners, will be in 


January, 1915 

a position to repair practically any car without conferring with 
the owner in regard to material and in most cases could follow 
the original construction without the aid of blue prints. Com- 
panies desiring to make betterments in equipment could have on 
file in the offices blue prints which could readily be referred to 
when their cars are undergoing repairs. 

A shop of this kind should by all means be operated under the 
jurisdiction of the railroads entering the terminals, in practi- 
cally the same manner as the interchange bureaus are handled at 
the present time. I can see no good reason why there should be 
any obstacle which would in any way interfere with its smooth- 
working under any conditions. The per-diem could be taken care 
of in accordance with the Master Car Builders' rules with refer- 
ence to bad order cars, and cars could be considered as being on 
the line of the company who forwarded the car to this shop. 
There are a number of ways in which the expense could be pro- 
rated, in fact, it seems to me as a car foreman that it is our only 
means from an economical standpoint to get these cars repaired. 

I read some time ago in these columns an article by E. P. 
Eipley, president of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, relative to 
a standard car. Mr. Eipley has undoubtedly struck a note that 
means harmony to every car department official in the country, 
if we would just stop and think what a standard car would mean 
to the railroads of today. We realize that the railroads carry in 
stock millions of dollars' worth of material just to meet condi- 
tions of a non-standard car. Handling lines are paying the pen- 
alty daily for the poor construction of some equipment due un- 
doubtedly to inferior design. Cars, both loaded and empty, are 
being delayed for material that it would be impracticable to 
carry in stock. The new safety appliance laws with their increased 
appliances requiring certain specified locations make it practically 
impossible to carry stock to meet the conditions made necessary 
by the handling of foreign cars. This gentleman certainly does 
voice the opinion of every thinking car man at least, when making 
his plea for the standard car, but when the time does arrive when 
we will begin working on the standard car, great care should be 
taken to see that we are getting the best, and not always thinking 
of the first cost. We must also take into consideration that the 
best roof that could be made if applied to a car without proper 
bracing would give no better service than the poorest roof made. 
We must also take into consideration that the best draft gear 
would show failures if applied to an inferior underframe. The 
selection of the draft gear to meet the conditions of standards 
will surely be very interesting, as the car men throughout the 
country seem to be divided as to the spring and friction draft 
gear. I don't mind saying that I personally favor a certain type 
of spring draft gear, and I have had some very interesting expe- 
riences and have some very positive facts to substantiate my 

I was also interested in an article entitled ' ' The Interchange 
of Freight Cars," published in the November issue. I note one 
part which refers to the respective agents having a good general 
knowledge of a car and the M. C. B. rules. It has been my ex- 
perience in my eleven years of service in the car department that 
I have still a great deal to learn with regard to the fitness of a 
car as to service, loading, etc., and undoubtedly I will keep on 
learning as new conditions make new demands on my ambition. 
I can't help feeling that one of the conditions that has kept us 
away from a standard car is that we have had too many people 
who have felt that they have known a great deal about the car 
business, when in reality they knew very little. 

The sooner we and the country in general realize that the car 
department makes up one of the largest industries in our great 
and prosperous country, handling millions of dollars of the rail- 
roads' money each and every year, and that impractical car men 
will cause the unnecessary expenditure of millions more, the sooner 
the car business will get on its proper basis. I also noted one 
part of the article relating to the "Get Even" spirit which the 
writer claimed existed among car foremen in the handling of 
M. C. B. defect cards. I am glad to say that we do not have this 
feeling in the St. Louis terminals, where the Twentieth Century 

inspection has been in vogue for some eight years past. I am 
also glad to note that car department representatives throughout 
the country are forming organizations and are becoming members 
of some of the very valuable organizations now in existence. 
This will have a tendency to promote a better understanding of, 
and uniformity in, working under M. C. B. rules and will afford 
opportunities for the exchanging of very valuable ideas. It will 
also create closer acquaintance and will serve to broaden out the 
minds of any who may take a narrow-minded or selfish view of 
the M. C. B. rules. 

By J. D. MacAlpine 

The question has been asked whether it would be advantage- 
ous to have a uniform system of railway shop accounting, the 
object being, I presume, to afford comparisons that would restllt 
in improved methods and reductions in the expense of compil- 
ing the various reports. 

So far as reducing the cost of compilation is concerned, I 
think it is probable that at present most offices have eliminated 
lost motion wherever there was any, for the reason that every 
department has been compelled to retrench in the effort to pro- 
duce net revenue for the road as a whole. 

In regard to securing uniformity for the purpose of making 
comparisons, it seems to me that it is not as essential, now that 
the final statements and exhibits of railroad expenses are made 
up in a uniform manner on blanks required by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. 

There is, however, no doubt that a comparison of methods 
used in making up shop accounts would lead to improvement 
and efficiency. It is the practice now of some roads to send 
representatives to visit shop accounting offices that have a 
reputation for efficiency for the purpose of studying the methods 
used in such offices. 

In order that all roads might have the benefit of such study 
and comparison of up-to-date methods, it could be brought about 
by having meetings of shop accountants and chief clerks of 
locomotive and car departments at stated periods, which would 
be along the lines of the meetings or conventions of railroad 
storekeepers, and would be just as valuable. I think the results 
would justify the effort. 

The following is a list of some of the subjects that it might 
be interesting to discuss and study at such meetings: 

The best form of monthly time books, and monthly or semi- 
monthly payrolls, and daily time slips. 

The best form of stock or material books for the different 
classes of material, also foremen's order cards, lot order reports, 

Locomotive performance statistics covering repairs, changes, 
additions and betterments, and engine failures. 

Record of prices of every item of material purchased or of 
cost of articles manufactured in the shops. 

Charges between the different departments, such as locomo- 
tive, car, engineering or maintenance of way, and transportation 

The method of checking and recording invoices for supplies 
purchased after same have been 0. K. 'd by storekeepers or 

Method of making and recording bills against outside parties 
and foreign roads; this would cover bills for repairs of cars 
rendered in accordance with the intricate M. C. B. rules of 

Record of coal purchased and distributed. 

Method of filing and indexing correspondence. 

I know of shop accountant's offices and shop offices where 
the methods in use are first class, but there is always room for 
some improvement and by having meetings such as suggested 
above it would afford the members attending an opportunity 
of exchanging ideas, making suggestions, exhibiting sample 
forms, discussing papers, etc., that would enable them to avail 
themselves of whatever would improve their methods. 

January. 1915 


Heat Treatment of Axles 

By E. F. Lake, Consulting Metallurgist. 

So many invest igatious have absolutely proven that a correct 
heat treatment will increase the strength, wearing qualities and 
resistance to fatigue of steel axles, that it seems a -waste of time 
to argue over this proposition, and yet, some still claim that 
heat treatment is of no benefit to the kinds of steel that are 
used for axles. It can be granted that steels higher in carbon 
will respond more readily to heat treatment, but a knowledge of 
the right methods to employ in heat treating steels will enable 
one to raise the elastic limit and greatly increase the resistance 
to fatigue of steels that have a lower carbon content than 
those that are made into axles. 

It is but a few years since wrought iron was considered to be 
superior to any of the steels for use in axles. A typical illus- 
tration is found in the first book that was printed about auto- 
mobile construction ; namely, ' ' The Automobile — Its Construc- 
tion and Management, ' ' by Gerard Lavergne. This was pub- 
lished in 1902 and translated into English by Paul N. Hasluck. 
On page 310 it says: "Consequently the axles must be made 
of the best metal. Steel, which otherwise is desirable owing to 
the facility of tempering of the journals, cannot be used, because 
it tends to become brittle under the influence of vibration; in 
any case only soft steel can be tolerated. Iron is almost exclu- 
sively employed, and it is selected soft and fibrous, giving an 

elongation as far as possible . ' ' The numerous experiments 

and tests that have been made since that time have proven this to 
be false, however, and today the mechanical engineer would be 
considered ignorant if he should specify iron as the best metal 
from which to manufacture axles. 

On account of the rough roads, the automobile axle may some- 
times receive more severe strains than a railroad axle, but on 
the whole the strains and stresses to which both are subjected 
are very similar. The axle is located below the springs and 
hence it receives many rapidly repeated vibrational strains as a 
result of the wheels rolling over rail joints and many more severe 
strains from other causes. Thus the metal from which axles are 
made should be one that can be put into a condition that will 
best resist such strains. When steel is given the correct heat 
treatment it will refine the grain, remove all internal strains and 

Fig. 1. — Break Showing Strains Produced by Forging Hammer 
Blows and Also Crystallized Center Portion. 

make the cohesive force equal in all directions from any given 
point. Such a metal is certainly more able to resist the strains 
given axles than one which has not been heat treated, or one on 
which heat treatment only has a slight effect. Notwithstanding 
this, arguments are still advanced which attempt to show that car 
or locomotive axles give better results when in the condition in 
which they left the forge, or when in the annealed state. Such 
arguments are every bit as erroneous as were those that attemped 
to perpetuate the use of wrought iron. 

A good example of the internal strains that may be set up 
from the forging operation is shown by the view of a broken 
axle that Fig. 1 illustrates. In this case the effect of the hammer 
blows did not penetrate clear to the center of the axle and the 
high forging heat left the central portion in a crystalline condi- 
tion that is very similar to that of cast steel. Around the out- 
side, however, the hammer blows broke up this coarse crystalline 
formation and condensed the grain in a manner that gave it a 
very fine grain structure. The ridges that radiate towards the 
center, from the outer edge, show how one hammer blow over- 
lapped another. They illustrate the internal strains that are set 
up by the forging operations. Boiling will also produce similar 
results. If this axle had been properly annealed, hardened and 
tempered these internal strains would have been reduced and any 
inequalities in the cohesive force that binds the molecules of the 
mass together would have been removed. It would also have 
reduced the crystalline structure in the center of the axle and 
made the grain much finer in that section. Then it would have 
been considerably more difficult for a crack to get a start and 
eventually cause rupture. 

The principles on which the heat treatment of steel is based 
give a good idea of the benefits derived therefrom. As steel is 
being heated up it reaches a certain temperature at which it 
undergoes a revolutionary change. This is not far from 800 
degrees, Centigrade, in axle steels. Some such changes take place 
at lower temperatures but these are not very important in the 
working or treating of steels. When the heat in the steel has 
reached this temperature it will not absorb any more heat until 
a complete transformation or rearrangement has taken place in 
the molecules of the metal. The result is, a new grain structure 
has been born and this is as fine and dense as any that can be 
produced in the particular grade of steel being heated. 

This rearrangement allows the cohesive force to equalize itself 
in all directions from any given point and thus any unequal 
internal strains will be obliterated. If nothing more was done, 
than to allow the steel to slowly cool down from this tempera- 
ture, the metal would be in a much better condition to resist any 
strains that axles are subjected to, than would a steel in the con- 
dition it is when it leaves the forging press or the rolling mill. 
If axles are properly hardened and tempered, after this annealing 
operation, their ability to resist such strains will be considerably 

In annealing axles the following three rules should always be 
obeyed : 

First — The axles must be heated to a temperature that is 
above the highest transformation point of the steel, but as close 
to this point as possible. 

Second — This temperature must be retained long enough to 
allow the entire piece to reach an even temperature, but it should 
not be prolonged beyond that. 

Third — The rate of cooling must be slow enough to prevent 
any hardening from taking place, not even superficial hardening. 

To harden steel these same rules apply, except that rule third 
is reversed. That is, the steel must be suddenly cooled, or 
quenched, instead of slowly cooled. 

When the steel's temperature is raised above this highest trans- 


January, 1915 

Fig. 3. — Central Portion of Axle 

in Fig. 1 as Seen Under 


Fig. 2. — Outer Edge of Axle in 

Fig. 1 as Seen Under a 


formation point, the fine grained structure is coarsened in exact 
proporfion to the number of degrees that the temperature is 
raised. The maximum temperature designates the size of grain 
that will be in the finished piece, as no method of cooling will 
afterwards reduce the grain size that was produced by the 
highest temperature to which the steel was heated. This coarsen- 
ing of the grain weakens the physical properties of the steel in 
exact proportion to its degree of coarseness. Thus with the 
lowering of the elastic limit, a larger diameter of axle must be 
used to carry a given load; with the lowering of the fatigue 
resistance an axle will not withstand as many shocks or vibra- 
tional strains before a breakage occurs, and a lowering of the 
co-efficient of wear will cause axles to wear out quicker in the 
journals. Thus a correct heat treatment means so much to axles 
that it seems a waste of time, money and materials to not harden 
and temper them. 

If the temperature of the steel was not raised too far above 
the transformation point, the coarse grain, that was thus produced, 
can be brought to its finer state by allowing the piece to cool 
and again following rules First and Second. After that it can 
be slowly cooled, as when annealing, or suddenly quenched, as 
when hardening. If the former temperature was raised to a 
degree that caused crystallization, such as is shown in the central 
portion of Fig. 1, the coarse grained structure can only be reduced 
by a reforging, rerolling, or other working of the metal. A still 
higher temperature might cause checks or cracks to develop 
between the crystals of the steel and then a remelting is the only 
cure. Such conditions of the metal are seldom discovered until 
the axles have broken and then it is too late to be remedied. 
The crystallization, found in a break, is often blamed to the 
vibrational strains a steel receives when in service. This is 
wrong, however, as crystallization is only produced by heating a 
steel to too high a temperature when it is being worked or 

The effect that heat treatment has upon the grain structure of 
steel can be plainly seen by giving the surface a high polish; 
etching it with a solution of picric or some other acid, and then 
examining it under a microscope. The illustrations are 

reproduced from photographs of such magnified sections of steel. 
Photomicrograph Fig. 2 shows a view of the steel at A, near the 
outer edge of the broken axle shown in Fig. 1. The steel is then 
in the condition in which it left the forge. Eolled steel will 
present a similar appearance. Fig. 3 shows a central portion of 
this same axle at B. Both of these were magnified 400 diameters. 

The continually repeated vibrational strains, which an axle 
receives in service, will eventually cause the steel to check along 
the division lines between the white sections and the black areas. 

In time these checks will develop into cracks that are very liable 
to rupture an axle. It can readily be seen that the coarse grained 
structure of Fig. 3 will allow such cracks to spread across an 
axle much more easily than would the finer grain shown in Fig. 2. 

The proper annealing of an axle will make this grain still 
finer, and remove any internal strains that may be set up by the 
work of forging, rolling, etc. After being correctly annealed, 
this same axle steel is shown in Fig. 4. This puts the metal in a 
condition that will enable it to resist the vibrational strains for 
a much longer period before any checks or cracks will start to 
develop. But a correct hardening and tempering, after this, will 
make the steel still more tough and longer lived, and also cause 
it to wear longer in the bearings. 

In Fig. 5 is shown a magnification of this same steel when 
it was not correctly annealed. In this case the metal was cooled 

Fig. 7. — Axle Steel After Hard- 

Fig. 6. — Annealed at a Tempera- 
ture 100° Above Transfor- 
mation Point. 

Fig. 5. — Nut Properly Annealed. 
Cooled Too Slowly. 

Flo. 4.— The Same Axle After It 
Was Properly Annealed. 

too quickly and a superficial hardening took place. Such a steel 
would be more brittle than it should be for axle use. Fig. 6 
shows how much the grain was coarsened by raising the annealing 
temperature 100 degrees too high. Its lighter color is due to its 
being etched with a different acid from those preceding. 

The annealing leaves the steel in the softest condition in which 
it can be placed and it is very easily bent. Its tensile strength 
and elastic limit are also at the lowest point. Therefore annealed 
axles must be made larger than those that are afterwards 
hardened and tempered, in order to support their load; resist 
the strains to which they will be subjected, and not wear out too 
quickly in the bearings. Thus this extra weight of steel can be 
saved by a correct hardening and tempering. 

Heating to a little above the transformation point and then 
suddenly quenching steel will put it in its hardest state. This 
hardening will raise the tensile strength and elastic limit to the 
highest point that can be reached in the grade of steel being 
treated. The elongation and contraction will be reduced to a 
minimum, however, and the steel will be in its most brittle 
condition. Before it is fit to use for axles it must again be 
heated up to a temperature that will draw out the right amount 
of hardness with its accompanying brittleness. The correct 
drawing temperature will put axle steels in their toughest condi- 
tion and enable them to withstand the necessary strains. 

By Fig. 7 is shown how the hardening operation alters the 
appearance of steel when seen under the microscope. The constit- 
uent martensite is produced by hardening. This formation 
resembles needle-like lines that cross each other frequently and 
intertwine themselves parallel to the three sides of the equilateral 

January, 1915 


Fig. 9. — Drawn Same as Fig. 8, 

but Hardening Temperature 

Was 50 Degrees Too High. 

Fig. 8. — Hardened and Then 

Drawn at a Temperature of 

400 Degrees C. 

triangle. Here the fine martensite is seen that is producd by the 
correct hardening temperature. This can be greatly coarsened 
and the steel weakened, by raising the hardening temperature 
above the transformation point from 50 to 150 degrees, C. 

"When the steel is reheated for the tempering operation, the 
martensite gradually disappears to be replaced by troostite. The 
troostite has a somewhat mamalated appearance, but is nearly 
amorphous. It is only slightly granular. When the temperature 
has been raised to something like 400 degrees, C, the troostitic 
formation covers the entire surface of the steel, as the martensite 
has entirely disappeared. 

In Fig. 8 is shown a specimen of steel axle that was hardened 
at the correct temperature and then drawn at 400 degrees. Only 
troostite can be seen in this specimen and also in the specimen 
shown by Fig. 9. This latter specimen went through the same 
drawing operation but the steel had been hardened at a temper- 
ature that was too high. The difference, in size of the grain 
structure, can readily be seen and accounts for the fact that 
the steel shown by Fig. 9 broke more easily than that shown in 
Fig. 8. This condition does not leave the steel quite tough 
enough to resist the strains that axles receive in service and 
consequently the drawing temperature was raised still higher. 

When this drawing temperature goes above 400 degrees the 

Fig. 11. — Coarser Grain Struc- 
ture Than in Fig. 10. 

Fig. 10. — Tough Sorbitic Struc- 
ture Produced by a Drawing 
Temperature of 600 Degrees. 

constituent sorbite begins to appear and replace the troostite. 
When a temperature of 600 degrees has been reached the troostite 
has entirely disappeared and only sorbite can be seen. The 
sorbite is composed of parallel plates of ferrite and pearlite, 
which are so small that they present a granular rather than a 
lammelar aspect. 

In Fig. 10 is shown the sorbitic constituent that was produced 
by tempering the axle steel at 600 degrees, C. Fig. 11 shows 
the same thing, but from the coarser grained steel shown in 
Fig. 9, which was hardened at too high a temperature. The 
difference between the size of the grain structure in these two 
specimens will also be seen. This shows that any kind of heat 
treatment that is performed below the highest transformation 

point of the steel, does not reduce the size of grain structure 
that was produced by the maximum temperature to which the 
steel was heated during the hardening operation. Thus it shows 
the necessity of accuracy in the hardening temperature, if one is 
to produce axles with the longest wear and the greatest resistance 
to strains and stresses. 

It is not difficult today to design and install furnaces and 
apparatus that will automatically control these temperatures 
within 10 degrees of any given point. Thus accuracy is not very 
difficult to obtain. Neither is it expensive, as labor with less 
skill can be utilized when the correct equipment has been in- 
stalled. Numerous tests showed that the steel shown in Fig. 10 
would wear several times as long as the annealed steels, when 
made up into axles, and also resist much greater strains and 
carry heavier loads. The gain in strength and toughness thus 
makes it possible to use axles of a smaller diameter for a given 
load, and the saving in pounds of steel might pay for the work 
of heat treatment, when it is done with the modern labor saving 


A. S. McKelligon, general storekeeper of the "West Oakland 
general shops of the Southern Pacific, recently prepared the fol- 
lowing statement showing the reclaimed waste and scrap material 
put into actual use at this shop from March 1st to September 30, 
1914, a period of seven months. In the preparation of this 
statement, only material actually used was considered and the 
reclaimed material is figured at only half the price of the cost 
of new material. "When it is considered that, in addition to the 
general shops at "West Oakland, similar shops at Los Angeles, 
Sacramento and Portland, as well as division stores and smaller 
stores at various points on the line, are all now employing 
methods of this character, it is easy to understand that the aggre- 
gate yearly saving must be enormous. 

Air Brake Material — consisting chiefly of Cutout and 

Angle Cocks removed from Scrap Pipe $ 461.81 

Brass, Copper and Lead — removed chiefly from Scrap 

Pipe, Hose, Castings, etc 1,457.72 

Pipe, Second-hand — sorted out from the Scrap 144.14 

Fittings, Pipe— taken from Scrap Pipe— 6,780 Fittings . . 228.36 

Malleable Castings 561.88 

Gray Iron Castings 113.95 

Forgings 462.89 

Bar and Angle Iron 64.52 

Bolts, Nuts, Washers, Rivets, etc 645.22 

Couplers and Parts, Springs, etc 1,368.95 

Brake Beams 787.41 

Track Bolts— 49 Kegs (200 lbs. to keg) 145.31 

Track Spikes— 158 Kegs (200 lbs. to the keg) 315.20 

Total $6,757.36 

Mr. McKelligon asserts that while the direct benefit of this 
reclamation has been great, it has likewise created a spirit of 
carefulness in using material on the line that is a great saving. 
Track men and station men are more economical and not so ready 
to discard material without a close examination as to its serv- 
iceability. Spikes are more closely picked over at the local tool 
house, pipe fittings on pipe and couplers and coupled parts are 
more closely scrutinized before they are condemned as useless. 
Tinware is being made over, for example, locally more than before. 
A. C. Carman at his mill has perfected a machine that makes 
car stakes from old piping butts and so on. 

Keclamation is only possible with co-operation from everyone. 
And reclamation consists not only in the recovery of good material 
from scrap, but also in the prevention of material that could be 
used in the locality being turned in to the supply car only to be 
again sent out somewhere else on the system. The principle of 
reclamation is not to "scrap" anything that is not scrap, and 
this applies to the actual use of any article in its present form 
as well as to making it over into another form. — Saihoay World. 



January, 1915 

By G. E. Smart, M. C. B., Intercolonial Ry. 

A few years ago, the thirty-ton all wood freight car was con- 
sidered standard, but since the introduction of steel in car build- 
ing it has replaced wood and today we have all steel coal cars, 
all steel box"cars, lined with wood inside, and steel underframe 
cars, of all classes 40 and 50 tons, and a few of 75 tons capacity. 

There are a large number of wooden underframe cars still in 
service, and the question in regard to these is : " What can be done 
to make this class of car safe to be handled in the long trains and 
meet the severe usage that they receive in yard switching service 
of today?" 

The draft gear problem is certainly the most important. The 
annual cost of repairs to cars that are damaged through the draft 
gear failure, and loss and damage claims resulting therefrom ex- 
ceed all other repairs made to freight car equipment. The ques- 
tion naturally arises : ' ' What are the causes of these failures ? ' ' 

They are as follows: — 

First. On account of introduction of heavier power and longer 

Second. Placing of light and heavy cars together in trains. 

Third. Rough switching of cars in yard. 

With regard to the first and second causes: 

The tractive power of locomotives has increased during the last 
few years from 20,000 lbs., known as the 100% engines to about 
45,000 lbs., or 225% for locomotives in general use in Canada, and 
the 2-10-2 type used on American roads to 84,000 lbs., and in ad- 
dition to this type there are in use in certain sections of the coun- 
try, locomotives of the Mallet type, with tractive power of 110,- 
000 to 120,000 lbs., and, notwithstanding this enormous increase, 
therg is a type of locomotive just placed in service, known as the 
Erie Triplex, with a tractive power of 160,000 lbs., with a haulage 
capacity equivalent to a train consisting of 250 fully loaded cars 
each of 50 tons capacity, 1.6 miles in length and a total weight 
of 18,000 tons. On comparing trains of the present day with those 
of a few years ago, the average number of cars hauled being 25, or 
approximately 1,000 feet long. Today the ordinary trains are 
60 to 100 cars, and a train of 100 cars would be approximately 
4,000 feet, or about % of a mile long. 

What chance has a wood frame car under the conditions as 
they exist today on the front end of such a train? In my opinion 
it is a very good reason why cars of this class are so often found 
on repair tracks, if a car of this type was to be traced from the 
time it leaves the terminal it would be found that it was neces- 
sary to remove parts of the load quite often, which beside the 
expense of repairs results in delay to freight en route, and it is 
the fruitful cause for so many claims on account of damage to 
freight handling in and out of the car. 

The solution of the problem is not altogether the physical char- 
acteristics of the car or entirely mechanical. The operating of- 
ficial should co-operate with the mechanical department in re- 
ducing the freight car repairs by arranging as far as possible 
that cars with all steel construction or with steel underframe, or 
those with steel centre sills be placed in the front end of the trains. 
It is a fact that we find light capacity cars with wood underframe 
or empty flat cars leaving the terminal on the head end of one of 
the long trains. And in the majority of cases the cars are billed 
through and will not be set off between terminal points unless set 
off on account of draft gear failure. This, no doubt, could have 
been avoided had the cars been placed towards the rear of the 
train before leaving the terminal. 

There are railways who recognize the necessity of placing weak 
cars toward the rear of the train, and they provide cards stating 
that they must not be placed more than 15 cars from the caboose. 
This indicates that the car is in such a condition that it must be 
so located in the train, but is safe in ordinary service to be hauled 
to destination, and if this is done delay and extra switching on 
account of draft gear failure along the line would be eliminated, 
and it would not be necessary to move the lading on account of 
this feature. 

A paper read before the Canadian Railway Club. 

The third cause : ' ' Rough switching in yard, " is a great factor 
in car repairs. 

The speed limit for switching in yards, is nil, nor are there any 
rules in force governing the speed of locomotives in switching 

If you were to confer with the car inspectors and obtain their 
opinion as to where most damage is done to cars, I am safe in 
saying that their answer would be in the switching yards, as their 
daily experience in inspecting cars immediately on arrival and 
after they have been switched in yard will confirm this. This is 
only a small item as compared with actual damage started in yard 
and which through the cars being necessarily weakened thereby, 
is aggravated after leaving terminals, and results in many cases 
in the cars breaking down before reaching destination. 

A visit to the freight car yard will convince you that it is just 
a question how fast the cars can be switched together, the speed 
that the ears are travelling is not considered hence cars are found 
buckled up in yards and the draft gear lying around, same hav- 
ing been pulled out due to rough switching. 

There should be some speed limit in yards to prevent this de 
struction of equipment. The time lost in switching out bad order 
cars damaged in yard and taking same to repair track would often 
offset the time gained by excessive speed that cars are switched to- 
gether. The cost of repairing these cars must also be considered, 
and the thousands of dollars of damage done to the contents of 
cars in yard that are not set off for repairs. 

What is the mechanical department doing today to overcome 
these troubles? 

First. They are building steel frame cars to certain specifica- 
tions with stronger types of draft gear. 

Second. Applying steel underframe or steel centre sills and steel 
ends, or otherwise reinforcing the ends of cars to withstand the 
heavy shock. 

Third. Applying different types of steel draft arms to the pres- 
ent wood centre sills in such a manner that it re-inforces the wood 
centre sills, thus greatly reducing the cost of strengthening up the 
draft gear. 

Fourth. Applying heavier types of couplers and draft gear, and 
using friction draft gear, for in the past very little attention has 
been paid to what type of draft gear the cars were equipped with, 
but the friction type of draft gear is now being used to a large 

The demands of modern railroading require the stopping of a 
high speed train in about two minutes and the draft gear is ex- 
pected to absorb the shock. The air brake department can help 
to eliminate the strain on the draft gear by instructing the engi- 
neers as to the proper method of handling the long trains. The 
principle thing is to control the slack to prevent it from running 
in or out harshly. Slack in draft gear cannot be prevented as it 
is due to compression of the springs and the heavier the locomo- 
tive and the longer the train, the greater the care that is required. 
Engineers are instructed in the air brake instruction car how this 
should be done, but the general air brake inspector should see to 
it that the rules are followed out in actual service. 

The vital question today before the car department is how to 
keep these wood underframe cars in service. The majority of the 
railroads are destroying the 40,000 lb. cars, but the 60,000 lb. and 
80,000 lb. cars that were built with wood underframe and short 
draft timbers are not any stronger and cannot withstand the heavy 
service and severe yard conditions of today, and unless the operat- 
ing department will assist in reducing the damage done to cars 
and thus reduce freight car repairs, and also keep the ears in serv- 
ice by marshalling this class of car on the rear end of the train, 
and exercising greater care in switching cars in yard, the cost of 
freight car repairs will increase and the repair tracks will be full of 
bad order cars. The only other remedy is to spend money to 
apply steel centre sills or steel draft arms, so arranged as to 
strengthen the present wood centre sills, and in addition to this 
re-inforce the end of this class of cars. The strongest car built 
cannot withstand the severe usage received in yard switching today 
unless more care is exercised bv the vard crews. 

January. 1915 


Since the initial construction of railroads their safe operation 
has been a subject of paramount concern to those upon whom 
devolved the manifold responsibilities of their management. This 
was sought to be attained by the promulgation and enforcement 
of enlightened rules dictated by the combined knowledge and 
experience of all persons upon whom this responsibility rested. 
The great success that has attended their efforts to secure safety 
in the transportation of passengers is manifest in the fact that 
•luring the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1913 (the latest figures 
published), there were in round numbers one thousand million 
passengers transported by the railroads of this country, of which 
but 403 were killed and but 181 of these were killed in train 
accidents. The rest, or 222, were killed by other causes, such as 
getting on and off trains ; struck at stations and in other like ways 
for which occurrences the victims themselves were probably alone 
responsible. The figures given include passengers carried on 
freight trains. 

Accident insurance companies have long recognized the very 
great degree of immunity of passengers from death and injury 
in consequence of the provisions railroads have made for their 
safety, and evidence their confidence in the effectiveness of these 
provisions by giving passengers, for the same price, double the 
indemnity against injury they may sustain while traveling on a 
railroad that they can obtain against injuries liable to occur in 
their own homes. 

While railroads have been able by vast expenditures of money 
on roadway and equipment and for safety devices; by educating 
trainmen in the knowledge of rules governing the movement of 
trains and being able, because of the necessity of keeping constant 
supervision over train movements, to secure to a large degree, 
obedience to those rules, to thus safeguard their passengers, it 
has not been possible for them to secure similar observance of 
rules promulgated for the protection of their employes generally 
from physical injury and death and whose retention in the 
service is of vital concern to them. 

The inadequacy of rules and discipline to stop the annually 
increasing number of employe injury cases became apparent 
several years ago. A study of the situation revealed the reason to 
be that the employes, not the company or its officers, controlled 
the majority of the causes of injury sustained by workmen, and, 
therefore, the logical thing to do was to interest the workmen 
themselves in the removal of all causes of injury possible before 
such injury occurred, not afterwards. Not as a matter of obeying 
rules (which it seems it is innate human nature to resent), but 
because of the benefit that would come to them and those depend- 
ent upon them by so doing. 

This thought originated in the mind of R. C. Eichards, a 
veteran investigator of accident cases, was formulated into a 
working plan by him and tried out on the Chicago & North 
Western. Its success was immediate and so great that the plan 
was adopted and is now in successful operation on seventy-four 
of the great railroad systems of this country and Canada owning 
two hundred thousand of the two hundred forty thousand miles 
of railroad in these two countries. This employe safety move- 
ment has been in operation on these seventy-four railroads vary- 
ing lengths of time. On some its inauguration is comparatively 
recent. I am in possession of data from three of the roads on 
which the movement has been longest in vogue, as well as some 
figures from seven other important railroads, which I think will 
definitely indicate what can be accomplished by an injury preven- 
tion movement managed by the employes themselves. 

On three railroads with a mileage of 19,000 miles and 100,000 
employes and an average of three years' experience in "Safety 
First" work, as compared with the same period prior to the 
inauguration of the employe injury prevention movement, a de- 
crease of 457 fatal accidents, or 21 per cent, and a decrease of 

* A paper read by W. B. Spaulding at the annual meeting of 
the National Council for Industrial Safety at Chicago, October 
15, 1914. 

14,843 non-fatal accidents, or 23 per cent, was effected. 

On seven other railroads with a mileage of about 30,000 miles, 
during the first six months of the present year as compared with 
the same six months of last year, there were reductions made in 
casualties as follows: Fatal accidents, decrease 205, or 32 per 
cent; non-fatal accidents, 4,326, or 21 per cent. 

The most difficult problems of railroad safety work arise from 
accidents, the causes of which are not within the control of the 
railroad company. It is this class of accidents that supply by 
far the greater number of cases to the casualty list. These 
accidents may be divided into two classes: 

(a) Those which occur to the public. 

(b) Those which occur to employes. 

In regard to accidents which occur to the public, by far the 
most numerous are to those persons who use railroad tracks as 
walkways and those who steal rides on trains, including boys 
who hop on and off moving trains as a pastime. Notwithstanding 
the appalling loss of life and limb from these causes annually, 
the general public, which is profoundly shocked and indignant 
when life is lost or serious injury occurs in a train wreck, the 
sinking of a ship at sea, or in a highway crossing accident, takes 
no more heed of it than if as many flies had been destroyed, 
yet it is the general public alone that has the power to put a 
stop to this great loss in the productive power of state and 
nation and save the victims to lives of usefulness and contentment. 
The warning signs the railroads erect and maintain at great 
expense are a useless thing in checking track walking. This is 
all the railroads can do in that direction. As a part of the move- 
ment for injury prevention something has been accomplished, just 
how much it is not yet possible to say in figures, in persuading 
boys to abandon their train hopping and turn-table pastimes by 
talks to them at their schools, oftentimes illustrated by stereop- 
ticon views; the giving of safety buttons as prizes for learning 
and reciting some pertinent ' ' Nevers " ; by constructing swimming 
pools for their use on condition that they will keep away from the 
cars and not play on railroad premises; by reporting them to their 
parents and securing the aid of town officers. I know of several 
towns where the employment of some of these methods resulted in 
absolute stopping of these dangerous pastimes by the boys. I 
thoroughly believe that all that is necessary to keep a boy from 
indulging in dangerous sports is to provide him with safe and 
attractive ones in which he can expend the excess energy of his 
youth. This, however, is a duty to the boy that should be per- 
formed by his parents or by the community in which he lives. 
Eailroads should be relieved of this task. 

A second difficult public safety problem is the ever increasing 
number of persons who, while riding in automobiles, are struck 
on highway crossings by rapidly moving trains. As there is 
fifty feet clear space on each side of all railroad tracks, assuring 
a clear view of an approaching train, if one will look and as an 
automobile can be stopped in ten feet even when moving at a 
high speed, there seems no excuse for such ocurrences except the 
spirit of chance taking automobile driving seems to inspire in 
many persons. 

In respect to accidents that occur to employes, I am firmly of 
the opinion that the most difficult problem in railroad safety work 
is to arouse a genuine, active, heartfelt interest in the foreman 
in safety work (I jntend that the word "foreman" shall include 
every man, whatever his title, who has immediate authority over 
and the direction of other men in their work), an interest that 
is based on his own mental conviction that the prevention of 
injury of each individual workman will increase the efficiency and 
production of all, lessen the cost of production and bring personal 
credit and promotion for himself and therefore of the first 
importance to him if he desires advancement. A conviction that 
when he has once secured a satisfactory and competent force 
of men that the loss of any one of them is a loss that affects him. 
personally and detrimentally. A conviction that will cause him 
to give his workmen the same supervision and care to guard them 
against injury that he would instinctively give to a very valuable 
animal or a delicate and expensive machine he might own, and 



January, 1915 

for the very same reason, i. e., because it is the sensible thing 
to do. 

A foreman interested in safety work because he had the intel- 
ligence to perceive its resultant benefits made the statement to me 
that ' ' foremen would not help safety. ' ' The foreman who made 
this statement was an exception to it and I knew personally of 
several other exceptions, yet I also feel equally certain that as 
a general statement it was a true one. This statement did not 
mean that foremen generally were indifferent to the safety of their 
men and would not regret the injury of any of them, but it did 
mean that the average foreman's first concern was production — 
the accomplishment of the work with a dispatch and at a cost 
that would reflect credit on him, and as the ideas underlying 
the movement for greater safety for workmen conflicted with 
notions and methods of doing work to which foremen generally 
had long been accustomed, they would be opposed to a change 
which, though it would eliminate risks, would, in their judgment, 
retard the work and cause some loss of time to the men. 

By a Roundhouse Foreman. 

There exists between no two departments as much mystery 
as exists between the roundhouse and shop and the store depart- 
ment. Some would not call it mystery, but call it hard feeling, 
and think that each other is in the fault. As a shop foreman, 
having had experience in the purchasing agent 'fi office, I will try 
to eliminate some of the mystery of each department. 

The store department is like a big department store. "When 
you have the money you may purchase its equivalent in goods, 
and to get credit you must give good reference. So it is with the 
shops and the store department. Always see that the man has a 
requisition for what he is sent after, as the storekeeper is just 
as responsible for the goods under his charge as the head of a 
big department store, and credit is as hard to get, for he is a good 
business man. 

In making your requisitions out. see that full information is 
given on them. Not ' ' six bulls-eye lubricator glasses, ' ' but 
state make of lubricator and number, for this helps both the 
store department and the shop and roundhouse foreman as well. 
In fact, put all the information on that will help the man at the 
storekeeper 's supply desk, save his time and the time of the man 
you have sent after the material, and the clerk's time in the store 
department, also useless correspondence between the two depart- 

Try to state your wants as far in advance as possible to the 
store department, and don't order four when you only want one. 
Would you go to a tailor shop and order four suits of clothes, 
and when they were done take only one suit and leave the other 
three there? "What would the tailor think of you? 

So each department must be careful in ordering. The shops 
must order only what they want and the store department must 
study the requisitions and carry only what is needed. 

There is the cause. I will say, of most of the mystery that 
exists between the two departments. It is like the story of the 
shepherd who would wave his coat from the hill where his flock 
of sheep fed, just to see the men from the village come to drive 
away the wolves. And he did this many times in jest, but one 
day the wolves came and he waved his coat, but the men did not 
come and the wolves devoured the sheep. So it is with the shop 
and roundhouse foreman. We order something special from the 
store department, got to have it at once, going to camp in the 
storekeeper 's ofEce until it comes. Well, it came last week and 
is still over at the storehouse. Tou want that piece of material 
to put aside for some future job, yet you hate to give a requisi- 
tion for it, for you are watching your daily engine repair cost. 
But you are asking the storekeeper to take the money out of his 
pocket to purchase your goods with and you are giving him no 
interest for it. 

There is no piece of material that is thrown away by the 
shop and roundhouse as much as globe valves. When a man 

finds anything wrong with a valve he gets a requisition and draws 
a new one and scraps the bid one. These can be taken care of in 
the air room or tool room and made as good as new. Old driving 
box brasses can be put on a shaper and cut into stick brass by 
an apprentice; these can be turned into the store department for 
small outside points, and for the shop and roundhouse as well. 

Are you going to shop an engine! Give the storekeeper a 
list of what material you will need for that engine, and he will 
help you out by checking over what he has on hand, and you can 
arrange for the balance by placing orders with him. 

Shop foreman and roundhouse foreman, invite the storekeeper 
to go through the shops and roundhouse with you. Ask him 
for suggestions where you can save money. He will appreciate 
your invitation, and no doubt give you some good advice. Just 
treat the storekeeper as you would any of your business acquaint- 
ances, and you will be surprised how much you can learn about 
the silver dollar, its purchasing value, and what the watchdog of 
the railroad (the storekeeper) knows about it. — The Bailway 


By Frank J. Borer, Air Brake Fmn., Cent. R. R. of N. J. 

When triple valves have been in service for a considerable length 
of time and are removed from cars or engines to be cleaned and 
repaired, a good many of them have leaky slide valves, on 
account of elevations and depressions at the face of the slide 
valve and the slide seat. This is due to uneven wear between the 
two surfaces. 

When repairing such valves, it is necessary to first file the face 
of the slide valves as well as the slide valve seat perfectly straight 
before the work of grinding in the slide valve should be com- 
menced with. 

Common, flat, smooth files are not suitable for this work and it 
therefore has become a practice in many shops to use special cut 
square files at an average cost of about $1.50 each. 

Our superintendent (at the C. R. R. of X. J. shops at Eliza- 
bethport. N. J.). Mr. G. L. Tan Doren. has designed a simple 
device as shown in the sketch which does away with the expense 
of purchasing special files and the results are in every way just 
as satisfactory as if the work had been done with a special file. 

Cut sfot to receive 
emery cbth 

Device for Triple Valve Repair Work. 

Referring to the sketch, A is a piece of T iron planed off on 
the under side to receive a strip of emery cloth of the proper 
width. The ends of the T iron are finished to receive a file handle. 
B is a piece of emery cloth and "C" is a little clamp to hold 
the emery cloth stretched to the T iron. 

The expense of the emery cloth in comparison to a special file 
is insignificant. Special grades of emery cloth may be used. 

We find the device useful for different kind of jobs besides 
triple valves, such as slide valve feed valves, distributing valves, 

The newspaper accounts of the arbitration proceedings going on 
between the railway managers and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers make it appear that some of the engineers who are 
employed on western railroads are daily practicing heroic self- 
sacrifice instead of performing duties that are strictly routine. 

A few years ago this spectacular notoriety about the daily work, 
which will always be accompanied by more or less danger, was not 
even heard of, much less advertised in the daily papers. We shall 
next hear of the heroic sacrifices made by demented chauffeurs 
who evade the speed laws. 

January, 1915 




The ordinary grinding wheel in service has a circumferential 
speed of approximately 5,000 feet per minute. It is alternately 
subjected to periods of no work and of violent shock when it 
strikes the surface of a casting or grinds its way through a piece 
of solid metal. While remarkable success has been attained in 
bonding together the gritty particles composing the wheel, the 
elements of the bonding process cannot be so accurately controlled 
as to insure the absolute safety of every wheel. While each wheel 
is carefully inspected and tested, yet sometimes wheels do burst. 
The majority of such accidents, however, are due to the abuse of 
wheels in service and not to faults in manufacture. The possibility 
of wheels bursting renders the provision of safeguards absolutely 
essential. The approved methods of guarding wheels are described 
in recently issued bulletin of the National Founders Association, 
which is abstracted below. 

Varied work conditions require the use of wheels of many shapes 
and degrees of hardness and size of grain. Plain wheels may be 
safely run at higher speeds than cup or special shaped wheels and 
hard wheels at higher speed than soft. It is the custom of grind- 
ing wheel manufacturers to attach a label to each wheel, indicating 
the safe maximum speed of that particular shape and grade of 
wheel; these recommended speeds should never be exceeded. 

To secure the greatest efficiency of grinding wheels, they should 
operate at the safe maximum speeds; most machines therefore, 
are equipped with cone pulleys offering two or more speeds to 
equalize the wheel's cutting efficiency. This arrangement may be 
dangerous because the belts on such machines may be shifted by 
men who do not realize the danger of overspeeding, which is a 
frequent cause of the bursting of grinding wheels. Moreover, 
when a small wheel is replaced by a large one, the operator is apt 
to neglect to return the belt to the large pulley, thereby producing 
an excessive, unsafe speed. 

Safety devices can be installed, at a comparatively small expense, 
to successfully overcome these hazards. Fig. 1 shows a belt locking 
device on a machine equipped with a two-step cone pulley. This 
is automatically controlled by the diameter of the wheel in use, 
and will prevent excessive speed as well as the use of oversize 
wheels. When the cone pulley has three or more steps, the belt may 
be secured in the proper position by the belt lock shown in Fig. 2, 
while the use of an oversize wheel is avoided by attaching an 
adjustable wheel-limit stop, also shown in Fig. 1. A sign attached 
to the machine stating the revolutions per minute obtained by the 
use of each step is of much value. 

Some managers use single speed machines equipped with perma- 
nent wheel-limit stops, as shown in Fig. 1, and are content to thus 
sacrifice efficiency to safety. In other plants, however, where a 
number of machines are used for one grade of work, single speed 
grinders, each of different speed, are used and wheel-limit stops 
are provided. Maximum efficiency is maintained by transferring 
wheels successively from low to higher speed machines as the wheels 
wear small. Protecting hoods of the right diameter, on single 

wheel-limit stops- 
Permanent wheel -limit stops- 

Fig. 1. 

speed machines, limit the size of wheel used, and other wheel- 
limit stops are unnecessary. 


A grinding wheel too heavy for its spindle, will cause the 
spindle to run out of true and possibly break. This may prove 
as disastrous as the breakage of a wheel. Table I gives the spindle 
diameters which reputable grinding wheel manufacturers recom- 
mend for various sizes of wheels. 

Before mounting a grinding wheel upon its spindle it is well to 
examine the wheel for cracks ; a cracked wheel, when lightly tapped 
with a hammer, will not ring clear. The wheel should slide on the 
spindle easily, but not too loosely. If forced on tightly, the 
wheel is apt to be broken. A clearance of 0.005 inch is considered 
satisfactory. Excessive heating of bearings and shaft should be 
avoided by frequent careful adjustment and by the use of auto- 
matic grease cups or self-oiling bearings, amply protected from 
dust and grit. 


It is advisable to confine within flanges as much of the wheel 
as is practicable, and it has been generally agreed that wheels 
covered by flanges of less than one-half the diameter of the wheels 
are unsafe. Where feasible, the wheels should not project more 
than 2 inches beyond the flanges, and several sizes of flanges 
should be provided to suit the reduced size of the wheels. 

The clamping action of flanges should be effective at their cir- 
cumference in order to compress the wheel at the outer edge of the 
flanges and not at the center. To accomplish this the flanges 
should be recessed toward the center. Steel flanges are more de- 
pendable than those of cast iron. 

Both inner and outer flanges should be of the same diameter, 
in order to prevent straining the wheel. When flanges of one 
diameter are used exclusively, the inner flange should be pressed 
securely on the spindle, but when flanges of various diameters are 
used on the same spindle interchangeably, all inner flanges should 
be keyed. This is necessary to provide a true bearing for the 







i niCKness oi unnamg 

vv neeis 

in ii 

■ cues. 

of wheel 







2/ 2 































































































































































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2 '4 




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t . . 

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January. 1915 


wheel limit stop.' 

Fig. 2. 

side of the wheel and to counteract a tendency of the nut to creep. 
To obtain uniform pressure of the flanges upon the rough sides 
of the wheel, washers made of soft blotting board or of ^-inch 
sheet rubber should always be used between the flanges and wheels. 
These washers should be slightly larger than the diameter of the 
flanges. Blotting board washers are suitable for light service. 
Rubber washers, while a little more expensive, make a better 
cushion contact between the flanges and wheel and hold the wheel 
more securely. 


When finally the wheel is secured upon the spindle by the clamp- 
ing nut, care should be taken to tighten the latter only enough 
to hold the wheel firmly; otherwise the clamping strain may crack 
the wheel. 

If either the wheel or the frame of the machine should vibrate 
abnormally after the wheel has been thus carefully mounted upon 
a spindle of proper diameter, and operated at normal speed, the 
cause may be found in weak foundations, an unbalanced wheel, 
imperfect bearings or shafts, or the machine itself may be too 
light for the weight of the wheel it carries. Abnormal vibration 
is apt to shatter the wheels and this hazard must be promptly 

Wheels are usually in good balance when they are shipped 
from the factory. They, however, are subject to greater wear at 
some points than at others, and should be dressed and trued at fre- 
quent intervals. The dressing tool itself should be of the guarded 
type. Grinding wheels should be kept in a dry place. Wheels used 
for wet grinding should not be allowed to stand idle in water, as 
the heavy water-soaked or clamp portion of the wheel will throw 
it out of balance. 


Even though operating conditions may be good, grinding wheels 
nevertheless sometimes will break in service. Protecting hoods, 
therefore, should be provided to hold from flying the parts of a 
broken grinding wheel. 

Safety grinding wheels usually are tapered on both sides, and 
are clamped between tapered steel flanges, concaved to fit snugly 
the tapered sides of the wheels. To insure accuracy of fit, safety 
flanges and safety wheels should be furnished by the same manu- 

While safety wheels have prevented many injuries, they are not 
absolutely dependable. The unbalanced momentum of a broken 
wheel is often sufficient to spread the flanges and allow broken 
parts of the wheel to escape. Even safety flanges cannot retain 
broken pieces which may fly from the unconfined rim of a grind- 
ing wheel. Safety wheels are chiefly desirable in special cases 
when the character of the work absolutely prohibits the use of 
hoods, and even then extraordinary care must be taken to main- 
tain favorable operating conditions and moderate speeds. 

A protecting hood is the best and safest method of guarding 

against injuries from broken grinding wheels. When possible the 
hood should be of such construction as to serve also as a dust 
hood which, when connected with a suitable exhaust system, will 
eliminate the injurious effects of grinding dust and at the same 
time protect against accidents. Such combination hoods are 
regularly made and form a part of modern machines; it has also 
been found practicable to install such hoods upon old machines. 

Cast steel or rolled steel hoods are safer than cast iron hoods; 
the latter are not dependable, except for light wheels. Hoods 
should be amply strong to serve their purpose. The inside diameter 
and width of the hoods should be sufficiently larger than the cor- 
responding diameter of the wheel to allow proper clearance. The 
hood should also enclose the spindle end, but if the character of 
the machine will not allow this, a separate guard can be provided 
as illustrated, to prevent the workmen's clothing from catching in 
the spindle threads. The hood should enclose the wheel as much 
as possible and leave an opening Qnly large enough to satisfactorily 
apply the work to be ground- If the opening is too large it will 
permit the escape of broken parts of the wheel and thus frus- 
trate one important purpose for which it is designed; it will also 
require a greater volume of air for proper exhaust. 

Grinding dust should be carried away by an adequate exhaust 
system. Where this cannot be done, the eyes of operatives should 
be protected from the dust by approved eye protectors. 

For safe and convenient handling of work while it is being 
ground, grinding wheels are usually provided with work rests; 
these must be adjustable and workmen should be encouraged to 
keep them as close as possible to the wheel. Otherwise the work- 




Fig. 3. — Proper Forms of Flanges and an Improved Safety Nut. 

men's fingers may be drawn between the wheel and work rest or 
pieces of the casting or even the casting itself may become wedged 
in the opening and damage the wheel or the workman or both. 
The clamps for fastening the work rest in place must be effective 
in their action, so that work rest may not be forced away from 
the wheel at a critical moment. 

In order to avoid striking hard blows on the sides of wheels 
when handling heavy or cumbersome castings, a chain hoist will 
prove an economical investment. By its use castings may be safely 
held while workmen guide them against the wheel. Suitable tables 
or rests can be devised for the same purpose as the chain hoist. 

Wherever belts are used on grinding wheels they should be 
enclosed in guards of sheet iron, expanded metal or heavy wire 
screen, attached to angle iron frames. The belts should be guarded 
to about 7 feet above the floor. 

To prevent stumbling against the machine, the floor about it 
should be kept free from castings or other obstructions. 

The foregoing recommendations are adaptable to machines now 
in use. If, however, new machines are to be installed, it is ad- 
visable to insist that they be equipped with every safeguard. 
Grinding machines are mostly of the belt-driven type. Electrically- 
driven machines are now finding increased use; they are usually 

January, 1915 



equipped with constant speed motors, -which, together with the 
protecting hoods and devices to limit the size of grinding wheels, 
give safe conditions of operation. Some manufacturers equip 
their machines with variable speed motors in order to maintain 
maximum operating efficiency. Such machines should have devices 
to guard against over-speeding, for instance, through automatic 
connection between the motor speed regulator and the diameter of 
the grinding wheel. — The Engineering Digest. 

By George L. Price. 

At present three kinds of staybolts are being used in locomo- 
tive boilers — the rigid, the hollow and the flexible bolt. Staybolt 
breakage has been eliminated to a great extent since the introduc- 
tion of the flexible bolt. In fact, staybolt breakage and the 
remedies for eliminating breakage have been live topics of dis- 
cussion for many years. 

Years ago expansion and contraction were not taken care of 
by the use of flexible bolts, but an attempt was made to restrain 
the expansion and contraction by the use of heavy sheets, large 
staybolts, heavy bracing, etc. Before the flexible staybolt put 
riveted over, was made from a solid bar of iron of the best quality, 
in its appearance, the rigid bolt, threaded on both ends and 
but, nevertheless, led to breakage regardless of all modifications 
in form, shape and size, with additional changes in quality to 
strengthen the bolts. From this it is natural to conclude that it 
is not so much a question of quality in the material as it is a 
question of too much rigidity in construction. 


The flexible staybolt has proved a large factor in the elimina- 
tion of inequahty of expansion in locomotive boilers. It is im- 
possible to restrain or restrict the expansion of material without 
disturbing its structure. A rigid staybolt under normal condi- 
tions, considering the tensile strength and the stress under pres- 
sure, has a large factor of safety, but, owing to the vibratory 
stresses due to the expansion and contraction of the firebox sheets, 
and due to the fact that the bolt being threaded opens an avenue 
for a fracture which will result in a break, the rigid staybolt has 
always given a great deal of trouble. 

I have often been asked the question, why is it that a rigid 
staybolt generally breaks flush with the inner surface of the out- 
side sheet? While I have never seen anything authentic in regard 
to this, the following reasons seem to me to be logical: As the 
inner firebox sheets are generally about one-half the thickness of 
the outside sheets, they become heated before the outside sheets 
and start to expand first, thus causing the inner, or firebox, end 
of staybolt to travel in the direction of the stress, while the out- 
side end of the bolt, which is at a lower temperature and is held 
more rigidly, moves only a comparatively small amount at first, 
but eventually travels a greater distance than the inner sheet, 
owing to the fact that the outer sheet is a larger and thicker sheet, 
and consequently expands a greater amount when the temperature 
is increased. The continuous vibration upon the staybolt, together 
with the tensile stress, or load, due to the pressure on the bolt, will 
eventually break the staybolt. Breakage in this way generally 
takes place when the engine is being fired up after a washout, 
therefore it is logical to believe that the hot water system of 
washing out would lessen the breakage of rigid staybolts. 

Staybolts not only act as a connecting agent to hold the outer 
and inner firebox sheets together against boiler pressure, but they 
are also compelled to withstand excessive bending stresses, set up 
by the unequal expansion and contraction of the inner and outer 
sheets. The load upon a staybolt, due to the boiler pressure, is 
comparatively small as compared to the stress induced by the 
inequality of expansion and contraction. 


The strength of a staybolt should be calculated from its smallest 
area. Staybolts are made from wrought iron on account of its 
fibrous structure, which will stand more abuse from the different 
stresses acting upon the bolt than will steel, which is of a crys- 
talline structure. All staybolts become more or less crystallized by 

the rapid blows of the hammer in riveting, although it is impossi- 
ble to judge the amount of crystallization occasioned by the rivet- 
ing process. 

Inferior installation of flexible staybolts often gives us con- 
siderable trouble. We have been calking the flexible bolt thimbles 
or bushings in the roundhouse for the last three years, and, fur- 
thermore, we have not finished calking yet, and probably will not 
have finished until we have gone over the entire lot of bolts. We 
may attribute this defect to inferior installation during the con- 
struction of the boiler in the locomotive works. This is an expen- 
sive item for our railroads to contend with, and it should be 


When applying flexible staybolts, the adjustment of the bolts 
should be taken into consideration, although this is not uniform 
for all types of boilers. When firing up a locomotive boiler, the 
inner firebox sheets expand more rapidly in an upward diagonal 
direction than the outer sheets. As steam is raised to its working 
pressure the outer shell expands in a direction which extends 
longitudinally to a greater extent owing to its larger dimensions 
and greater thickness. The difference in the amount of expansion 
between the sheets varies in different types of boilers and, for this 
reason, bolt adjustment should be based upon data obtained by 
tramming the firebox for the difference in sheet expansion. How- 
ever, the writer is of the opinion that the following course of 
adjustment is adaptable for fireboxes 8 feet long and under: 


Taking into consideration the first, second and third outside 
rows and the same across the top, the bolts in row No. 1 should 
be given a half turn back; those in row Xo. 2, three-eighths of a 
turn back, and those in row No. 3 a quarter of a turn back. For 
fireboxes 8 feet in length and over, the bolts in row No. 1 should 
be given three-quarters of a turn back; row No. 2, one-half of a 
turn back; row No. 3, three-eighths of a turn back. 

For the adjustment of the throat sheet, taking the first three 
rows above the mudring, the first row above the mudring should 
be tight; the second row, three-eighths of a turn back; all other 
rows, three-quarters of a turn back. 

When large areas are covered by flexible staybolts, all bolts 
inside of the three outside and the three top rows should be 
turned back off of their seats one-eighth of a turn, because 
riveting has a tendency to draw the bolt up to its seat. 

Staybolts should have a larger factor of safety than the boiler 
shell or plates, on account of its being subject to both a direct 
and an indirect pull, as well as an unequal vibratory stress. For 
this reason I do not think it is practical to admit staybolts in the 
rivet line when applying a patch to firebox sheets. 


What load is carried by a staybolt when the bolts are spaced 4 
inches between centers and there is a steam pressure of 150 
pounds per square inch? The load carried by the staybolt is equal 
to the area it supports multiplied by the steam pressure per square 
inch, which, in this case, will be 4 X 4 X 150 = 2,400 pounds. 
This is, of course, disregarding the area of the bolt itself. 

If we allow 6,000 pounds stress per square inch for staybolts, 
what area would a staybolt support, the least diameter of the 
bolt being % inch and the allowable working pressure 200 pounds 
per square inch? First determine the area of the staybolt as fol- 

.7854 (.875) 2 = .6013. 
Then multiply the area of the staybolt by the allowable stress 
per square inch, and divide the result by the allowable working 
pressure, giving the area as follows: 
.6013 X 6,000 

= 18.03. 

Finally extract the square root of the quantity representing the 
area, and you will have the spacing or pitch of the staybolts: 
V 18.03 = 4.25, or 4^4 inches. 
What force will a stavbolt resist whose smallest diameter is 



January, 1915 

94 inch, the diameter at the root of the thread being % inch, with 
a i^-irich telltale hole, and the allowable working stress 6,000 
pounds per square inch? First the area at the root of the threads 
must be determined. From this value deduct the area of ^-inch 
telltale hole, or (.875) : X .7854 — (.1875) 2 X .7854 = .5737 square 

The area of the staybolt at its -\-inch diameter will be (.75) : 
X .7S54 = .4418 square inch. The area for the %-iuch diameter 
being less than the area at the root of the thread minus the area 
of the telltale hole, the load allowed is computed from the %-inch 
diameter and is: .4418 X 6,000 == 2,650 pounds. 


Boilers are sometimes put under pressure of from 40 to 50 
pounds per square inch to aid the inspector in locating a broken 
staybolt with the hammer. Putting the pressure on the boiler 
causes the two parts of the broken staybolt to separate, thus per- 
mitting the broken staybolt to be more readily found. 

All staybolts, crown-bolts and radial bolts should be placed so 
as to be at right angles or 90 degrees to the sheet they sup- 
port. When the pitch of the staybolts is excessive, the pressure 
will bulge the sheets and thus create a deformation. 

Staybolts should project beyond the sheet about two threads to 
form a head in driving the bolt. Excessive allowances make it 
difficult to upset the staybolt in the hole. The smallest size stay- 
bolt advisable for high-pressure boilers is %-inch diameter. 

In the distribution of staybolts and braces, every effort should 
be put forth to distribute them so that each staybolt or brace will 
have the same working stress per square inch; that is, as nearly 
so as practicable. In arranging staybolts, attention must be paid 
to the size of the staybolt, the pitch and the thickness of the plate 
it supports. It may be possible that the staybolt or brace will be 
large enough to support the area allotted to it, but the plate may 
be so light that the pitch will be excessive and cause deformation 
of the plate. In deciding upon the pitch it is necessary to know 
for this purpose. — Tlie BoilerMaler. 

By W. T. Walters. 

This machine, which is in use on the scrap platform of the 
Illinois Central at Memphis, Tenn., was designed with a view 
to reducing the time taken in removing nuts from bolts and rods 
taken from destroyed cars. The old method was to remove each 
nut by means of a wrench. This took an average of five minutes 
per nut and where the nuts were rusted on, often proved im- 
possible. Accordingly this machine was built and to date no 
nuts have been found too stubborn for the machine to remove. 
As can be seen by the illustration it is driven by means of a 
pinion and gear, and any air motor of sufficient power is con- 
nected to the pinion. The gear in turn is fastened to the spindle 
which consists of a spindle "A" with a square on it "B," re- 
volving inside a casing " C. " The hollow spindle " D " is formed 
from a piece of 2" steel tubing formed to l*4"xl%" square. 
This hollow spindle " D " has a movement of six inches. 

Briefly the operation of removing nuts is as follows: The 
rod or bolt is gripped in the jaws of the vise operated by air, 
which proves a very efficient method of holding same. The. head 
"E" attached to spindle "D" is brought forward and placed 
over nut as shown in Fig. .1. Air is now admitted to the motor 
and the rotary movement of "A" communicated to "C" causes 
the nut to revolve. Its own action moving along the bolt presses 
it tightly against the head "E" which in turn being attached to 
"D" moves backward taking the nut with it. This machine 
averages three nuts removed per minute and has resulted in a 
considerable saving. The cost of machine is almost negligible. 

The first machine of this typewas built at the Harahan shops 
of the Illinois Central by C. C.Boddie, district foreman. 

The New York Central & Hudson River is contemplating the 
expenditure of $3,000,000 for improvements on Pennsylvania 
Division. The larger part of this sum is to go for additional 
shops at Arvis and other improvements at this point. 

Cut-out cock 

Line fo motor " 
starting a. stopping 


t- iirot iron 

/- Hrot iron 

l-Wrot Iron l-Ylrot Iron 2-Wrot iron 

Machine for Removing Nuts from Scrap Bolts and Rods 

W^ S 

on x-x 

i 5 » Socket for 

* is' to /J* sg. nuts 

January, 1915 



C. M. & St. P. Electrification 

Plans for the electrification of the first engine division of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul have now been completed and 
contracts let to the General Electric Company for the electric 
locomotives, substation apparatus and line material, and to the 
Montana Power Company for the construction of the transmission 
and trolley lines. This initial electrification of 113 miles of main 
line between Three Porks and Deer Lodge is the first step 
toward the electrification of four engine divisions extending from 
Harlowton, Montana, to Avery, Idaho, a total distance of 
approximately 440 miles, aggregating about 650 miles of track, 
including yards and sidings. While this comprises the extent of 
track to be equipped in the near future, it is understood that 
plans are being made to extend the electrification from Harlowton 

electrification can be secured. The various terminal and tunnel 
installations have been made necessary, more or less, by reason 
of local conditions; but the electrification of this road is under- 
taken purely on economic grounds with the expectation that 
superior operating results with electric locomotives will effect a 
sufficient reduction in the present cost of steam operation to 
return an attractive percentage on the large investment required. 
If the anticipated savings are realized in the electric operation 
of the road, this initial installation will constitute one of the 
most important milestones in electric railway progress, and it 
should foreshadow large future developments in heavy steam 
road electrification. The success of electric operation on such 
a large scale will, at least, settle the engineering and economic 

Map of Present and Proposed Electrified Divisions, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

to the coast, a distance of 850 miles, should the operating results 
of the initial installation prove as satisfactory as anticipated. 

The plans of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul are of especial 
interest, as this is the first attempt to install and operate 
electric locomotives on tracks extending over several engine divi- 
sions, under which conditions it is claimed the full advantage of 

questions that enter into the advisability of making such an 
installation, and will bmit similar future problems to the means 
of raising the money expenditure required. 

The first step taken towards electrification by the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul was to enter into a contract with the 
Montana Power Company for an adequate supply of power over 













— 5 1 




















n A 










— lP 




































Miles from St.Paul 
Profile of Present and Proposed Electrified Divisions, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 



January, 1915 

the 440 miles of main line considered for immediate electrifi- 
cation. The precautions taken both by the railway company 
and power company to safeguard the continuity of power supply 
should guarantee a reliable source of power subject to few inter- 
ruptions of a momentary nature only. 

The Montana Power Company covers a great part of Montana 

Great Falls, Mont., on the Missouri River. Site of a 60,000 K. W. 
Hydro-Electric Plant. 

and part of Idaho with its network of transmission lines, which 
are fed from a number of sources and have a total power 
capacity, developed and undeveloped, of 244,000 kw. 

The several power sites are interconnected by transmission lines, 
supported on wooden poles and operating at 50,000 volts for 
the earlier installations, and on steel towers and operating at 
100,000 volts for later installations. Ample water storage capacity 
is provided in the Hebgen reservoir of 300,000 acre-feet, supple- 
mented by an auxiliary reservoir capacity at the several power 
sites, which brings the total up to 418,000 acre-feet. The Hebgen 
reservoir is so located at the headwaters of the Madison river 
that water drawn from it can supply in turn the several installa- 
tions on the Madison and Missouri rivers, so that the same storage 
capacity is used a number of times, affording an available storage 
capacity considerably greater than is indicated by the figures 
given. It would seem, therefore, in changing from coal to 
electricity as a source of motive power, that the railroad is 
amply protected in respect to the reliability and continuity of the 
power supply. 

Due to the great facilities available and the low cost of con- 
struction under the favorable conditions existing, the railway 
company will purchase power at a contract rate of $0.00536 per 

Avery, Idaho, Western Terminal of the Proposed C. M. & St. P. 


kilowatt-hour based on a 60 per cent, load factor. It is expected 
under these conditions that the cost of power for locomotives 
will be considerably less than is now expended for coal. The 
contract between the railway and power companies provides that 
the total electrification between Harlowton and Avery, comprising 
four engine divisions, will be in operation January 1st, 1918. 

In order to connect the substations with the several feeding- 
in points of the Montana Power transmission lines, a tie-in trans- 
mission line is being built by the railway company that will 
permit feeding each substaton from two directions and from two 
of more sources of power. This transmission line will be con- 
structed with wooden poles, suspension type insulators, will 
operate at 100,000 volts and will follow, in general, the right of 
way of the railway company except where advantage' can be taken 
of a shorter route over public domain to avoid the necessarily 
circuitous line of the railway in the mountain districts. 

The immediate electrification of 113 miles will include four 
substations containing step-down transformers and motor-gen- 
erator sets with necessary controlling switchboard apparatus to 
convert 100,000 volt 60 cycle three-phase power to 3,000 volts 
direct current. This is the first direct current installation using 
such a high potential as 3,000 volts, and this system was adopted 
in preference to all others after a careful investigation extending 
over two years. The 2,400 volts direct current installation of the 
Butte, Auaconda & Pacific Railway in the immediate territory 
has furnished an excellent demonstration of high voltage direct 
current locomotive operation during the past year and a half, 
and the selection of 3,000 yolts direct current for the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul was due in a large measure to the entirely 
satisfactory performance of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific 

The equipment for this road was also furnished by the General 
Electric Company, and a comparison based on six months' steam 

On the Line of the C. M. & St. P., Between Three Forks and 


and electric operation shows a total net saving of more than 20 
per cent, on the investment or total cost of the electrification. 
These figures, of course, do not take into acount the increased 
capacity of the lines, improvement to the service and the more 
legular working hours for the crews. The comparison also shows 
that the tonnage per train has been increased by 35 per cent., 
while the number of trains has been decreased by 25 per cent.^ 
with a saving of 27 per cent, in the time required per trip. 


The substation sites of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
electrified zone provide for an average intervening distance of 
approximately 35 miles, notwithstanding that the first installation 
embraces 20.8 miles of 2 per cent, grade westbound and 10.4 
miles of 1.66 per cent, grade eastbound over the main range of the 
Rocky Mountains. With this extreme distance between substations 
and considering the heavy traffic and small amount of feeder 
copper to be installed, it becomes apparent that such a high 
potential as 3,000 volts direct current permits of a minimum invest- 
ment in substation apparatus and considerable latitude as tc- 
location sites. 

The substations will be of the indoor type, transformers being 
three-phase, oil-cooled, and reducing from 100,000 volts primary 
to 2,300 volts secondary, at which potential the synchronous 
motors will operate. The transformers will be rated 1,900 and 

January, 1915 



Showing the Snowbound Country Traversed by the . 
C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

2,500 kv-a, and will be provided with four 2% per cent, taps in 
the primary and 50 per cent, starting taps in the secondary. 

The motor-generator sets will comprise a 60-cycle synchronous 
motor driving two 1,500-volt direct current generators connected 
permanently in series for 3,000 volts. The fields of both the 
synchronous motor and direct current generators will be seperately 
excited by small generators direct connected to each end of the 
motor-generator shaft. The direct current generators will be 
compound wound, will maintain constant potential up to 150 per 
cent, load and will have a capacity for momentary overloads up to 
three times their normal rating. To insure good commutation 
on these overloads, the generators are equipped with commutating 
poles and compensating pole-face windings. The synchronous 
motors will also be utilized as synchronous condensers, and it is 
expected that the transmission line voltage can be so regulated 
thereby as to eliminate any effect of the fluctuating railway load. 


The trolley construction will be of the catenary type, in which 
a 4/0 trolley wire is flexibly suspended from a steel catenary 
supported on wooden poles, the construction being bracket wherever 
track alignment will permit and cross-span on the sharper curves 
and in yards. Steel supports instead of wooden poles will be 
used in yards where the number of tracks to be spanned exceeds 
the possibilities of wooden pole construction. Poles for the 
first installation are already on the ground and thirty miles of 
poles are set. "Work in this direction will be pushed with all 
speed and will be completed in the summer of 1915, ready for 
operation in the fall on the delivery of the first locomotives. 

As the resuL of careful investigation and experiments, a novel 
construction of trolley will be installed, composed of the so-called 
twin-conductor trolley. This comprises two 4/0 wires suspended 
side by side from the same catenary by independent hangers 
alternately connected to each trolley wire. This form of con- 
struction permits the collection of very heavy current by reason 
of the twin contact of the pantograph with the two trolley wires, 
and also insures sparkless collection under the extremes of either 
heavy current at low speed or more moderate current at very 
high speeds. It seems that the twin-conductor type of construc- 
tion is equally adapted to the heavy grades calling for the 
collection of very heavy currents, and on the more level portions 
of the profile where maximum speeds of 60 m. p. h. will be 

Freight Train Ascending Ruling Two Per Cent Grade Between 
Piedmont and Donald. 

reached with the passenger trains having a total weight of over 
1,000 tons. The advantage of this type of construction is due 
partly to the greater surface for the collection of current, but 
largely to the very great flexibility of the alternately suspended 
trolley wires, a form of construction which eliminates any ten- 
dency to flash at the hangers either at low or high speed. 
Including sidings, passing and yard tracks, the 113 miles of route 
mileage is increased to approximately 168 miles of single track 
to be equipped between Deer Lodge and Three Forks in the 
initial installation. 


The locomotives to be manufactured by the General Electric 
Company are of especial interest for many reasons. They are 
the first locomotives to be constructed for railroad service with 
direct current motors designed for so high a potential as 3,000 
volts. They will weigh approximately 260 tons and will have a 
continuous capacity greater than any steam or electric locomotive 
yet constructed. Perhaps the most interesting part of the equip- 
ment is the control, which is arranged to effect regenerative 
electric braking on down grades. This feature as yet has never 
been accomplished with direct current motors on so large a scale. 
The general characteristics as proposed are tabulated below: 

Total weight 260 tons 

Weight on drivers 200 tons 

Weight on each guiding truck 30 tons 

Number of driving axles 8 

Number of motors 8 

Number of guiding trucks 2 

Number of axles per guiding truck 2 

Total length of locomotive 112 ft. 

Eigid wheel base 10 ft. 

Voltage of locomotive 3,000 

Voltage per motor 1,500 

H. P. rating 1 hour, each motor 430 

H. P. rating continuous, each motor 375 

H. P. rating 1 hour, complete lomocotive. .3,440 
H. P. rating, continuous, complete 

locomotive 3,000 

Trailing load capacity, 2 per cent, grade. .1,250 tons 
Trailing load capacity, 1 per cent, grade. .2,500 tons 
Approximate speed at these loads and grades 16 m. p. h. 

Elevation of 3,000 Volt Electric Locomotive, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 



January, 1915 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, from Harlowton to the 
coast, crosses four mountain ranges: The Belt Mountains at an 
elevation of 5,768 feet, the Eocky Mountains at an elevation of 
6,350 feet, the Bitter Boot Mountains at an elevation of 4,200 
feet, and the Cascade Mountains at an elevation of 3,010 feet. 
The first electrification between Three Forks and Deer Lodge 
calls for locomotive operation over 20.8 miles of 2 per cent, 
grade between Piedmont and Donald at the crest of the main 
Rocky Mountain divide, so that the locomotive will be fully 
tested out as to their capacity and general service performance 
in overcoming the natural obstacles of the first engine division. 

The initial contract calls for nine freight and three passenger 
locomotives having the above characteristics and similar in all 
respects, except that the passenger locomotives will be provided 
with a gear ratio permitting the operation of 800-ton trailing 
passenger trains at approximately 60 m. p. h. ; and will, further- 
more, be equipped with an oil-fired steam heating outfit for the 
trailing cars. The interchangeability of all electrical and mechan- 
ical parts of the freight and passenger electric locomotives is 
considered to be of very great importance from the standpoint 
of operation and maintenance. 

The cab consists of two similar sections extending practically 
the full length of the locomotive. Each section is approximately 
52 feet long and the cab roof is about 14 feet above the rail 
exclusive of the housings for ventilation. The trolley bases are 
about 5 feet above the roof owing to the unusual height of the 
trolley wire, which will be located at a maximum elevation of 25 
feet above the rail. The outer end of each cab will contain a 
compartment for the engineer, while the remainder is occupied 
by the electric control equipment, train heater, air brake appa- 
ratus, etc. 


The eight motors for the complete locomotive will be type 
GE-253-A. This motor has a normal one-hour rating of 430 h. p., 
with a continuous rating of 375 h. p. The eight motors will thus 
give the locomotive a one-hour rating of 3,440 h. p. and a con- 
tinuous rating of 3,000 h. p., which makes it more powerful 
than any steam or electric locomotive ever built. The drawbar pull 

Ore Train on the Electrified Butte, Anaconda & Pacific at Silver 

Bow, Crossing the Tracks of the Northern Pacific 

and C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

available for starting trains will approximate 120,000 lbs. at 30 
per cent, coefficient of adhesion. 

Each motor will be twin-geared to its driving axle in the same 
manner as on the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific, the Detroit Biver 
Tunnel and the Baltimore & Ohio locomotives, a pinion being 
mounted on each end of the armature shaft. The motor is of 
the commutating pole type and has openings for forced ventilation 
from a motor-driven blower located in the cab. 

The freight locomotives are designed to haul a 2,500-ton trailing 
load on all gradients up to 1 per cent, at a speed of approximately 
16 m. p. h., and this same train load unbroken will be carried 
over the 1.66 and 2 per cent, ruling grades on the west and east 
elopes of the Eocky Mountain divide with the help of a second 

similar freight locomotive acting as pusher. Track provision is 
being made at Donald, the summit of the grade, to enable the 
pusher locomotive to run around the train and be coupled to the 
head end to permit electric braking on the down grade. In this 
case, the entire train will be under compression and held back 
by the two locomotives at this head end, the entire electric 
braking of the two locomotives being under the control of the 
motorman in the operating cab of the leading locomotive. It is 
considered that electric braking will prove very valuable in this 
mountain railroading; for, in addition to providing the greatest 
safety in operation, it also returns a considerable amount of 
energy to the substations and transmission system, which can be 
utilized by other trains demanding power. In this connection, 
the electric locomotives will have electric braking capacity suffi- 
cient to hold back the entire train on down grade, leaving the 
air brake equipment with which they are also equipped to be used 
only in emergency and when stopping the train. There is, there- 
fore, provided a duplicate braking system on down grades, which 
should be reflected in the greatest safety of operation afforded 
and the elimination of a considerable part of break-downs, wheel 
and track wear and overheating, with consequent reduction in 
maintenance and improvement in track conditions. 

With the completion of the remaining engine divisions, it is 
proposed to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by the 
introduction of the electric locomotive by combining the present 
four steam engine divisions into two locomotive divisions of 
approximately 220 miles length, changing crews, however, at the 
present division points. As the electric locomotive needs inspec- 
tion only after a run of approximately 2,000 miles, requires no 
stops for taking on coal or water, or layover due to dumping 
ashes, cleaning boilers or petty roundhouse repairs, it is expected 
that the greater flexibility of the locomotive so provided will 
result in considerable change in the method of handling trains 
now limited by the restrictions of the steam engine. 

The electrification of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul is 
under the direction of C. A. Goodnow, assistant to the president, 
in charge of construction, and the field work is under the charge 
of R. Beeuwkes, electrical engineer for the railway company. 


Coal mining companies are proving of real assistance to the 
Pennsylvania System in a campaign to end the practice of coal 
miners of packing dynamite and other explosives in trunks, which 
they check as baggage when they travel from one mine to another. 
Serious accidents have occurred as the result of explosions of 
dynamite in trunks and suit cases checked as baggage. 

The Westmoreland Coal Company, one of the largest producers 
of bituminous coal in Pennsylvania, and the Susquehanna Coal 
Company, one of the principal anthracite companies, have an- 
nounced that they will buy back from miners, when they leave 
their service, any explosives they may have on hand, paying the 
original price. 

It has developed that one reason why coal miners, most of 
whom are foreigners, pack dynamite and other explosives in their 
trunks and other pieces of baggage is that when they move from 
one mine to another they do not feel they can afford to throw 
away any blasting material they may have on hand. 

The railroad's rules against carrying explosives in trunks and 
other baggage are printed in foreign languages and posted at 
practically all mines, and it is thought that the regulations are 
known to most of the miners. If, therefore, the mine companies 
agree to buy back at the original price any extra explosives the 
miners may have, it is thought the practice of packing such 
materials in trunks will be eliminated to a large extent. 

The rate decision is beginning to have a good effect. The main 
point is that this action of the commission signalizes a change 
not only in their policy but in the attitude of the public towards 
the railroads. Heretofore there has practically been no recog- 
nition of the interests of the roads. 

January, 1915 



Ey William Schlafge, Genl. Mech. Supt., Erie R. R. 

About one hundred years ago the progress of the world in all 
lines of effort brought about a condition where commerce, particu- 
larly inland commerce, had outgrown the known and tried means 
of transportation to such an extent, that an arrest of development 
was imminent, unless new and adequate methods could be devised 
to meet the changed conditions of the times. 

Then both in the old world, and in the new, the channels of 
commercial carriage were the waterways, natural and artificial, 
and the highways. The latter varied from crude, primitive path- 
ways, through the newer and sparsely settled regions, and of 
severely limited unit load capacity, to the scientifically constructed 
roads, of the older and more populous communities, which, designed 
with that end in view, were correspondingly more economical and 

Steam was receiving recognition as a practical aid to navigation 
and the day, when its perfected application would supplant sailing 
power, was in sight to wide awake observers. But on the land, 
domestic animals were still the main reliance as prime movers. 
It was in land carriage where the insufficiency of means was most 
keenly felt, and which called the loudest for relief. But in spite 
of the efforts of hopeful dreamers and hard working men of 
mechanical genius and of dauntless courage, to adapt steam to the 
purpose, the day seemed yet far distant when relief would come 
by that means. As usual history repeated itself, just as it does 
today, and about everybody scouted the idea as an impossibility 
and an idle dream. 

But in every crisis, in every age, some commanding figure rises 
above his fellows and quietly, calmly takes the burden and meets 
the problem of the hour. This is remarked with such unfailing 
regularity throughout history that we have come to speak of the 
advent of such men as Providential. 

Is there a new continent to be discovered, a Columbus appears. 
Are the liberties of a nation to be defended and preserved, a 
Prince of Orange or a Lincoln arises to guide its destinies. A 
Goethals is found to meet the supreme test of mighty constructive 
achievement and overcomes all obstacles, eveu the seemingly 
unconquerable forces of nature; and so, in the early part of the 
nineteenth century, the master mind of Stephenson harmonized 
and co-ordinated the diverse theories and accomplishments of his 
contemporary investigators, and gave to the world the steam loco- 
motive as a practical agency of commerce. Nor does it detract 
from his just fame, to concede that another may have a better 
claim to be considered as the original inventor of the steam loco- 
motive. It is fairly well settled that he made the earliest applica- 
tion of known principles, which produced a workable, successful 
locomotive of commercial utility. A mere passive academic knowl- 
edge of principles, or of truth, is of no avail unless applied. It is 
application to useful ends that counts. 

Thus we see that railroads had their beginning in the fruits of 
mechanical genius and, after the passing of the century, that 
separates these pioneer efforts in locomotive design and building 
from the worthy accomplishments of today, we may. still say that 
the mechanical side of railroading has retained its absorbing inter- 
est and its orginal relative importance. 

The history of the development and progress of railroading may 
be pictured graphically in many ways; but it may be doubted if 
that wonderful story can be told more vividly, more convincingly, 
more accurately than by contemplating the evolution of the loco- 
motive from Stephenson's "Bocket" to the latest Pacific type or 
triplex compound or, indeed, by tracing the growth of carrying 
vehicles from a unit, scarcely larger than an ordinary road wagon, 
to the seventy-five ton freight car. 

If we are to analyze railroad operation it is obvious that we 
will find that each department has problems and troubles peculiar 
to itself. On the mechanical side the great problem, as to Ameri- 
can railroads, is the care, inspection and maintenance of 2,500,000 
freight cars, 56,000 passenger cars and 66,000 locomotives repre- 

• A paper delivered before the Railroad Men's Improvement Asso. 

senting an investment estimated at three billion three hundred and 
fifty million dollars and calling for an annual maintenance charge 
estimated at $450,000,000. It might be remarked, in passing, 
that the latter sum would more than provide each year for a work 
of peace equal to the Panama Canal ; but it would only finance the 
European war for about ten days. 

Were all the cars and locomotives of American railroads coupled 
together, over two thousand miles of track would be require*! to 
hold them. They would considerably more than fill solid the main 
line double tracks of the Erie Kailroad, from New York to Chicago 
or, on a single track, they would reach from New York to Denver. 

It is not possible, nor even desirable, perhaps, to go into the 
details of mechanical operation to show the magnitude of the work 
involved ; but a faint conception of it can be had by recalling that 
approximately one billion passengers and over one billion tons of 
revenue freight are carried per annum on American railroads. 
Carrying units must be kept in condition to transport this great 
volume of business in safety, to conserve both life and property, 
and locomotives must be maintained in condition to move it. The 
extent of this work to some degree is indicated by citing, as an 
example, a few essential parts of a freight car which, if in disre- 
pair, may cause trouble ranging from an interruption of traffic, 
more or less serious, to derailment and loss of life or property. 

Such parts are wheels, axles, journal bearings, brake beams^ air 
hose and drawbars, of which there are twenty-eight items per car 
unit, or a total of seventy million important parts, on the entire 
freight equipment of the country, that must be watched every 
day to prevent disaster. 

In addition to these principal parts, having to do with the safe 
movement of the car itself, there are innumerable parts of lesser 
importance which, if defective, may endanger the safety of the 
car and many others such as defective roofs, sheathing, floors and 
doors, projecting bolts and nails, which may cause damage to 
property entrusted to transportation. 

Aside from the multitude of things, which self interest and 
ordinary prudence would cause the carriers to look out for, there 
are many duties of inspection and maintenance, imposed by the 
laws of the several states and of the United States, referred to 
collectively as safety appliance laws. These add to the burden and 
expense of mechanical operation. There are literally hundreds of 
parts on every car, a faflure or absence of which, may cost the 
operating carrier a fine of one hundred dollars. There are a like 
number on every locomotive, which require the closest attention, 
to avoid trouble leading either to a fine or the compulsory with- 
drawal of the locomotive from service. 

To meet the complex responsibilities of the mechanical side of 
railroad operation, and maintain the equipment in a state of 
preparedness demands, as in every other department of the busi- 
ness, a balanced and efficient organization, whose members shall be 
devoted to the work and sustained by the animated pursuit of a 
common purpose. 

The usual staff organization of the mechanical department con- 
sists of a chief officer, styled superintendent or general superin- 
tendent of motive power, mechanical or general mechanical super- 
intendent, superintendent of machinery, or other title, appropriate 
to the office. On the larger roads the chief mechanical officer, as a 
rule, is assisted by one or more deputies, bearing various titles, 
who have general authority and, sometimes, have direct supervision 
of the shops, thus standing between the shop organizations and the 
chief of the department. Not infrequently there is an officer 
charged with responsibility for the work of the car department, 
with the title of superintendent of ear department, or master car 
builder. On the Erie there are three mechanical superintendents. 
One has general charge of all car work of the system. One is 
assigned to each grand division of the road, in direct charge of 
the locomotive shops and has concurrent jurisdiction, in a restricted 
sense, over car work in his territory. The other regular staff 
officers are a mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, engineer of 
tests, chemist, chief boiler inspector and general inspectors of 
various grades and diverse duties. The larger roads add to the 
above two general officers who are absolutely indispensable where 



January, 1915 

there is any pretense of practicing the higher phases of railroad 
economy, using that term in its scientific sence. These are an 
efficiency engineer who is in charge of shop costs and production, 
and frequently at the head of the piece work system, and an expert 
in locomotive economy, whose duty it is, to save fuel and look 
after the economical operation of the locomotive. On the Erie 
these officers are designated, respectively, as superintendent of 
piece work and apprentices, and superintendent of locomotive 

The chief officer of the shop organization is the division master 
mechanic, or shop superintendent, on the locomotive side and a 
shop superintendent, foreman of car repairs, or an officer hav- 
ing some other suitable title, at the car shops. The division mas- 
ter mechanic frequently has charge of all mechanical work on his 
division; but it is customary to have large car shops entirely 
independent of his authority. 

The shop organization varies with the size of and importance 
of the shop. At a large shop there are usually a general foreman, 
an assistant to the general foreman who is in charge of shop 
costs and production, departmental foreman, inspectors, etc. 

In the division mechanical organization special mention should 
be made of the engine terminal which, by reason of its functions, 
is not properly classified with shop operations, whether closely 
associated with them or not. The engine terminal is to railroads 
what the coaling station is to ships on the high seas. Nothing 
will paralyze traffic movement and demoralize operation quite as 
effectively as putting an engine terminal out of business, or to 
have it in charge of a man who is incapable of facing all emer- 
gencies, and overcoming everything, but the physically impossible. 
This is so well understood that we are accustomed to say, that 
engine house foremen like poets are "born not made." 

Associated with the divisional organization are the road fore- 
men of engines and the inspectors of locomotive service, called 
supervisors of locomotive operation on the Erie. The mechanical 
department has concurrent jurisdiction with the transportation 
department over these officials. 

It has been shown that a strong organization is essential to 
good operation; but there are limits to what may be done by the 
best organization and the most devoted and diligent application, 
on the part of the personnel. This brings us to the considera- 
tion of shop and engine house facilities. A good organization 
may overcome, in a measure, the handicap of inferior, inadequate 
or obsolete facilities, but it can never supply their lack. 

The change from wood to steel in car building calls for new 
facilities, adapted to repair steel cars; the increase in the size, 
and complexity, of the locomotive unit calls for larger round- 
houses, improved engine terminal facilities, and for heavier and 
more improved machinery and appliances to handle and repair 
them. The needed facilities are scarcely installed when an in- 
sistent demand is made for their improvement, so rapid are the 
changes that make achievements of today, but stepping stones, 
for the greater achievements of tomorrow. 

But the mechanical side of railroading produces no income, it 
sends no actual cash into the treasury regardless of what it may 
keep from going out. Its omission is to do its part to keep the 
instrumentalities of commerce in shape to earn revenue. Each 
passenger locomotive may earn approximately $3,700 and each 
freight locomotive $52,000 per annum, but the sad truth ever 
confronts the mechanical man, that from twenty to twenty-five 
per cent of all operating expenses is laid up against him. He is 
a good spender and he is always "broke." His stories, there- 
fore, are apt to be of the hard luck variety, and they are received 
with the same cordial enthusiasm that a subscription paper, to 
buy the Kaiser a loving cup, would be received in London or, as 
the solicitation of a similar token of affection for King George 
would be received in Berlin. 

The mechanical man makes up a modest program for a new 
roundhouse at one point; two or three modern coal and ash 
handling plants; a couple of new power plants; perhaps a new 
shop; a hundred new machines and a job lot of fifty thousand 
dollars worth of small tools and miscellaneous things regarded as 

useful in his business. When the hard pressed management makes 
a few minor revisions of his plans he cheerfully accepts the allow- 
ance, builds an extension to several stalls of the old roundhouse 
to house the big engines, puts new flues in the boilers of the much 
slandered power plants, gives the old shop a coat of whitewash 
inside, forgets the rest and, like a true railroad man, settles down 
to do business with what he has, as better men have done before 
him and will do after he has gone. After all, he reasons, there 
is something to be thankful for. If something had to be cut off, 
far better the improvements than his head. Then, if he is some- 
what of a philosopher and given to rather fanciful speculation, 
he may occasionally dream, and even pray, that a certain high 
administrative body at Washington may get religion, because 
when men get religion, the hereafter is illuminated with a bright- 
ness never before realized and they hasten to make reparation for 
the wrongs and misdeeds done in their days of evil. He well 
knows that complete reparation would cause the improvements 
he recommended to appear in a different light, and might even 
make possible those bridges, the maintenance of way people have 
been after so long, and the ties and rails needed 60 badly. 

One ancient good, but that has given way to enlightenment, is 
the old railroad apprentice system. In the old days, the average 
apprentice who served his time in a railroad shop, learned to 
operate the various machines and to repair locomotives, but he was 
rarely an all around mechanic. Little, if any, attention was given 
to his educational qualifications when he was apprenticed and, 
unless he had the ambition to attend night school or apply him- 
self to self study, he usually lacked that knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of mechanics and of higher mathematics, which would fit 
him to extend his field of usefulness. Also the master was not 
particular, at all times, to concern himself about giving the novice 
the best opportunity to become a good all around journeyman. If 
the apprentice had special aptitude for certain work he was too 
frequently kept at it, instead of moving him about to afford a 
wider range of training. 

Also certain details, like valve setting, air pump, lubricator, 
injector and tool room work were regarded somewhat in the light 
of trade secrets and the apprentice was fortunate who got any 
experience or knowledge of this work. 

These unfruitful conditions were well known, but finally pro- 
gressive thinkers came to the realization that the system was all 
wrong and that it was not beneficial to the master, the appren- 
tice or to society, and out of these conclusions has grown a system 
of railroad apprenticeship and industrial education of the highest 


Speaking of the apprentice course of the Erie Eailroad as 
typical, I can say that the railroad apprentice today has every 
advantage to become a well rounded mechanic, and is given a 
basic technical education that equips him for the widest useful- 
ness. In most cases the instructors are college graduates and are 
far better equipped to teach industrial education than many 
employed for that purpose, in high schools, trade schools and 
other places, where that branch is taught. 

Contrary to the practice under the old system, the apprentice 
is now carefully and fully instructed in the very things that, 
formerly, were withheld from him, and extreme care is taken to 
make him proficient in every detail of the art. Not only is the 
course free but the apprentice is paid for his time while under 
instruction. The results have been most gratifying. 

Eailroad work, beyond question, is very interesting. It is fre- 
quently remarked, that there is something about the life which 
attracts and holds men, with greater force, than its material re- 
wards. If we seek far enough the reason will be found in that 
lofty, and exacting attribute, of human nature which withholds 
contentment and satisfaction from the normal man unless he can 
feel himself a part of the world's real work. It is not ambition, 
for ambition is not always worthy, and sometimes is even sordid 
and mean. It is rather that vital and deathless something of soul 
life, deep rooted in character, that gives off only inspiration and 
courage. It is that same force that sustains and disciplines real 

January, 1915 



men to find their chief reward in work well done, and in efforts 
well directed to ends worth while. 

Eailroad work surely has a high place in the activities, which 
most benefit mankind, and it is not strange that men should find 
the field attractive. Eecalling our subject for this evening, it is 
believed that the mechanical side of railroading is, at least, as 
interesting, as attractive and as fascinating as any other branch 
of the service. 

But I would not have you get the impression that I am speak- 
ing as a mechanical man. Bather would I have you think of me 
as a railroad man. I have scant tolerance for departmental dis- 
tinctions. Departmental lines are very proper, and necessary, to 
fix the lines of responsibility and for the orderly and effective 
conduct of business; but no further. It is trite to say that all 
energies, that are not directed toward the ultimate and legitimate 
ends of any business, are wasted or at least impaired. That end 
in the railroad business is to sell transportation at a decent profit, 
and everything which diverts energy, that the business is taxed 
to create, from that object is a thing to be weeded out. This 
thought may be illustrated by picturing a wide stream in whose 
course, at a certain point, it must pass through a long narrow 
gorge. On the upstream side the waters are collected, by various 
tributaries, from hundreds of square miles of drainage area. The 
stream gains in volume until, at the narrows, the waters pile up 
and develop a tremendous, concentrated energy of well nigh resist- 
less force, capable of being transmuted to the untold benefit of 
mankind. On the down stream side the waters spread out again 
into a wide, placid and, perhaps, sluggish stream as if tired by 
their demonstrations of energy passing through the gorge. The 
one shows the cumulative effect of the concentration of energy ; 
the other of its dissipation. 

Those who accustom themselves to see departmental work in 
capital letters, failing to co-ordinate their relations with the gen- 
eral interests of the business, are in danger of acquiring a per- 
spective like that of the fly in the fable. You will recall that a 
fly who had perched himself on the axle of a chariot became 
much puffed up by what he fondly believed to be his ability to 
raise so much dust. In how much more kindly esteem would 
history regard this fly had he been willing to share his dust- 
raising glory with the chariot wheels and the horses. The fly was 
afflicted with a distorted point of view. Also he lacked generosity 
and a sense of humor. 

We all preach about co-operation but constructive evidence of 
its practice does not equal the noise we make about it. The word 
co-operation, like efficiency and other mouth-filling terms, is rat- 
tled about the country like a pebble in a tin can. Many know 
what constructive team work is, a few practice it, but the 
majority merely talk about it, and look wise. 

In 1878 there was widespread discussion about the resumption 
of specie payments. Much speculation was indulged as to whether 
it could, or could not, be done, and many predictions were made 
of the dire calamities that would follow an attempt to do it. John 
Sherman said it could be done and he quietly, and simply, an- 
nounced that on a certain date the government would pay its 
obligations in gold. That settled the matter. The same decisive 
action is all that is needed to effect real co-operation, and co- 
ordination of purposes, in railroad work and, as Sidney Smith 
said, apropos of the proposition to build a wooden walk around 
St. Bauls, "If we lay our heads together the thing is done." 

As a parting thought, following much that I fear has been 
tedious rather than instructive or entertaining, let me urge that 
a worthy ambition, diligence and industry are the price of success 
and the field is open. Success is a relative term and when one 
achieves a goal, approaching the ultimate limits of his capabilities, 
he has done well notwithstanding that he may not fill the world 
with his fame or receive its applause. In the words of one of the 
greatest thinkers of all time: 

1 ' He that seeketh to be eminent among stable men hath a great 
task, but that is ever good for the public, but he that plots to 
be the only figure among ciphers is the decay of a whole age. ' ' 

By T. C. Donaldson, Engineer. 

The engineer or fireman who is interested in his work and 
anxious to keep off the failure sheet will tell you, "Give me a 
regular engine in preference to the extra list which is the pool." 
If the engine is not in as good shape as it should be when he 
gets it, the engineer will get busy right away, and try to improve 
conditions. He will look after the adjustment of the driving 
box wedges (the foundation of his work), and if he cannot get 
them properly adjusted in the engine house he will do it himself; 
keep rod brasses properly keyed up, look after the boiler attach- 
ments, see that air pump governors are properly adjusted so that 
air hoses will not be so liable to burst when carrying high pres- 
sure, on designated grades. In fact, the interested engineer will 
look after ali the details of the engine and try and keep it out 
of the shop as long as possible. The interested fireman is also 
satisfied when he is assigned to a regular engine and in nearly 
every case he will get busy with the engineer and try to put 
things in working order. He will take care of his firing tools 
and other equipment that he handles, such as cab lamps, lanterns, 
flags, etc., while the engine is on the road, and on arrival at 
terminal will put them away, carefully treating them as if they 
were his own. 

This engine crew will work together in hauling the train 
over the division; the engineer will handle the reverse lever, 
throttle and injector in a manner that will enable the fireman 
to maintain an even pressure on the boiler, thereby making the 
required time and keeping the flues dry; the fireman will do his 
best to help him get results by keeping the pointer of the steam 
gauge as near the 200 mark as possible, manipulating the front 
end damper to keep the safety valves quiet, thereby saving fuel. 
These men will do better work and, I believe, the company will 
get better results because the men have regular engines and, 
being satisfied, will take good care of them. On the other hand, 
put these men in the pool and see how long they will remain satis- 
fied and maintain the interest they had in their regular engines. 
It is surprising to note the apparent indifference that exists in 
the present generation, and I am afraid it would become a case 
of environment with the engineers and firemen. 

The average extra man of today will take good care of a regu- 
lar man 's engine when the regular man lays off, and leave it in as 
good condition as he finds it, but what will he do with an extra 
engine, a "Nobody's Claim," as we call them? He will leave 
it in the same condition as he finds it, which is not always very 
good, simply because the engine is pooled and no one is interested 
in it. The engineer will look her over at the end of the run, 
go to the engine house and report "set up wedges," "key up 
rod brasses," "engine pounding badly," "cylinder or valve 
packing blowing," "stop steam leaks in cab," etc., and probably 
wind up by saying "engine unfit for service." 

The fireman will have his overalls under his arm, his dinner 
pail in his hand ready to jump off before the engine comes to a 
stop on ash pit track, paying no attention to cab lamps or other 
tool equipment, and the tool checker is lucky if he finds all of it; 
the number of fire rakes and coal picks gathered up recently by 
section men would lead one to believe that he does not. 

The engine house foreman will go over the engineer's work 
report and figure out how much he can do in the limited time- 
he has to do the work in. If he doesn't happen to be in the 
office when the work is reported he is not sure which item is of 
most importance, and the pooled engineer has gone home. He 
cannot do all the work this trip and the chances are that the 
pooled engine will go out with some important piece of work 
undone. Not so with the regular engineer; he is never in such a 
hurry that he can't hunt up the foreman if he wants some par- 
ticular piece of work done and explain conditions to him and 
if all the work that is reported can not be done, the most im- 
portant will be done. In this way the engine receives proper care 
and very seldom has a failure and the officials of the transporta- 

* From the Buffalo, Rochester $ Pittsburgh Magazine. 



January, 1915 

tion and mechanical department are satisfied with the perform- 
ance of it. 

I have worked with both classes of men on the road, have 
handled their work reports in the engine house for years and 
have come to the conclusion that conditions are smoother with 
the regular engine and firmly believe that year in and year out 
the engine with a regularly assigned crew will make more miles 
at less cost than the pooled engine. 
A Reply by F. A. Parker, in Bock Island Employes' Magazine. 

The article in the August, 1914, issue of the B. R. & P. 
Employes' Magazine, entitled "Regularly Assigned Engine Crews 
Versus the Pool," voices the ideals dear to the heart of every 
operating man. Everything Mr. Donaldson has said is true, and 
many more things from the train dispatcher's viewpoint could also 
be said in amplification of his views in favor of assigned engines. 
In substance, the assignment of engines to regular crews is 
nothing short of inaugurating the "Hine System" in the mechan- 
ical department, as it puts an assistant master mechanic on each 

So strong are these convictions that we are liable to lose sight 
of making the best of conditions which forbid regular assigned 

To make sure of the right trail, let us begin with a simple little 
matter; suppose that you were the owner of a taxi line in, say, 
Chicago. You took over this business in a dull season of the year. 
Your equipment consisted of your own machine shop in connection 
with your garage. You had twenty taxis valued at $2,500 each. 
Your business was not so heavy but what twenty chauffeurs 
working per your agreement with them twelve hours each day, 
could handle with ease. You saw the same advantages Mr. 
Donaldson does in assigning a regular chauffeur to each taxi, 
in the hopes (and no doubt the realization) that he would take a 
special pride in the machinery of his charge. He would keep it 
clean and attractive, avoid spotting the tires, and above all would 
show you that he was trying to blow up less gasoline than the 
"other fellow." 

All of which has a tendency to advertise your business, reduce 
your machine shop expense and take a slap at the Standard Oil 
Company, of whose stock you are probably short. 

Mark, now, you have agreed to work these chauffeurs not over 
twelve hours, including meals and lunches, per day. You will 
demand and be granted the decision that you are a level-headed 
business man. In fact, your arrangement of your men has every 
indication of it. 

Now, as a generally prosperous season in all lines of trade 
advances, your business steadily increasing abreast with the times, 
you find that your twenty machines at twelve hours per day 
cannot meet the demands. In fact, your business has increased 
forty per cent, which, of course, would require your chauffeurs 
to remain on their machines twenty hours per day, or eight hours 
longer than you have agreed. This wor 't do and you say, ' ' well, 
if I buy eight more of these $2,500 taxis my chauffeurs can 
handle forty per cent more business." Eight machines at $2,500 
each is $20,000. The interest on this investment at six per cent 
is $1,200, and the depreciation is $5,000 more. Forget the depre- 
ciation beyond knowing it's there and remember the $1,200 per 
year, $100 per month, interest on the investment of eight more 

You then size up the business and note this rush will only last 
for three months and you are not financially able to spend 
$20,000 to secure the doubtful returns on three months' business. 
You again reason that by pooling your twenty machines among 
twenty-eight chauffeurs working ten hours each you will have 
Increased the efficiency of your twenty machines the desired forty 
per cent. Each machine then stands at rest an average of four 
hours each day for necessary cleaning and repairs. 

As a visible gain per month for the pool installed for the 
three months, or one-fourth of a year, credit yourself a third 
of $1,200, or $400 per month. 

Now, then, $400 per month will place in your machine shop 
an inspector, two machinists and two car cleaner apprentices, the 

inspector to keep a record on the gasoline consumption, the 
repairs, spotted tires, and know that the work reported is done. 

All this you will insist on and spend the $400 per month freely 
to tide you over this rush of business and avoid that staggering 
depreciation figure which applies to an auto. 

Of course, you say those eight autos could be tied up nine 
months of the year, and lessen the depreciation. This gives you a 
bright thought in connection with the other twenty the balance of 
the year. Why not lessen depreciation by tying up eight of them 
and pooling the remaining twelve among twenty chauffeurs? 

Now, if you will add one cipher to all monetary figures men- 
tioned you have the case of the railroad company. The question 
is would you, as a railroad owner, buy and maintain eight more 
engines than you need, when, by spending half or a quarter of 
the interest on the investment obtain the same results? As a 
further question after your fair-minded answer, can you as an 
engineer afford to neglect a company's pooled engine any more 
than if assigned to you? Can you as a fireman waste your muscle 
to shovel any more coal into a pooled engine than one you are 
assigned to? 

After all, is not the ' ' assigned engine ' ' idea a mere sentimental 
ghost? Don't you think that if you start preaching loyalty to 
the rest of the boys in behalf of the company's pooled engines 
you can bring about that same loving regard for a pooled engine 
as you have for an assigned? 

By a Ripleyism, what 's the difference between the number on 
the cab between friends? 



The Chicago section of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers held its second meeting of the year at the LaSalle Hotel 
on January 8, the meeting being designated as railroad night. A 
dinner was held at 6:30 and speaking commenced promptly at 
eight o'clock. 

R. M. Ostermann, assistant to the vice-president of the Locomo- 
tive Superheater Co., was the first speaker, and with the aid of 
lantern slides he outlined the essential features of the superheater 
and described their application and use. Mr. Ostermann 's paper 
was responded to by Robert Quayle, general superintendent of 
motive power of the Chicago & North Western, who handled the 
subject from the standpoint of the railway man. He said that 
his enginemen were very anxious to get superheater engines on 
account of their efficiency and ease of handling. The superheater 
has also proved very successful on switching engines. A switch 
engine which formerly had to go for water at 10:30 A. M. could 
with the superheater run until 2:00 P. M. Mr. Quayle stated that 
they had one or two pyrometers installed and that they were a 
great help to the man on the engine. 

Clement F. Street, president of the Locomotive Stoker Co., read 
a paper on locomotive stokers, in which he outlined the growth 
in size of locomotives and railway rolling stock, and brought out 
the point that an increase in the power of locomotives was now 
limited by the inability of the firemen to supply enough coal. He 
predicted that the day would come when the stoker would be the 
accepted thing on all locomotives. H. T. Bentley, superintendent 
of motive power of the Chicago & North Western, said that what 
experience he had had with the stoker had not been entirely satis- 
factory and that they had not found them necessary with an engine 
equipped with a good coal pusher. Willard A. Smith, president 
of the Railway Review, gave a very interesting and instructive 
address on present-day problems in railway economics. Among 
the points which he brought out was that although the size of 
locomotives and cars has increased greatly, a smaller percentage 
of this increased capacity was being used. In conclusion he urged 
the establishment of a bureau or commission, to have as its object 
the working out of the various problems which confront roads from 
time to time. With such an institution any road could obtain 
help from it at will, much as the farmer now obtains advice from 
the department of agriculture. Dr. W. F. M. Goss made a few 
remarks, concluding the meeting. 

January. 1915 



Oxy-Acetylene Welding for Boiler Repairs 

By A. A. Masters, Genl. Fmn., Delaware & Hudson, Watervliet, N. Y. 

Eealizing that a considerable saving could be made with oxy- 
acetylene welding in connection with boiler repairs, various experi- 
ments were tried out in order to ultimately obtain the best re- 

A considerable number of partly or wholly inclosed patches 
were applied in the usual way, that is without any unusual provi- 
sions for contraction. Nearly all of these patches failed at one 
time or another due to the excessive strains set up in the boiler 
after the last weld was finally made. 

To find out just where these strains were we trammed the boiler 
outside of the patches before welding. After welding was com- 
pleted and in trying our tram marks we found a shrinkage of from 
one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch due to contraction in cooling, 
showing that by this method we had set up very considerable 
strains in the boiler. 

The class of fire-box repairs that we have to contend with 
are parts of throat sheets, flue sheets, fire door sheets, and side 
sheets, at the point where sheets were riveted together. Also the 


Burned yA 

8/ leoku y 

seam v 

Section of 
team cut 
out with gas 



Fig. / 



rig. J. 

Method of Applying Sections to Firebox by Oxy-Acetylene Welding. 

horizontal seams along the sides of fire box, which are con- 
stantly becoming burned and leaky. 

Formerly under conditions of this kind the remedy was to apply 
a new fire box. To eliminate this and to successfully apply sec- 
tions to the fire-box without renewing the entire fire-box we de- 
veloped the method shown in the illustrations. These sketches 
show the method of applying a patch along the seam. 

The crimp in the sheet is the method we finally adapted as a 
successful way of getting around the contraction. This crimp 
is now applied to all wholly or partically inclosed patches wherever 
patching is necessary in the fire-box, and in every case, if prop- 
erly welded, no trouble develops later. The weld is first made 
along one side, then in starting to weld the second side the crimp 
is heated at the same time and with the same torch. The boiler 
when cooling pulls out a large amount of this crimp thus provid- 
ing for the necessary contraction and relieving the strain on the 

A patch applied with crimp of this kind, trammed before and 
after welding, gives no variation at the tram marks, showing 
that no undue stress exist. 

In applying a section to the throat sheet or fire-box sheet crimps 
are applied to both vertical sides of the sheet. The top is first 
welded and then the sides, at the same time heating the corruga- 

The results of this method are that we have been able to cut 
the application of new fire-boxes, eighty per cent. 

We weld all sheets together in fire door holes, eliminating all 
patch bolts and rivets and when necessary weld sections of flue 
sheets, welding the section of flue sheets together first, then laying 
up the sheet to the shell and driving the rivets at the last opera- 
tion. We have been able to effect a great saving along nearly 
all lines of boiler work. 

However, we have found it best to watch all operations and 
check the cost as it is somewhat misleading to observe acetylene 
gas welders working alone doing the same work in the same or 
less time than it takes two boilermakers and helper and rivet 
heater to perform. 

However it must be born in mind that unless the time of the 
welder is less than the time required by the gang of boilermakers 
to complete the work there is no saving, as the welder's time 
plus the expense of running a torch is about equal to the 
expense of the two boilermakers, helper and rivet heater. 

Another feature in connection with the acetylene gas welding 
in connection with boiler work is, generally speaking, the reduc- 
tion of time necessary to complete a certain piece of work with 
the use of gas over that required by the other methods. 

That is, if it was possible to make a reduction in the time re- 
quired on all operations of one-half as is the case with the use of 
the new method of welding this would simply mean doubling the 

As an illustration of the possible saving comparing the new and 
old ways, the following are figures on boiler repairs given en- 
gines 535 and 552 : 


Oxy- Acetylene Welding. 

Operators ' rate 37c pr. hr. 

Length of seams (9' each) 18 ft. 

Thickness of plate % ft. 

Opening at bottom of sheets ^ ft. 

Size of head used on torch No. 10 

Pressure 30 lbs. 

Actual time welding torch was burning 6 hrs. 

Time charged by operator, 10 hours @ 37c $ 3.70 

Oxygen used, 362.5 cu. ft. @ .225c $ 8.16 

Acetylene gas used, 180 cu. ft. @ .007c $ 1.26 

Welding iron used, 11 lbs. @ 13c $ 1.43 

Total cost for welding 18 ft $14.55 

Cost per foot for welding $ .808 

Number of feet welded per hour while torch burning . 3 

Average feet welded per hour 1.8 

Oxygen used per hour while torch burning 60.4 cu. ft. 

Acetylene used per hour while torch burning 30 cu. ft. 

Welding iron used per foot 61 lbs. 

Old Way. 
Kemoving and renewing 54 staybolts above seam @ 40c each$21.60 

Kiveting seams, 20 hours @ $1.34 $26.80 

Calking seams, 4 hours @ 37c $ 1.48 

Kivets, 31 lbs. @ .037 $ 1.14 

Total old way $51.02 

Total new way $14.55 

Saving new way 


Oxy-Acetylene Welding. 

Operators ' rate i 37c 

Total length of welds 

Thickness of material 

Opening at bottom of grove 

Size of head on torch 


Time charged by operator 5 hours @ 37c 

Oxygen used, 300 cu. ft. @ .0225c 


pr. hr. 
• ••%" 
No. 10 
30 lbs. 
$ 1.85 
$ 6.75 



January, 1915 

Acetylene gas used, 150 en. ft. @ .007c $ 1.05 

Welding iron used, 6 lbs. @ 13e $ .78 

Total cost for welding 7 feet 6 inches $10.43 

Old Way. 

Removing and replacing 12 stay bolts @ 40c $ 4.80 

Eiveting 10 hours @ $1.12% $11.25 

Eivets, 6 lbs. @ .037c $ .22 

Calking seams 2 hours @ 37c $ .74 

Total, old way $17.01 

Total, new way $10.43 

Saving new way $ 6.58 


Cutting, new way, 22' 6" @ $1.55 per ft $ 3.49 

Cutting, old way, 22' 6" @ 27c per ft $ 6.075 

Saving new way cutting $ 2.585 

Cost for welding, new way $24.98 

Cost for doing the same work, old way $68.03 

Saving new way welding from old $43.05 

Total cost, old way $74,105 

Total cost, new way $28.47 

Saving new way $45,635 

Time required old way 5 days 

Time required new way 1.6 days 

Saving of time new way 3.4 days 

Oxygen used per foot of weld 26 cu. f t. 

Acetylene used per foot of weld 1.29 cu. ft. 

Iron used per foot of weld 66 lbs. 

Av. cost per foot for welding, including labor 98 cents 


O j t/- Acetylene. 

Used No. 1 head with 75 lbs. pressure 

Operator 's rate 37c pr. hr. 

Time charged by operator, 2 hours @ 37c $ .74 

Actual time torch was cutting 1 hr. 

Oxygen used, 200 cu. ft. @ .225 per ft $ 4.50 

Acetylene used, 25 cu. ft. @ .007 per ft $ .17 

Total cost for cutting 35 feet. %" thick steel plate $ 5.41 

Cost per foot for cutting (about) $ .20 

Old Way. 

Labor of 1 boilerniaker 22 hours @ 37c per hour $ 8.14 

Compressed air, 21 hours, @ .06c per hour $ 1.26 

Oil for air hammer $ .05 

Total cost old way $ 9.45 

Total cost new way $ 5.41 

Saving new way $ 4.04 


Oxygen used per foot of cut 5.7 cu. f t. 

Acetylene used per foot of cut 7 cu. ft. 

Feet run per hour while torch burning 35 ft. 

Av. cost per foot for cutting, including labor 20 cents 


Ten large anthracite burning Pacific type locomotives hare 
recently been delivered to the Delaware & Hudson Company by 
the American Locomotive Company. These are the first locomo- 
tives of this type to be used on this road; the heavy passenger 
service formerly being handled by ten wheelers. 

The anthracite burning ten wheelers have a total weight, engine 
and tender, of 313,900 pounds, the tenders having a capacity of 
7,000 gallons of water and 12 tons of coal. With a driving wheel 
69 inches in diameter, a steam pressure of 200 pounds and cyl- 
inders 21"x26", they deliver a tractive power of 28,300 pounds. 
The new Pacifies have a total weight, engine and tender, of 
460,100 pounds, the tender having a capacity of 8,000 gallons 
and 14 tons. With a driving wheel 69 inches in diameter, a steam 
pressure of 205 pounds and cylinders 24"x28", they deliver a 
tractive power of 40,730 pounds. This is an increase of 46.6 
per cent in weight and 44 per cent tractive power. 

A passenger engine necessitates ample boiler capacity. The 
following comparison of the boilers of the new Pacifies and the 
older ten wheelers fully demonstrate the advantage of the new 
engines where sustained capacity is required: 



Grate area sq. ft. 99.3 

Heating surface, tubes sq. f t. 2,627 

Heating surface, flues sq. f t. . 952 

Heating surface, fire brick tubes sq. ft. 40 

Heating surface, firebox sq. f t. 277 

Heating surface, total sq. f t. 3,896 

Superheating surface sq. ft. 796 




Comparing the equivalent heating surface, which includes 1% 
times the superheating surface, we have 5,090 square feet for the 
Pacifies as against 2,662 square feet for the ten wheeler, or an 
increase of 91.3 per cent. 

According to the method of boiler proportioning used by the 
American Locomotive Company, these Pacifies have 110 per cent, 
boilers. In a general way, a boiler will have ample steam making 
capacity if proportioned by this method for 100 per cent, but it 
has been proven that the boiler capacity cannot generally be made 
too large within the permissible limits of weight. It has been 
shown by numerous tests, especially by Dr. Goss ' investigations, 
that such increase in boiler capacity makes for considerable econ- 
omy in the use of fuel and steam. For passenger service, it is 
advantageous to make the boiler over 100 per cent when possible. 

This design was developed by the mechanical department of the 
Delaware & Hudson in co-operation with the American Locomo- 
tive Company. Interesting details are the Schmidt superheater, 
brick arch, screw reverse gear, extended piston rods, long main 
driving box, Economy engine truck, Economy tender trucks, 
Economy pipe clamps, Economy radial buffer, and a speed 
recorder. Vanadium steel was used in the main frames, driving 
elliptic springs, engine truck elliptic springs and the tender truck 
elliptic springs. 

Pacific Type Locomotive, Delaware & Hudson Co. 

January, 1915 





January, 1915 












The principal dimensions and ratios are as follows: 

Gauge 4'-SM>" 

Fuel Anthracite 

Cylinders 24"x28" 

Factor of adhesion 4.59 

Wheel base, driving 13'-0" 

Wheel base, total 34'-10" 

Wheel base, engine and tender 70'-4%" 

Weight in working order 293,500 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 191,000 lbs. 

Weight on trailers 55,000 lbs. 

Weight on engine truck 47,500 lbs. 

Weight of engine and tender 460,100 lbs. 

Boiler pressure 205 lbs. 

Firebox, length 132%" 

Firebox, width 108*4" 

Firebox, thickness of crown %" 

Firebox, thickness of tubes y 2 " 

Firebox, thickness of side and back sheets. %" 

Crown staying Radial 

Tubes Charcoal iron 

Tubes, number and size. .• 252 ; 2" 

Tubes, length 20'0" 

Heating surface, tubes and flues 3,579 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 277 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, arch tubes 40 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total : 3,896 sq. ft. 

Superheater surface 796 sq. ft. 

Grate area 99.3 sq. ft. 

Wheels, driving, diameter outside tire. . . . 69" 

Wheels, engine truck, diameter 33" 

Wheels, trailing truck, diameter 45" 

Axles, driving journals, main Il"x22" 

Axles, engine truck journals 6%"xl2" 

Axles, trailing truck journals 9*£"xl6" 

Axles, tender truck journals 6"xll" 

Tank style Water bottom 

Tank, capacity 5,000 gal. 

Tank, capacity, fuel 14 tons 

Valves Piston 


Baby 's toy engine is silent and still, 

The railroad is tied up and baby is ill; 

Xo express or baggage is shipped off by rail, 

The through freight is side-tracked and also the mail ; 

Xo noise from the roundhouse; all out of repair, 

There is no conductor to take up the fare, 

And mother sits by, in whose eye there 's a tear, 

While she prays for the life of the boy engineer. 

Xo shriek from the whistle, no sound from the bell; 
Xo brakeman on duty, the stations to yell. 
The road's in disorder and blocked is the main, 
There's no rush nor rattle nor roar of the train; 
The yards are all plugged, and a sad sight to view; 
For tucked up in bed is the whole of the crew, 
While mother sits up with a railroader dear, 
Who is brakeman, conductor and boy engineer. 

Xo yellow lights burning to signal trains, slow; 
Xo green lights a-gleaming, to spell let her go; 
Xo red light shows danger, when tracks are not clear, 
For sick and in bed is the boy engineer. 

— Hugh Burns, in L. F. # E. Magazine. 

The Valley & Siletz is preparing to construct 10 miles of rail- 
road in the spring. E. L. Donald, Northwestern Bank building, 
Portland, Ore., is manager. 

January, 1915 



By John A Mathews and Howard Stagg, Jr. 

The phenomena of carburizing iron and of hardening it by 
quenching have been known for many centuries, yet the explanation 
of hardening steel has not yet been given to the satisfaction of all. 
Many theories have been advanced and each has its adherents, but 
one can scarcely say that any generally accepted theory or explana- 
tion exists. As recently as this year, two very interesting new 
theories were advanced at the May meeting of the Iron and Steel 
Institute of Great Britain. 

In what follows we are not so much interested in the theories 
as in the practice of the art of hardening and tempering tool 
steel, and we shall confine our attentions to carbon steels, together 
with some consideration of so-called special steels containing 
various alloys, usually below 3 per cent. We shall not discuss high- 
speed steels, nor the many low-carbon alloy steels, primarily of 
value on account of their tensile qualities, but also, in many cases 
of limited value for tools, especially those used for hot work. In 
this way only can we hold either the paper or the discussion within 
reasonable limits. We shall consider the subject, also, from the 
basis of sound well-worked materials and shall not consider the 
influence of defects, such as pipes, seams, bursts, laps, burning, etc. 
The hardening operation itself will give sufficient scope for our 
thought and attention. 

Tool steels are included within the range of 0.60 to 1.50 per 
cent carbon, but not less than 90 per cent of them fall within 
carbon limits of 0.75 to 1.35 per cent. They are usually made by 
the very old crucible process or the very new electric processes, 
and just now there is considerable discussion as to the relative 
merits of these methods. As the writers are among the few men 
in the world who have had practical experience with both processes, 
we will refrain from discussing their respective merits at the 
present time to leave a free field for partisans. It is hardly neces- 
sary to remark that no mere process is a guarantee of quality; it 
takes brains, plus a process, to succeed in almost any line of manu- 
facture. This is particularly true of tool steel, which is sub- 
jected to so many operations between the melting and the selling 

Carbon forms at least one definite compound with iron, Fe :i C, 
known as cementite. This is the hardest constituent in steel. 
Cementite exists in* annealed steel associated with a perfectly 
definite quantity of iron, or ferrite, as it is metallographically 
known. This definite relation between ferrite and cementite yields 
the constituent pearlite, in which the cementite and ferrite may 
exist in a laminated or a granular condition. This aggregate 
contains a definite percentage of carbon, 0.89 per cent, and steel 
containing 0.89 per cent carbon in its normal condition, is found 
to consist of nothing but pearlite when examined microscopically. 

In steel containing less than 0.89 carbon the cementite asso- 
ciates with sufficient ferrite to form pearlite, and leaves the excess 
ferrite free in distinct microscopic grains or crystals. On the 
other hand, if the steel contains above 0.89 carbon, there is more 
cementite present than can become associated with ferrite, and 
the excess being unable to find a partner, so to speak, exists in 
separate particles, either granular of in a more or less perfect 
net work surrounding the pearlite. 

The definite percentage of carbon which yields a full pearlitic 
structure in the annealed or natural condition is known as the 
eutectoid composition. Steels of lesser carbon are called hypo- 
eutectoid, and steels of higher carbon are called hyper-eutectoid 
steels. We are indebted to Professor Howe for these names. 

When carbon steel is heated above a certain temperature, a 
change takes place in the constitution of the steel. This tem- 
perature is known as the carbon change point, critical temperature, 
or, preferably as the decalescence point. When this temperature 
is reached the pearlite becomes austenite, a solid solution of iron 
carbide in iron. This change occurs at a nearly constant tem- 
perature, but in case of hypo-eutectoid steels, the austenite first 
formed above the decalescence point acts as a solvent for the 

•A paper presented at the annual meeting, December, 1914. of The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

excess ferrite. In other words, at a somewhat higher temperature 
than the decalescence point, we obtain a homogeneous solid solu- 
tion of all the cementite in all the ferrite. This is the best con- 
dition for hardening a low-carbon tool steel and accounts for the 
practice of heating low-carbon steels hotter than hyper-eutectoid 
steels for hardening. 

The excess cementite of hyper-eutectoid steels is not readily solu- 
ble in the austenite first formed from the pearlite and it requires a 
high temperature to complete the solution of the excess cementite. 
Practically considered, nothing is gained by doing so. 

Steels quenched quickly from above the decalescence temperature 
retain the carbon more or less perfectly in the condition of solid 
solution that existed above the decalscence point. The structural 
name for the quenched product is martensite. Hypoeuteetoid 
steels, hardened, may show either all martensite or martensite and 
ferrite. Hyper-eutectoid steel should show martensite and 
cementite. The martensite of eutectoid steels has been called 
hardenite by Professor Arnold. 

Just as in the change of ice to water or of water to ice, there 
is an evolution or absorption of heat, so is there an absorption 
or evolution of heat in steel on passing through its critical range. 
There are several methods of determining this change point, but 
as these methods are so well known, we will omit detailed descrip- 
tions of the operations involved. 

The position of this critical temperature is fairly constant in 
all straight carbon tool steels, but is affected to a variable degree 
by the addition of alloys. Just as the addition of salt to water 
lowers the temperature at which the solution freezes, so the 
addition of alloys lowers the freezing point of steel and frequently 
lowers the position of the critical temperatures. The addition of 
10 per cent of nickel to a 1.00 per cent carbon steel, or of 4 per 
cent of manganese, for example, lowers the critical point to such 
an amount that steels of these types are martensitic at ordinary 
temperature, even after slow cooling. 

The determination of critical temperatures has materially as- 
sisted in the solution of many metallurgical problems. So far as 
we are concerned in this paper, however, it is sufficient that for 
the practical hardening of tool steels this critical temperature 
must be exceeded by a fairly good margin, at least 25 deg. to 
50 deg. fahr., depending on the size, shape, mass and composition. 

On heating steel through its critical range changes occur other 
than those noted. Steel is strongly magnetic below the critical 
range, but loses its magnetism within and above. The electrical 
resistance for hard steel increases with the temperature up to the 
critical point in a curve which is nearly a straight line. On 
passing through the resistance increases abruptly, and after having 
passed through, the increase per degree rise in temperature is very 
much less than in either of the other two cases. The specific 
volume of a hardened steel is approximately 0.01 greater than in 
its annealed condition. These marked changes in physical charac- 
teristics occurring at definite temperatures are indicative of the 
disturbances going on in the steel and occur at the temperature 
at which carbide carbon goes into solution on heating, or dissolved 
carbon is precipitated from solutiou on cooling. 

Of great practical importance to the hardener, however, are the 
volume changes, both expansion and contraction, which occur dur 
ing the critical ranges of temperature. The permanent changes 
in dimensions which steel undergoes in hardening are of the utmost 
interest to the hardener and associated with these changes is the 
problem of hardening cracks. 

Le Chatelier has studied the phenomena of expansion or dilata- 
tion by accurate scientific methods and has divided the changes 
into three zones of temperature: (a) changes at temperatures 
below that at which allotropic transformation begins; (b) changes 
at temperatures above those at which allotropic transformation 
occurs; and (c) changes occurring within the critical range itself. 
During the first of these periods from deg. to 700 deg. cent., 
iron and steel expand nearly equally, the amount of carbon 
exerting little influence. For any iron or steel, however, the 
amount or rate of dilatation increases with the temperature. 
Below 100 deg. cent, the dilatation is about 0.000011 in., while 



January, 1915 

between 600 deg. and 700 deg. cent, it increases to 0.0000165 in. 
per deg. cent. Above the critical range, however, the coefficient of 
dilatation varies directly with the carbon and is nearly twice as 
great for a 1.20 carbon steel as for a 0.05 carbon iron. The 
changes taking place at AC and AE , Le Chatelier has not been 
able to study so satisfactorily. He has found, however, that the 
dilatation which increases directly with the temperature up to 
AC lt suddenly stops and that instead of an expansion, a marked 
contraction takes place. 

On cooling steel from high temperatures, these changes in 
dimensions are reversed, although they are not quantitatively 
equal, nor do they occur at the same temperatures. It is an axiom 
that heat expands and that cold contracts; but with steel there 
is a certain critical temperature at which an abnormal behavior is 
noticed, namely a sudden shrinkage on heating and an expansion 
on cooling. The expansion of steel in heating to 750 deg. cent., 
is about % in. per ft., and when we recall that, in quenching, a 
corresponding contraction attempts to take place suddenly, it is 
little wonder that strains are set up that may exceed the ultimate 
strength of the steel. 


What is the relation of the above to over-heating, i.e., heating 
above that temperature at which it is necessary to harden! After 
passing through the critical range, the expansion takes place at 
its maximum rate. When steel is heated in such a manner it 
assumes the shape corresponding to the maximum temperature and 
on cooling the whole piece tends to return to, or near, its original 
size. In so doing, the outer, or first cooled, portion is hardened 
first and forms a hard, brittle, unyielding shell, and the strains 
set up by the slower cooling interior may either (a) fracture the 
shell producing external cracks, especially if the shell be uneven 
in thickness, or (Z>) burst the piece at the center if the shell is 
of even thickness and strength. This latter occurrence is accom- 
panied by a peculiar appearance of the fracture and frequently 
and wrongly called pipe. 


Too much stress cannot be laid on the fact that there is a 
correct length of time for heating and that this time of heating 
is as important as the temperature to which heated. There are 
at least two dangers which must be avoided. 

First, if the heating be too fast, a uniform temperature does 
not exist throughout the mass being heated. For example, a die 
block heated too quickly may exhibit the following conditions: 
The outer portions may be above AC , and expanding at the 
maximum rate; the intermediate portions may be in the transfor- 
mation range and contracting; while the inner portion, which is 
below AC , is slowly expanding at the characteristic rate below 

AC . What wonder that steel fractures under such conditions? 

Second, grain size depends among other variables under (a) 
temperature above AC U and (&) time above AC t . If heating be 
of such a character that the piece is held above AC,, for an 
abnormally long time, the crystals may have grown to such an 
extent that on quenching, abnormal grain size is retained and the 
result is a weak, if not cracked, piece. 

Quick heating in a furnace which is considerably hotter than 
the correct hardening temperature is extremely bad practice. The 
difficulty is that the thin parts, corners, and edges are liable to 
attain an overheated temperature before the larger portions of the 
piece attain the correct hardening temperature, and this over- 
heating of the thin parts produces large grain size, abnormal 
expansion and tends to produce cracks. 


If a sample of steel be cooled slowly from above AC U the solid 
solution which has been formed breaks up and precipitates its 
cementite and ferrite and we have then an annealed steel. If the 
cooling on the contrary be rapid, the solid solution is not given 
the time necessary to permit the complete dissociation into cemen- 
tite and pearlite and we find formed the intermediate break down 
of austenite, known as martensite. If the cooling be intermediate 
in its speed between extremely slow and extremely fast, we find 
intermediate microconstituents, troostite or sorbite. The correct 

constituent, however, in a hardened steel is martensite, and to 
form this martensite the material must be cooled quickly. 

There are several degrees of "quickness' which at once suggest 
themselves. There is, however, a critical rate of cooling through 
the range which must be attained before the piece will be 

On quenching it is clear that the surfaces of the section are 
cooled and hardened first. If the mass being cooled is of con- 
siderable size, different degrees of hardness are noticed from the 
outside to the middle. This can be illustrated by the following 
two examples, which, however, are not tool steels (Table 1). 

Bars of the analysis shown, 3*4 in. sq. by 18 in. long, were 
quenched from indicated temperatures. A transverse section % in. 
thick was sawed from the middle and Brinell hardness tests made 
at equidistant points on its surface. It will be noted that in each 
instance the corners, or thinnest portions were the hardest. Next 
in hardness were the edges and the decrease in hardness was quite 
uniform to the center of the bar. 

The cooling medium used, its temperature, and condition also 
affect the rate of cooling. Benedicks has investigated this subject 
and arrived at conclusions of extreme interest. He found that in 
order that a liquid present in large bulk may exhibit a good 
quenching power it is necessary: 

a That it should possess a high latent heat of vaporization 

o That it be maintained at a temperature low enough to avoid 
too abundant formation of vapor. 

High specific heat, low viscosity and large heat conductivity all 
act, it is true, in the direction of quick cooling, but the influence 


















































































































3% In. sq. by 18 In.; 
water, 1500 deg. fahr. 
% In. trans%*erse sec- 
tion from middle of 
length. C, 29, St, 09, 
Mn, 65, P, 01, S, 01. Ni. 

3% in. sq. by 18 in. oil, 
1675 deg. fahr. % in. 
transverse section from 
middle of length. C, 
0-.49, Si.0.14, Mn, 0.74, 
P, 0.015, S, 0.014. Cr, 
1.18, V. 0.17 

of the two factors last mentioned appears to be of a different 
and lesser grade than the heat of vapor formation. 

The authors have devoted considerable time to investigating 
numerous commercial media which are in use in typical hardening 
plants of the country at the present time. The results given are 
only a small portion of those actually obtained, but they are 

In attacking the problem, the following method was adopted: 
A test piece of the dimensions shown in Fig. 1 was machined 
from a solid bar, and a hole drilled through the neck to within 
an equal distance from each side and bottom of the test piece. 
Into this hole a calibrated, platinum-rhodium couple was inserted 
and the leads connected to a calibrated galvanometer. The test 
piece was then immersed in a lead pot, also containing a thermo- 
couple to the point A, and the lead pot was maintained at a 
temperature of 1200 deg. fahr. When the couple inside the test 
piece was at 1200 deg. fahr., and the couple in the lead pot read 
1200 deg. fahr., the test piece was removed and quenched to the 
point B in 25 gal. of the quenching medium under consideration. 
At the start the quenching medium was maintained at room 
temperature. The time in seconds that it took the test piece to 
fall from a temperature of 1200 deg. fahr., to a temperature of 
700 deg. fahr., was noted by the aid of a stop-watch. It is clear 
that immersing the test piece in the quenching medium raised the 
temperature of the medium. The test piece was then replaced in 
the lead, heated to 1200 deg. fahr., quenched into the medium at 
this higher temperature and the time again taken with the stop- 
watch. These operations were continued until the quenching media, 
in the case of oils, had attained a temperature of about 250 deg. 

January, 1915 



fahr. The results obtained, time in seconds, for a fall from 1200 
deg. fahr., to 700 deg. fahr., were plotted against the temperature 
of the quenching medium and a series of curves were obtained. 

A consideration of the results is interesting. Pure water has 
a fairly constant quenching rate up to a temperature of 100 deg. 
fahr., where it begins to fall off. At 125 deg. fahr., the slope 
is very marked. Brine solutions have both a quicker rate of 
cooling and are more effective at higher temperatures than water. 
The curve does not begin to fall off seriously until a temperature 
in the neighborhood of 150 deg. fahr. is reached. Where water 
at 70 deg. fahr., cooled the test piece in 60 sec., the brine solutions 
cooled it in 55 sec. 

As is well known the oils are slower in their quenching powers 
than water or brine solutions, but the majority of them have a 
much more constant rate of cooling at higher temperatures than 
water or briee. 

The curves for thick viscous oils somewhat similar to cylinder 
oils are particularly interesting in that they have slower quenching 
abilities at low temperatures than at higher temperatures. 

A comparison of curves show the variation in quenching power 
of the same oil due to continued service. The differences in 
quenching rates may well account for different results from the 
same steel in different shops, or in the same shop due to change 
of oil used. 


It has been known for some time that different masses of the 
same material on being quenched under like conditions gave 
varying physical properties, but it is only within recent years that 
the quantitative effect has been measured. The authors give below 
a few results, which, although obtained several years ago, are 
printed for the first time. 

Test pieces 4 in. long were made from the same ingot in sizes 
increasing % in. in both breadth and thickness. The smallest 
was % in. square and the largest 3^4 in. square. Three ingots 
of different type analyses were chosen and a series of test pieces 
made from each. The test pieces were heated in a semi-muffle 
furnace to a constant temperature of each type of material, 
quenched, and the Brinell hardness test made. Each series was 
then drawn to 600 deg. fahr. in a salt bath and Brinell tests again 
taken and then reheated to 1200 deg. fahr. in a salt bath and 
Brinell hardness tests again run. 

The smaller the sample the greater the figure of hardness, 
indicating that the smaller sections are cooled with greater rapidity 
than the larger, and hence more hardness is developed. The same 
agencies are at work in tool steel. The larger the mass the 
smaller the depth of hardness when quenched under similar con- 

Benedicks has shown that for steel of constant mass, the higher 
the temperature, the greater the rate of cooling. Two of his 
results will be sufficient to cite. 

Weight of Specimen 
in Grams 

12.3 ••... 


Deg. Cent. Quench- 
ing Temperature 



Cooling Time, 



These results confirm our experience that in order to produce 
the same amount of hardness in a small and large section it is 
necessary to heat the larger section hotter than the smaller. A 
commercial application of this phenomenon will perhaps be inter- 
esting. The authors were recently confronted with the problem 
of finding out the correct temperature for hardening tools made 
from the same steel in sizes varying from -^ in. diameter to % in. 
diameter. The temperature-size curve shown was finally adopted 
(Fig. 19). In other words, a ^ in. round will harden at 1395 
deg. fahr., while a % in. round bar should be heated to 1450 
deg. fahr. — a difference of 55 deg. fahr. 


After the hardening operation has been safely performed, the 
next important step is that of drawing the temper. This operation 
is necessary for two important reasons: 

a The relieving of abnormal strains set up due to the quick 
contraction or expansion. 

b The breaking down of the extremely hard and brittle struc- 
ture of the quenched steel. 

The authors have seen expensive tools such as broaches, dies, 
etc., actually burst and fly apart due to the fact that the strains 
set up in hardening were not relieved by drawing the temper soon 
enough after the hardening operation. If this paper can impress 
upon its readers the absolute importance and necessity of drawing 
the temper immediately after hardening, the authors feel it will 
not have been in vain. 

As previously shown in a properly quenched and hardened steel 
the hardening carbon, i.e., that up to 0.90 carbon, exists in the 
form of carbide of iron Fe 3 C dissolved in iron, and the solution 
is known as martensite. If the steel is hyper-eutectoid, i.e., 
higher than 0.90 carbon, all that up to 0.90 is dissolved and the 
remainder exists as globules of undissolved cementite scattered 
throughout the matrix. The drawing of the temper begins to 
break down the true martensite structure and as the temperature 
increases there are formed intermediate micro-structures between 
martensite and pearlite, first troostite, then sorbite, and finally 

Professor Heyn has published some valuable results on the 
decrease of hardness on tempering. The results are expressed in 
per cent of the original hardness. 

100 deg. Cent 2.5 per cent. 

200 deg. Cent 14.0 per cent. 

300 deg. Cent 41.0 per cent. 

400 deg. Cent 70.0 per cent. 

500 deg. Cent 87.5 per cent. 

600 deg. Cent 97.5 per eent. 

Eegarding the effect of time on drawing the temper we submit 

the following. Standard % in. round A.S.T.M. test pieces were 

quenched from constant temperature into the same medium, and 

the temper drawn in same salt bath at constant temperature for 

five minutes, fifteen minutes, etc. 

Elastic Maximum Elon- Redue- 

Limlt Strength gation tlon Brinell Remarks 

228,750 260,137 2.5 425 1550-oil-800 deg. fahr. 8 min. 

201.125 214.562 11.6 45.4 390 1550-oil-800 deg. fahr. 20 min. 

175,000 183,187 12 49.35 340 1550-oil-800 deg. fahr. 40 min. 

Each of these results is the average of four closely agreeing 
• hecks. A study of the above table shows that time at the drawing 
temperature has a marked effect. The act of breaking down the 
martensite is progressive and not sharply defined. Both time and 
temperature have their effects. The greater the initial hardness 
of the piece, the more marked is the effect of drawing the temper. 

Thallner states that two kinds of strains are present in hardened 
steel: (a) those which occur in steel of small cross section which 
hardens throughout; (b) those which occur in steel of larger 
cross section due to unequal ehange in volume of the surfaee and 
interior. The first of these also occurs in steel of larger cross 
section, but to the greatest degree on the surface. Thallner also 
classifies steels as (a) those which become shorter and (b) those 
which become longer or shorter in hardening. The two classes 
are not sharply divided. In pure carbon steels, the line of de- 
marcation is about 0.90 carbon. In steels which lengthen, an 
increase in both length and width may also occasionally be 
observed and the larger cooling surfaces usually become convex. 
Thallner cites five crucible steels which he examined as shortening 
and eight basic open hearth steels, as lengthening. 

The tendency of steel is to become spherical by repeated 
quenchings. Law, working with a square piece of tool steel 3^ 
in. by %in. by % in., quenched it 550 times and at the end of this 
work, the piece was nearly round in cross-section. The ratio of 
length to diameter had changed from 3%:% to less than 2:1. An 
equally interesting observation by Mr. Law was that the steel did 
not lose carbon or change in any way in composition. 

Professor Howe has this to say in explanation of the change 
in shape which results in hardening a round bar. "The exterior 
first cools, contracts, becomes rigid, its dimensions being deter- 
mined by the side of the still comparatively hot, expanded, mobile 
interior. The resistance of the interior to the return of the 
exterior to the dimensions it had before heating acts on that 
exterior precisely as a tensile stress on a body at constant temper- 
ature. If very powerful, it strains it beyond its elastic limit, it 
takes a permanent set, is permanently distended. The stress may 



January, 1915 

exceed the ultimate strength of the outer layers, which then crack, 
the piece breaks in hardening. The interior continues to contract; 
its adhesion to the now rigid, distended exterior prevents its own 
complete return to its initial dimensions. It may in its struggle 
to reach them somewhat compress the exterior, but not enough 
to efface the distention previously caused. The piece as a whole 
remains somewhat enlarged, and its specific gravity is lowered. 
After the cooling has progressed slightly and the outside has 
contracted more than the still comparatively slow cooling and 
disproportionately distended interior, it is no longer able to contain 
it and at the same time to preserve its original shape. It is, 
therefore, shortened and bulged, thus slightly approaching the 
spherical shape in which the minimum of exterior holds the 
maximum of interior; and this distortion is not wholly effaced by 
the contraction of the interior." 

Many years ago, one of the authors made several hundred 
hardening experiments and several thousand measurements to study 
the change of shape. The materials used were cylinders of steel 
and taps. Crucible steel alone was examined and the following 
variables were considered: (a) the effect of original form or 
diameter upon the diameter after hardening; (&) the influence 
of carbon on change of form; (c) the influence of initial temper- 
atures at quenching; (d) the influence of length of time of heat- 
ing; (e) the influence of repeated hardenings, and (/) the effect 
of annealing previously hardened steels, upon change of shape 
in rehardening. Obviously when plain cylinders of steel are con- 
sidered, there are four possible changes of shape possible, expan- 
sion in length and diameter, contraction in length and diameter, 
expansion in length and contraction in diameter, and contraction 
in length with expansion in diameter. 

Under the influence of the variable conditions mentioned above, 
all four changes were actually produced. Steel was also found 
which expanded in length on first hardening and contracted in- 
definitely thereafter on repeated hardenings. Another steel ex- 
panded in length on two hardenings and contracted on the next 
two. In a variable carbon series of steels from 0.50 to 1.33 per 
cent carbon, the magnitude of the change in length after four 
hardenings, increased as the carbon increased. For the same 
series it was noted that the volume changes were greater when 
hardening annealed rather than unannealed bars. The increase 
in length is greater the higher the hardening heat for all carbons. 
The details of this work would take us too far from the purpose 
of our paper. The point we wish to emphasize strongly is that it 
is variable conditions that give variable results. Hence, it is of 
vital importance that steel be furnished uniform, chemically as 
well as physically, and it is equally important that the user 
employ every possible refinement in the handling of his product. 
It is only under varying conditions of heat, size, time, composition, 
etc., that the results vary. Constant conditions give constant 
results. Different 6teels will not behave alike in all cases, but 
it is a simple matter to determine under any given set of condi- 
tions how a particular steel will behave. Other things being equal, 
therefore, the original composition, grain size, condition of anneal- 
ing and the method of manufacture affect the resulting changes 
in form after hardening. Above the decalescence point, the 
coefficient of dilatation increases proportionately with the carbon 
and for all carbon percentages the rate of dilatation increases 
with the temperature. Kesulting changes of form are conditioned 
by the original proportions of the piece quenched, by its chemical 
composition, by the temperature from which it is quenched, and 
within certain limits by the time of heating. Hardness, brittleness, 
change of form and liability to crack, generally speaking, increase 
with the carbon content and the temperature and time of heating. 
Nevertheless, constant conditions give constant results. 

It cannot be overlooked, however, that constant conditions are 
not always attainable. The maker of steel cannot control condi- 
tions in his customer's 8hop and the customer cannot control condi- 
tions in the steel plant and the human element must be considered 
in both. The properties we have been describing are inherent 
properties of carbon 6teel, and because of them many a dispute 
has arisen over tools lost in hardening. The placing of the exact 

responsibility is very difficult even though it were not true that 
it is human nature to shirk responsibility. 

The way to avoid such disputes would naturally be simplified 
if a steel possessing all the desirable qualities of carbon tool steel 
could be produced, omitting most of its faults and eccentricities. 
A product introduced in this country nearly ten years ago by the 
company with which the authors are associated, is perhaps the 
nearest approach to this ideal. Since we were, personally, in no 
way responsible for its development, we feel it is not out of place 
to mention it here for we consider it an achievement, next only 
in importance to the discovery of high-speed steel in the evolution 
of tool steel metallurgy. This product has been so largely used 
for nearly ten years in America that it is not necessary to describe 
its peculiar characteristic of undergoing almost no change in 
shape, no warping, expansion or contraction in hardening. It is 
not so foolproof that it cannot be injured by abusive treatment, 
yet with reasonable care it permits the tool maker to produce 
parts which, after hardening, are of exact size and fit, to make 
threaded and threading tools to exact standards, and to produce 
most intricate punches and dies which can be hardened with safety 
and a minimum of risk. 


Much has been said regarding the superiority of gas furnaces 
over oil furnaces and vice versa. The fuel used is immaterial for 
good practice so long as the following points are taken care of: 
a The furnace and hearth should be of sufficient size so as not 
to be affected materially in temperature by the introduction 
of the parts to be hardened. 
b The furnace should heat at a uniform rate, 
c The furnace should be of uniform temperature over its entire 

d The furnace should be run under neutral, or reducing condi- 
tions. A good rough test for this is the introduction of a 
piece of wood or paper upon the hearth. If the paper, or 
wood, burn, the atmosphere is oxidizing. If they char, 
reducing or neutral. 
e The temperature control must be at all times exact and it 
must be possible of exact duplication on repetition work. 
A blacksmith's fire is satisfactory under good handling but the 
difficulty is the fact that for constant work it is too exacting on 
the operator and requires too many manipulations to secure 
uniform and continuous results. 


We have endeavored to enumerate the factors which enter into 
the every-day operation of hardening tool steel. It is the duty 
of the user of steel to study these influences and through study 
and experience to properly weigh the many problems presented 
in what is frequently considered a simple operation. The various 
factors are not always of equal importance and must be considered 
in connection with the size and nature of the object being hardened 
and the duties expected of it after hardening. To expect uni- 
formly good and consistent results from a hardener whom you 
have not provided with adequate or suitable equipment is unreason- 
able. When the question of good equipment in the way of 
furnace, quenching arrangements and media, pyrometers, etc., has 
been satisfactorily taken care of, your hardener still has plenty 
of variables to contend with which are beyond his control. We 
hope we have made clear what some of the variables are and have 
excited some interest and desire upon the part of those responsible 
for hardening results to study them as they have not studied 
them before. The hardener's task is a difficult one and if we 
have presented herein any suggestions of value our efforts will 
not have been in vain. 


The International Railway General Foremen's Association will 
hold its next convention at the Hotel Sherman, Chicago, HL, on 
July 13 to 16, inclusive. The last convention was the best, 
from every standpoint, ever held by this association, and the 
several committees are doing their utmost to make the 1915 con- 
vention still better. 

January, 1915 




The ash pan shown in the illustration has recently been patented 
by T. P. Madden, traveling boiler inspector of the Missouri Pacific, 
at St. Louis, Mo. The pan is designed to prevent the dropping 
of live coals on the right-of-way and is of such a shape as to 
overcome the tendency to buckle on account of unequal heating. 
The pan is in the form of a chute which gradually becomes deeper 
and narrower from one end to the other. The forward and highest 
end of the body is formed on a gradual curve and the pan then 
becomes deeper and narrower, so that the extreme rear end has 
a comparatively small radius. The body of the pan, therefore, is 
in the form of a tapered chute, which causes the ashes to fall by 
gravity to the lower end of the pan. This . lower end is normally 
closed by a fixed plate and a hinged door, which can be opened 
by means of a lever from the locomotive cab. 

At the wide upper end of the pan is a header fitted with a 
series of nipples so that jets of water issuing from them will be 
deflected downward on the pan. This can be used to kill any live 
coals and to flush out the ashes. The main body of the pan may 
be either formed of sheet metal or cast and may be made in a 
single piece or in sections. It can be made suitable for any type 
of locomotive; pans for Atlantic, Pacific and Mikado class engines 
sloping towards the front end of the fire-box. Air inlets are 
provided at the mud rings. 

The material used is ^4" tank steel and consists of three plates 
to complete the pan. The original cost is said to be approximately 
$25 less per pan than that of the old style hopper pan and no 
roundhouse repairs are necessary between general overhaulings. 
Repairs to spring rigging, equalizers, shoes and wedges can be 

made without removing any part of the ash pan. 

The Missouri Pacific has 150 of these pans in service and is 
applying 12 pans per month, the design having been adopted as 
standard. The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe is applying four of 
the pans for demonstration and the Denver & Rio Grande and the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas have also applied a number of the 


Source of about three-quarters of all human actions, time saver 
and thought saver, best of slaves and worst of masters — that is 

The strength of it is beyond the realization of the people who 
are most dependent upon it. And its danger is as great as its 
value, according to the character of the habits themselves. 

A reflective friend of ours has occasion to pass through a 
certain street every evening at seven o'clock. And he says that 
every night he meets the same people, four or five of them, doing 
the regular things, so that he looks forward to seeing them, 
and he is never disappointed. 

There is a man who always runs for the seven o 'clock car, 
when he might as easily catch it if he changed his habit of leaving 
at the last minute to one of leaving the minute before. And 
then there is the man who drops in regularly at the corner saloon 
not because he particularly needs a drink, but because he has 
done it regularly for some time, and it's easier to do it than 
stop it. And then there is a family at dinner he sees as he 
passes, and the boss is always in his shirtsleeves although it is 
no longer hot weather. You see, he is simply dining with his 
wife, and he has the habit of doing it this way, and she never 
gets used to it. But she knows better than to try to change his 

Those are some of the habits our reflective friend runs into as 
he walks through the street nightly. And it leads him to make up 
his mind that if habits are so infernally powerful, how much 
easier life is to a man who forms them along the right lines. 

"For," says our friend, "you might as well get the habit 
of doing it right as of doing it wrong — it's exactly as easy once 
you get it going. And it pays — it's good business. And the 
habits of punctuality, and neatness, and courtesy, and patience, 
and a hundred or so more, are so important to life that men call 
them virtues. But they are habits, just the same." — Drill Chips. 

THE CENTEAL RAILWAY CLUB held its annual meeting at 
the Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y., on January 8. A paper was 
presented by E. J. Dickson, vice-president of the Interantional 
Railway Co. 

Sections of Madden Ash Pan. 

Tentative plans for the construction of the Illinois Central 
railroad's icing plant, to be built in Nonconnah yards, Mem- 
phis, Tenn., at a cost of $165,000, have been completed. 

* 5- 









a o 








• 1 





End and Side Views of Madden Hopperless Ash Pan. 



January, 1915 


A suitable interior finish for passenger cars has been one of 
the problems which the railroads and car builders have been en- 
deavoring to solve for some time and more especially since the 
advent of steel car construction. A suitable finish should in a 
general way possess the following qualities : Lightness, strength, 
durability, pleasing to the eye, poor conductor of heat, occupy 
a minimum of space and be fire resisting. 

An all wood interior finish is bulk}- and does not seem to be in 
harmony with modern car construction. "While it is possible by 
using great care to make a clever imitation of wood by using 
steel interior finish, the mere fact that wood is imitated would 
seem to indicate that wood is the desirable finish, but with the 
use of steel there are many disadvantages that do not seem to be 
much nearer solution than when steel was first used. 

The steel surface is often wavy even when new, particularly on 
flat surfaces; it is easily dented and the dents or buckles cannot 
be easily removed. It is very cold and noisy, and corrodes on the 
unexposed side. 

It seems that the question of a suitable interior finish has been 
solved by the Canadian Pacific Railway. This is accomplished 
by the use of veneered steel. The veneer is of varying dimen- 
sions, from l/18th of an inch up, depending on the severity of 
service which is governed by the location in car and class of car. 

This veneered steel is used in the construction of doors, panels, 
wainscot, bulkheads, sleeping car berths, sleeping car seat ends, etc., 
and is of approximately the same cost as steel or wood. It has 
the insulating effect of wood, is not subject to corrosion the same 
as steel alone, does not splinter in wrecks, is fire resisting and 
can be made attractive to the extent that one cares to go into the 
use of beautiful veneers. In other words, it combines all the good 
points of wood and steel with none of the disadvantages of either. 
It is not an experiment as it has been used sufficiently long to 
know that it does not deteriorate and is now in service on about 
sixty cars. Its use has also been arranged for on diners, sleepers, 
coaches and all passenger carrying cars. 

In the construction of doors, bulkheads, panels, etc., the veneer 
is used on each side of the steel and in this way oak can be used 
on one side and mahogany on the other, or any other class of 
wood that is desired. 

In the illustration, all of the wood in sight in the bulkheads, 
smoking room partition, etc., is of thin veneer, except the casings 
for the door frame and the moulding. 

This veneered steel finish is the invention of R. W. Burnett, 
general master car builder of the Canadian Pacific at Montreal. 


•■ * '. I 




1 ' ■ 


1""" ' 

1 B 


Mahogany Veneered Steel Doors. 

tion has distributed a goodly supply of its proceedings among 
superintendents of motive power and master mechanics, each copy 
being accompanied by a circular letter urging co-operating with 
the association. As the letter states, "Good tools are essential 
and are the brond base from which mechanical efficiency orig- 
inates. ' ' 


The following from the Detroit Free Press will be interesting 
to those connected with boiler work. Since there is so much agi- 
tation at present in regard to inspection of boilers, it might be 
advisable to suggest a pumpkin inspector to prevent any possibility 
of a recurrence of the accident as noted below: 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., March 20. — Mrs. James Crasher of Free- 
dom Plains, Dutchess County, is minus a kitchen range and 
wonders why she escaped without serious injury in a peculiar 
accident today. 

A pumpkin, which she was thawing out in the oven, blew up 
and wrecked the stove, l>esides shattering every window pane in 
the kitchen. Steam which formed inside the pumpkin caused 
the explosion. Mr. Crasher had left the pumpkin in a woodshed, 
where it froze. — Loco. 

Mahogany Veneered Steel Bulkhead. 

The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern was consolidated with 
the New York Central at a meeting of Lake Shore stockholders 
held at Cleveland, O., on Dee. 22, when they ratified action taken 
by New York Central stockholders July 20 last. The merger 
involves $300,000,000. Officials of the road claim that as a result 
of the merger the New York Central is now the largest railroad 
system in the world. 

"While no official statement was made pending action of the 
board of directors, it is believed that A. H. Smith, now presi- 
dent of both the Lake Shore and the New York Central com- 
panies, will be elected president of the newly formed system. It 
is said that the merger will result in the removal of the general 
offices of the Lake Shore from Cleveland to either New York or 

A fee of $319,590, establishing a new record, was paid the 
state of Illinois in connection with the consolidation of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern and the Chicago & Indiana Southern 
railroads with the New York Central and Hudson River railroad. 

January, 1915 




This committee was appointed to review the present status 
of electric traction as applied to steam railroads and to pre- 
sent the principal features of and reasons for electrifications. 
It is the intention to present matters of general interest to rail- 
road men without going into the technical details, which are the 
province of the consulting electrical engineer. The ordinary ur- 
ban and interurban railway lines will not be discussed as it is 
intended to apply only to the electrification of steam railroads or 
electric railways built to handle steam railroad class of traffic. 


The first electrical operation of railway equipment occurred on 
the Metropolitan Elevated of Chicago, in 1895, and three years 
later the multiple unit system of trains was first operated on 
the South Side Elevated of Chicago. These roads were operated 
with 550-volt direct current by the use of a third rail, which had 
been used initially on the Intramural Eailway at the "World's 
Fair. A few years later the Boston Elevated Railway was built, 
using a similar system, and in 1902 the Manhattan Elevated Eail- 
way of New York changed from steam to electrical operation, 
using a similar third rail system and multiple unit trains. 

Numerous small electric locomotives had been built for mining 
and industrial purposes, but the first electric locomotives for 
trunk line railway use were put in service in the Baltimore tunnel 
of the Baltimore & Ohio, in 1895, and weighed 96 tons. Later 
several 160-ton two-unit locomotives were added to the electric 

The western portion and a number of branches of the Long 
Island Kailroad comprising 125 miles of single track were 
changed to 600-volt direct current electric operation in 1905. The 
electrification has been extended in recent years. Passenger traffic 
only is operated by multiple unit trains. 

The following year the "West Jersey & Seashore between Phila- 
delphia and Atlantic City was electrified and operated multiple 
unit trains, using 600 volts direct current supplied by a third rail. 
This installation, covering 75 miles of double track, was note- 
worthy as being the first for long distance express service. 

The Grand Central Terminal of the New York Central & 
Hudson River was changed to electric traction in 1906, and the 
electrification has gradually been extended from New York to 
White Plains on the Harlem division, 22 miles, and to Harmon on 
the Hudson River division, 33 miles, the system now comprising 
a total electrical single track mileage of approximately 165. 
There are sixty-three 115-ton locomotives now in service. The 
through trains are operated by electric locomotives interchanged 
with steam locomotives at the end of the electrified zone. The 
suburban traffic is handled with multiple unit trains. The third 
rail system of distribution is used, supplying direct current at 
650 volts. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford was electrified in 1907 
and originally extended from Woodlawn (between which point 
and New York it operates over the tracks of the New York Cen- 
tral) to Stamford, Conn., 21 miles. This electrification has since 
been extended to include the Harlem River branch into New York 
and also from Stamford east to New Haven, aggregating about 
160 miles of track. Through passenger and freight trains are 
hauled by electric locomotives. There are now about 100 loco- 
motives of various classes, weighing from 80 to 140 tons each. 
There have been a number of locomotive designs to meet the 
conditions imposed by the traffic, such as gearless, geared, two 
motors per axle and side rod types. Part of the locomotives also 
contain equipment for operation by direct current third rail, in 
order to run over the New York Central. Some of the local 
passenger trains are operated by the multiple unit system. This 
electrification was the first large installation of alternating cur- 
rent traction, 11,000 volts at 25 cycles single phase being used. 
The distribution system consists of overhead catenary with both 
the double and single type of suspension. This installation was 

•A committee report presented to the Association of Railway Elec- 
trical Engineers. 

a pioneer of its type for heavy traction and many of the details 
had to go through certain experimentation and modification which 
has been the early experience with the practical application of all 

In 1906 the Spokane & Inland Empire was built for handling 
both freight and passenger business by electric traction. It was 
one of the most extensive systems then operated wholly by elec- 
tricity. Locomotives and multiple unit trains are used with a 
6,600-volt alternating current single phase system of distribution. 

During 1907 electric traction was installed on the Eochester 
division of the Erie for local traffic, using multiple unit trains. 
An alternating current system, similar to the New Haven electrifi- 
cation, was adopted with a single catenary supported on bracket 
construction. The power of this electrification was supplied by a 
sub-station at Avon from the Niagara Falls power circuits. 

In 1908 the Grand Trunk electrified the St. Clair tunnel, using 
a 3.300 volts single phase alternating current with electric loco- 
motives to handle main line trains through the tunnel. 

The Cascade Tunnel of the Great Northern was electrified in 
1909 and all main line freight and passenger service was operated 
thereafter through the tunnel by 115-ton electric locomotives. This 
installation is interesting as being the first in America using three- 
phase alternating current with induction motors on the locomotives, 
and up to the present time it is the only system of this kind in this 

The Oakland, Alameda & Berkeley division of the Southern 
Pacific; the Oneida division of the West Shore in central New 
York; the Portland, Eugene & Eastern, Oregon, and the Pacific 
Electric System centering at Los Angeles operate passenger and 
freight service over steam railroad lines, using the 600-1, 200-volt 
direct current system with overhead catenary. 

The Piedmont Traction Company operates 140 miles of line 
at Charlotte and Spartanburg, N. C, using the 1,500-volt direct 
current system. It handles local passenger and heavy freight 
service with multiple unit trains and 55-ton locomotives, haul- 
ing 800-ton trains. This line was completed in 1913. 

The Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis was originally electri- 
fied in 1907, using a 6,600-volt single phase system. In 1910 the 
system was changed to 1,200-volt direct current. Passenger and 
freight traffic is handled over about 60 miles of line. 

The Eock Island Southern operates passenger and freight serv- 
ice between Monmouth and Eock Island, 111., over about 60 miles 
of road. Locomotives and multiple unit cars are operated by sin- 
gle phase system using a 11,000-volt catenary. 

The Fort Dodge, Des Moines and Southern operates about 
126 miles of electrified lines between Fort Dodge and Des Moines, 
la. All traffic is handled by the high voltage direct current sys- 

The Denver & Interurban is an electrified branch of the Colo- 
rado & Southern and operates 44 miles at 11,000 volts single 
phase with multiple unit trains. 

The Pennsylvania Terminal in New York, and the tunnel ap- 
proaches were placed in operation in 1910, using the 700-volt 
direct current third rail system. This installation handles heavy 
passenger traffic only and the 156-ton locomotives are of the 
articulated type, using side rod drive. The Long Island also 
operates multiple unit trains into this terminal. 

The Hoosac tunnel of the Boston & Maine is double track, 
five miles long, and the smoke conditions became so bad that 
the traffic could not be handled. Electric traction was adopted 
in 1911 and now all trains are hauled through by 130-ton electric 
locomotives, using the same single phase system as the New 

The New York, Westchester & Boston was built for high speed 
electric passenger service and placed in operation during 1912. 
This road is 21 miles long, is part of the New Haven lines, and 
is operated by the same system, multiple unit trains being run. 

Although direct current installations have been made at 1,200 
to 1,500 volts, a higher voltage was not installed unt ; l 1913, 
when the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific was placed in operation, 
using 2,400 volts direct current. This road extends from Butte 



January, 1915 

Hill to Anaconda, Mont., with branches, aggregating 37 miles, 
and is used principally for transportation of ore. Two 80-ton 
locomotives haul a 4,000-ton train on average level at 21 M. P. H. 
Passenger traffic is also handled by electric locomotives of the 
same weight but higher speed. 

At the present time there is in process of electrification a 30- 
mile division of the Norfolk & Western at Bluefield, W. Ya. The 
principal traffic on this division is the transportation of coal and 
the necessity of increasing the transportation capacity of the 
single track Elkliorn tunnel and obtaining more economical opera- 
tion over heavy grades were the reasons for adopting electric trac- 
tion. The electric locomotives have articulated trunks and weigh 
130 tons. Four three-phase induction motors are installed on 
each locomotive, two on each truck geared to a jack shaft, which 
is connected to two driving axles by side rods. Two of these 
locomotives will haul 3,250-ton trains on light grades at 2S M. 
P. H. For \% and heavier grades a speed of 14 M. P. H. can 
be obtained. A phase-splitting apparatus on the locomotive pro- 
vides three-phase current for the motors. The distribution will 
be 11,000 volts single phase catenary supplied by outdoor trans- 
former substations. 

The Pennsylvania will electrify the Paoli division out of Phil- 
adelphia this year to increase the capacity of the terminal and 
tracks. This division is 20 miles long and the electrification will 
apply only to the suburban passenger traffic at present. Multiple 
unit trains will be used and an 11,000-volt single phase alternat- 
ing current system of distribution adopted, using the single over- 
head catenary. 

A most interesting application of electric traction has recently 
beeu decided upon for a mountain division of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & Puget Sound. The total electrification contemplated is 
about 440 miles, extending from Harlowton, Mont., to Avery. Ida.; 
although only one division will be electrified at present, from 
Three Forks to Deer Lodge, 113 miles. The direct current system 
will be used at a potential of about 3,000 volts with catenary 
distribution. Two classes of locomotives will be provided to haul 
800-ton passenger trains at 50 M. P. H. on level, and 2,500-ton 
freight trains over maximum mountain grades of 2%, respectively. 
This is practically the first instance of electrification being ap- 
plied to a full division handling the regular trunk-line traffic. 

The Canadian Northern will electrify the new Montreal terminal 
and tunnel through Mount Eoyal, together with a short suburban 
trackage, aggregating about ten miles of line. The 2,400-volt 
direct current system with catenary trolley will be used. The high 
voltage is adopted to provide a suitable distribution for future 
long-distance extensions of the suburban district. It is intended 
to use 83-ton locomotives with articulated trucks equipped with two 
motors per truck geared direct to driving axles. Multipit unit 
cars will be operated for suburban traffic. It is expected that this 
electrification will be completed during 1915. 

There are a number of railroads, such as the Canadian Pacific. 
Denver & Bio Grande, the Erie and others, which are considering 
electrification of certain sections, but their plans are not far 
enough advanced for reference at this time. 


Much experimental work has been done on the various lines 
electrified in Europe, sometimes resulting in peculiar designs and 
elaborate details. 

In general the traffic is less and equipment is lighter than in 
the United States. The better grade and lower cost of operating 
and maintenance labor used in Europe is favorable to the results 
obtained. The locomotives and distribution systems contain many 
refinements and are less rugged than usually considered necessary 
in this country. 

Italy has adopted the three-phase, 15 cycle, 3,000-volt system 
and good results are being obtained throughout. Valtellina, Giovi, 
Savona-Ceva and the Monza-Lecco are the principal lines electrified. 
The Valtellina line was electrified in 1902, comprises 65 miles of 
track, operates at 3,000 volts, 15 cycles, three-phase, and has 24 
locomotives. The Giovi line comprises 28 miles of track, was elec- 
trified in 1910-13, and has 24 locomotives. The Savona-Ceva line 

was electrified in 1914, comprises 28 miles of single track, and is 
operated at 3,700 volts, 16% cycles, and has 24 locomotives. The 
Monza-Lecco line was electrified in 1914, using 3,400 volts, 15.8 
cycles, and comprises 27 miles of track. 

The single-phase, 15 cycle, 10,000-volt system is considered the 
standard system for trunk lines in France. 

The principal electrifications are the Medi Railways and the 
Paris-Orleans Railway. The latter was electrified in 1898, eight 
600-volt direct current locomotives being placed in service for 
the Paris end of this trunk line. 

The standard recommended by the Commission of Swiss Engi- 
neers was the single-phase, 15,000-volt, 15 cycle system. 

There is a total of 319 K. M. of railways operated electrically 
and of this, 210 K. M. are operated by the single phase system. 

Although the Simplon tunnel and its approaches, comprising 
about 14 miles of track, has been in successful operation for the 
past 8 years and is showing good results with its three-phase sys- 
tem, it was not considered that this system was the best for gen- 
eral adoption for all Swiss roads. 

The Loetsehberg tunnel is one of the most recent electrifications 
using the single phase system. 

The trunk lines in Germany are practically all owned and oper- 
ated by the state governments. The Prussia system is the largest 
and represents the general conditions prevailing in other states. 

The system recommended in a report to the Prussian Government 
some years ago and the one adopted is the single phase, 10,000- 
volt. 15 cycle system. This voltage is to be increased to about 
15,000 volts if operation at a lower voltage proves entirely satis- 
factory. This increase in voltage has already been made on the 
Dessau-Bitterfeld road. 

The locomotives on this system are equipped with large motors 
mounted on the cab floor, and connected to the drivers with in- 
clined side rods, either direct or through a jack shaft. Experi- 
mental work is being carried on with the geared type as consid- 
erable difficulty has been experienced with mechanical parts of the 
side rod locomotive. 


Since the first trolley line installation in Richmond, Va., in 
1888, which was low voltage, direct current, there has been a 
gradual evolution in traction systems based on the requirements 
for heavier and more extended service. On the one hand, this 
has led to increasing the voltage of the direct current system and, 
on the other hand, the system of alternating current traction has 
been developed in order to utilize the possibilities of high voltage 
distribution without limit. 

At the present time electric traction systems may be divided 
in the general classifications of direct current and alternating 
current, each class having several methods of application varying 
more or less in fundamental details. 

The Classification of Systems is as follows: 

Direct Current. Alternating Current. 

1. Low voltage; 600-750. 3. Single phase with commu- 

2. High voltage ; 1,200 - 2,400- taring motors. 

3,000. 4. Three phase with induction 

5. Single phase with induction 
motors (split phase). 
6. Direct current rectified from alternating current. 
A brief review of the salient features of the systems will be 
given for reference. 

Direct Current — Loic Voltage. 
This is the original and commonest form of electric traction 
in this country and applies particularly to trolley service both 
urban and interurban. It has been used extensively for short 
railroad electrifications, principally for terminal installations. 

Details of construction and operation have been thoroughly 
worked out and very satisfactory results have been obtained. 

The system is extremely flexible and is particularly desirable 
for its range of operating speed; but it cannot be considered 
economical for long lines carrying heavy traffic, as expensive sub- 
station installations are required in such cases and the distribution 

January, 1915 



system will be unduly expensive. The potential used for these 
installations varies from 500 to 750 volts, and for traction work 
a third-rail system of distribution is almost universal, as it is 
not practicable to collect the heavy currents taken by the loco- 
motives from a trolley wire. 

Direct Current — High. Voltage. 
It has been a natural step in the progress of electric traction 
to increase the voltage and thus reduce the amount of current 
to be transmitted for a given load requirement. First the poten- 
tial was doubled and 1,200 volts has been used for a number 
of interurban electric railway installations. This voltage has 
not been used on any trunk line steam railway electrification, prob- 
ably due to the fact that no such electrifications were decided 
upon during this period, because it shortly became evident that 
it would be practicable to use a still higher voltage. Therefore 
2,400 and 3,000 volts is now considered standard for high voltage 
direct current heavy traction installation. It might be explained 
that this high voltage use of direct current for railway motors has 
been made possible by the development of the eommutating pole 
(interpole) type of motors and the better insulation design which 
has been developed in the last few years. The railway motors 
are usually arranged to operate two in series thus giving 1,200- 
1,500 volts. 

The method of control for the motor equipment is usually the 
series parallel rheostatic type similar to that which has become 
standard for low voltage traction and embodies the various details 
of electricity operated or pneumatically operated contractors ar- 
ranged for multiple unit operation of two or more groups of 

There has been some experimental work carried on in Europe 
with this high voltage direct current for traction purposes even 
in excess of 3,000 volts, but it is safe to say that this country 
is probably the leader in the practical application of this system 
at the present time. 

It is doubtful if a third-rail system of distribution will be desir- 
able for this high voltage direct current, due to the necessity 
for considerable insulation coupled with the requirement of obtain- 
ing sufficient clearness for the installation. It will be interesting 
to observe the experience of the Michigan United Traction Co., 
which proposes to install a 2,400-volt third-rail system. The Butte, 
Anaconda & Pacific is the only railroad actually in service using 
2,400-volt direct current traction, although there are a number of 
other installations now in process of construction or contemplated. 
The distribution of high voltage direct current is usually ob- 
tained from substations containing rotary converters or motor 
generator sets, which are supplied through transformers from a 
high tension alternating current transmission line. The converters 
or generators are of the interpole type, built to deliver 1,200-1,500 
volts direct from one machine, and two of these machines are 
connected in series to obtain the high voltage. 

The direct current systems have the advantage of a wide range 
of running speeds, and the tractive effort characteristic of direct 
current motors is also very desirable, as it gives very high values 
at low speeds and starting, and relatively low tractive eifort at 
the higher running speeds. 

A. C. Single Phase with Commutating Motors. 
This is known as the single phase system, and has been used 
on a number of installations in America, and is quite generally 
used in Europe. The principal installation in this country is that 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, which is operated at 
11,000 volts, 25 cycles. 

The attractive feature of this system has been its ability to 
supply distribution direct to the locomotive at high voltage, the 
only limitation being the practicable insulation of the locomotive 
equipment. It has not been found necessary to go beyond 12,000 
volts up to the present time, and this potential provides for heavy 
power supply with 20 to 30 miles between generating stations or 
transformer sub-stations if the power is taken from a transmis- 
sion system. 

It has been the standard practice in America to use 25 cycles 
for this system as a higher frequency is not practicable. Most of 

the European installations have been at 15 cycles, which is pref- 
erable from an engineering standpoint, but has not been looked 
upon with favor in this country as it requires the development of 
new apparatus and isolates the power system from the usual com- 
mercial power developments. 

The advantages of this system consist in the elimination of 
sub-stations with rotating apparatus — an extensive electrification 
only requiring outdoor sub-stations containing transformers and 
switching equipment — and the smaller amount of copper for 
feeder requirements. 

The single phase commutating type of motor cannot be con- 
sidered entirely satisfactory, and the weight and first cost of 
this motor compared with direct current or induction motors is a 
disadvantage which apparently cannot be overcome. 

As an auto transformer is used to supply the reduced voltage 
to the motors, the starting and speed control of the motor equip- 
ment is extremely simple, being obtained by any desired number 
of taps on the auto transformer. This provides a flexible operat- 
ing condition and results in extremely smooth acceleration. 
A. C. Three Phase with Induction Motors. 
The three phase system of distribution, operating induction 
motor equipment on locomotives has been used considerably in 
Europe and is standard for the principal railways in Italy. A 
double trolley and track circuit is used for the three legs of the 
system. This system also allow a high voltage distribution similar 
to the single phase, except the proximity of the two trolleys nec- 
essarily place a more definite limit on voltage. 

The only intallation of this kind in this country is through 
the Cascade tunnel of the Great Northern, and has been in suc- 
cessful operation for about five years. 

The double trolley construction has always been considered 
difficult and impracticable in America, and is not looked upon 
favorably for extensive railway work, due to its high cost and dif- 
ficult maintenance. 

The induction motors have to run at a constant speed irrespective 
of the load, but in order to obtain a certain amount of flexibility 
it has usually been the case that two speeds are provided either 
by operating motors in Cascade, or by changing pole connections. 
This speed limitation might be a serious disadvantage for suburban 
traffic, where trains make frequent stops or run under close head- 
way, but for trunk line operation it would not appear to be detri- 
mental; in fact, it can be readily seen that there might be an 
advantage in operating trains over a division at a constant speed 
irrespective of train weight or grade. 

The control of the induction motors is usually by means of 
resistance in the secondary circuit, and this gives very satisfactory 
results as regards smooth acceleration. Of course the absence 
of a commutator in the induction motor is an important advantage, 
and in general an induction motor is one of the most rugged types 
constructed and requires a minimum of maintenance. 

It is doubtful if this three phase system of distribution will 
be used in the future, as the induction motor equipment can be 
supplied from a single phase system as pointed out in the follow- 
ing paragraph : 

A. C. Single Phase with Induction Motors (Split Phase). 

In order to get the benefit of induction motor equipment on 
locomotives and obviate the necessity of using a double trolley dis- 
tribution, there has recently been developed a rotating piece of 
apparatus designated a phase-converter, which is a special form of 
induction motor located on the locomotive, and so arranged as to 
receive single phase alternating current from the line and provide 
three phase current for the motors. This combination has been 
designated the "split phase" system, and includes all the operat- 
ing features of the three phase induction motor equipment, re- 
ferred to previously, supplied from a single phase trolley. 

An important installation of this system is now being made 
on the Norfolk & Western. 

Direct Current Rectified from Alternating Current. 

Experimental work has been carried on for some time with a 
system using the high voltage single phase distribution supplying 
alternating current to the locomotive or car containing transformer 



January, 1915 

and a form of mercury arc recifier, which in turn furnishes direct 
current at any voltage desired for the standard type of series 

Progress along this line ' is still in the experimental stage, so 
that none of the large manufacturers are yet ready to propose the 
use of this system for steam railroad electrification. However, 
it has very attractive features, and assuming that the details can 
be satisfactorily worked out, it would seem to be ideal for many 

Singe Phase Distribution. 

It is apparent that the alternating current single phase distribu- 
tion has certain advantages of high voltage and minimum sub- 
station and copper requirements which are distinctive. Further- 
more, this form of distribution remains the same to supply single 
phase commutating motor, equipment, induction motor equipment, 
or (assuming its ultimate development) the standard direct current 
series motor through the medium of the mercury arc rectifier. 

One of the serious operating difficulties which has been experi- 
enced with the single phase system of distribution is the inter- 
ference caused by induction in other nearby parallel lines, such 
as telephone and telegraph wires. At times this had assumed a very 
serious aspect and considerable experimentation has been carried 
on to protect against such interference. This induction is caused 
by the fact that the trolley, constituting one leg of the single 
phase circuit, and the track the other axe so far apart that the 
inductive fields set up extend to a considerable distance, thus 
affecting any lines within their scope. 

It is claimed that there has now been developed a satisfactory 
system of counter induction which can be installed so as to elimi- 
nate the serious effect of this interference from the single phase 
distribution, and this is being tried out in actual practice on some 
of the branches of the New Haven system. 

Electric Braking. 

In the case of electrification of railroads having heavy grades, 
such as occur on mountain divisions, the use of dynamic braking 
is an important consideration, as it saves wear and tear on the 
mechanical braking equipment and adds to the safety of operation. 
The three-phase induction motor equipment is particularly ap- 
plicable to dynamic braking, and control and operation is rela- 
tively simple. With this equipment the speed is automatically 
limited as long as the motors are connected to the line, because 
they cannot be speeded up but a slight amount above synchronism. 

The direct current system can also be adapted to dynamic brak- 
ing, although it is only fair to point out that this entails more 
complication with the control and does not furnish as positive 
a speed limit as the induction motor equipment. 

In either ease it is essential that the contract be maintained 
between the locomotive and the distribution system, and in a small 
installation it is advisable to provide a resistance load on the 
distribution system to consume the power generated by the dynamic 

In conclusion it can be stated that the economics of a particular 
proposed electrification can be studied and decided on broad grounds 
irrespective of system as the first cost and operating expense for 
an alternating or direct current installation will not usually be 
enough different to affect the result. The selecton of system will 
depend on extent of electrification, character of traffic and local 
conditions, and will be principally an engineering determination. 


The electrification of steam railroads at terminals is frequently 
necessitated to satisfy the public. Laws are sometimes passed en- 
forcing the elimination of the smoke nuisances, and these result 
naturally in electrification. Since terminals are usually located 
in or near the most congested portions of the cities they serve, 
the approaches necessarily pass through residential districts and 
therefore the presence of smoke is a source of much criticism 
and objection on the part of the public. On this account the elimi- 
nation of such a nuisance is considered, even where action is not 
forced by law. 

Terminal electrification is not, as a rule, decided upon for eco- 
nomical purposes. The reason for this is that the economies that 

actually do result from cheaper operating expenses and main- 
tenance are swallowed up in paying the interest on the large invest- 
ment required. This covers not only the cost of electrification it- 
self, but also other improvements which are usually carried on at 
the same time, such as new stations, elevation of tracks, tunnels 
or cuts, etc. Another consideration that prevents economies from 
resulting is the fact that electrification of terminals does not 
eliminate or replace old equipment, but adds to it. This is because 
the territory covered by the improvement is over only a small area 
and the distance affected too short to bring about any reduction 
in the amount of steam equipment needed. If it were possible for 
the first electrification to be extended over one locomotive division, 
the resulting economies would be a determining factor to a much 
larger degree than has been the case in the past when only a few 
miles outside of the terminal has been electrified. 

When terminals are reached by tunnels, the change from steam 
to electricity is almost a necessity regardless of economical con- 
sideration, on account of the danger of operation and the difficulty 
of maintaining a fast or frequent schedule due to the smoke. How- 
ever, even where there are no tunnels, it is often found that elec- 
tricity solves the problem, when the limit in space of a congested 
terminal or in the available trackage leading to it is reached. In 
cases of this sort, it is impossible to get the desired number of 
trains in and out over the given number of tracks, without consid- 
ering electrification; the alternative for this condition lies in in- 
creasing track facilities by widening the right of way, or by 
providing tracks on two lines. 

In congested city districts this plan is impracticable either be- 
cause of lack of available space for extensions or prohibitive 
expense of obtaining additional space. The only way left is to 
increase the effectiveness of the existing terminals and trackage 
and the use of electricity as a motive power accomplishes this. 

Electrification makes possible the operation of a larger number 
of trains over the same tracks with the same degree of safety. 
Acceleration is faster and the the absence of smoke makes it 
possible to run trains under a closer headway than with steam 
locomotives. Also many light engine moves are eliminated because 
there is no need for electric engines to make a trip for coal or 
water, or to the ash pit. 

The ability to get more service out of a fixed number of tracks 
by means of electrification affects what was said above in con- 
nection with questions of economy. This is one case where even 
terminal electrification over a short distance might be an eco- 
nomical proposition, if the investment required for changing from 
steam to electricity is less than or even about the same as what 
would be needed for larger terminal facilities and increased track- 
age. If the investment were about the same, the consequent 
savings of electric operations and the advantages accruing from 
public satisfaction and advertising value would throw the balance 
in the favor of electrification. 


Steam railroads having a considerable suburban traffic afford a 
very attractive opportunity for electrification. This kind of serv- 
ice operated by means of steam locomotives is by no means an 
economical proposition, and it is not practical to give a very fre- 
quent schedule over a large part of the day and the stopping places 
are necessarily a long distance apart. On account of these facts, 
trolley lines that parallel railroads form a very serious element in 
the way of competition. The trolley gives a frequent service, 
making many stops, and with its branches reaching a number of 
outlying points not touched by the steam line. Electrification of the 
steam road makes possible a rather close approximation to the 
advantages of the trolley, and therefore brings the competition on 
a more nearly equal basis. This is especially a case where the 
competing company operates one of the many high speed inter- 
urban trolley lines using multiple unit cars. Under such circum- 
stances the steam road by electrifying the already existing tracks 
can practically duplicate the service of the parallel road. The 
through service can still be handled by steam engines until such 
time as it is advantageous to make a complete change to electric 

January, 1915 



In this way also the traffic of a suburban road may be in- 
creased, for the improved service, with its large number of trains 
and its faster schedule, is bound to bring about this result. On 
branch lines -where steam operation would be eliminated, there 
would be greater inducements for building up new sections on 
account of the absence of smoke and this would naturally lead 
to an increase in traffic 

The schedule of trains serving a suburban district can be 
greatly improved by electric- operation. This is brought about 
by the quicker acceleration and as a rule the quicker braking 
that is possible. All this results from the use of multiple unit 
trains, where each car has its own motors, and the motive power 
available is thereby proportioned to the number of cars in the 
train. Also there is not the additional weight of a locomotive 
to be started and stopped, and therefore the entire weight of the 
train is made up of cars all of which are effective for the carrying 
of passengers. The same reasons explain why it is safe to main- 
tain not only a faster schedule, but also a closer schedule, which 
allows a larger number of trains to be operated over a given 
number of tracks than would be practicable with steam. 

The advertising value of the change from steam to electricity 
is considerable, as it is in reality satisfying public needs, or at 
any rate public desires. What the public wants very much, soon 
comes to be a necessity, and there is no doubt that more and 
more it is true that the public wants the electrification of steam 
railroads, especially on their suburban branches. 


Next to the electrification of terminals, the principal field of 
application for electric traction has been the operation through 
tunnels. There have been many cases of existing steam railroad 
tunnels where the conditions of operation were almost impossible, 
due to excessive heat, smoke and steam. Heavy grades are a 
usual accompaniment of tunnels and further complicate the ven- 
tilation difficulties with steam operation. 

The following example of steam operation is interesting. The 
Cascade tunnel of the Great Northern, situated about 100 miles 
east of Seattle, Wash., is something over two miles long with a 
constant grade of 1.7%. The difficulties of operating this tunnel 
by steam against the grade were enormous. On arriving at the 
tunnel locomotive fires would be drawn and new fires built with 
a special coal. An hour or more would be spent coking these fires 
and getting them into shape to make the run through the tunnel. 
The train would then be cut in two unequal parts, the lighter part 
being first taken through by a helper engine stationed regularly at 
the tunnel and the heavier part by the two road engines, one pulling 
and one pushing. The temperature of the air in the cab of the 
second engine was almost unbearable, sometimes going as high 
as 200° F. Often it was impossible to maintain steam in the 
fear engine on account of the vitiated condition of the air, and 
the train would have to be cut in two and the rear part run out, 
down the grade. After one train had gone through it would be 
twenty minutes to an hour before another could enter. In the 
event of a change in the wind the gases would pocket in the tun- 
nel and sometimes it would be three hours before it was safe to 
start another train through. 

These difficulties have been overcome by operating trains elec- 
trically, either interchanging steam and electric locomotives or 
hauling the complete train with its steam locomotive dead. In 
other cases, tunnel construction has been used where electrification 
was part of the operating plan at the outset. In fact, it is recog- 
nized that many such cases would not be an operating possibility 
without electric traction, for instance the river tunnels entering 
the Pennsylvania Terminal in New York. 

Aside from the importance of this feature there have been a 
number of instances where a single track tunnel constituted the 
capacity limitation of a railroad line. The well known facility 
of increasing traffic movement by higher schedule speed especially 
on grades and by hauling heavier trains with electric traction has 
made it possible to accomplish the desired end without recourse to 
double tracking a tunnel section. This is the main reason for the 
electrification of the Norfolk & Western. 

The greater number of tunnels which have been changed from 
steam to electric operation have been decided upon for the purpose 
of increasing safety of operation, both as to visibility of signals 
and lessening the discomfort of heat and danger of gas asphyxia- 
tion. The Cascade, St. Clair, Hoosac, Detroit Eiver and Grand 
Central tunnels are striking examples of this condition. The double 
track Hoosac tunnel handled double the traffic after electrification. 


A number of railroads have considered the electrification of 
certain mountain districts — where numerous and heavy grades pre- 
dominated. There are several reasons favoring electric traction 
for such divisions. 

First: The heavy grades impose a slow schedule for steam 
operation and either the large Mallet locomotives must be used 
for freight traffic or the maximum train weight kept below 1,200 
tons. The electric locomotive can supply an excess tractive effort 
for moderate length grades and thus maintain speed. By using 
two or three electric units operated as one, the equivalent power 
of the largest Mallet is obtained but the crew cost and mainte- 
nance expense will be in favor of the electric. It is entirely prac- 
ticable to handle 2,000 to 4,000 ton trains with the electrics. 

Second: Usually the mountain divisions will contain grades of 
22% or more which are operated as helper districts. The cost 
per mile for this steam helper service is usually excessive. Even 
if electric helpers are required, the flexibility of operation and 
better speed obtainable will make it possible to reduce the cost of 
this service. 

Third : Tunnels are a common accompaniment of mountain lines 
and it has been pointed out how safety and economy favor the 
electrification of same. 

Fourth: Mountain districts, by the nature of the country, 
usually contain water power sites which can be used for hydro- 
electric power supply, thus making it possible to obtain operating 
power at relatively low cost. 

Fifth: The forest tracts traversed are subject to fires started 
from steam locomotives. This condition is so serious on some 
roads that an extensive fire patrol and fighting force has to be 
kept in service. This expense and fire damage would be saved by 
electric operation. 

Sixth : Electric traction makes dynamic braking possible, there- 
by increasing safety and saving wear and repairs on brake equip- 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound; Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific, and the Norfolk & Western electrifications are the best 
examples under this classification. 


It is a demonstrable fact that more traffic can be handled elec- 
trically than by steam on account of facility of train movement 
and ability to maintain a higher schedule speed without increas- 
ing the maximum speed. 

It can be shown, in the case of a single track road operating 
at full capacity, that electrification will enable it to handle addi- 
tional traffic, thus postponing double tracking. The fixed charges 
saved on the cost of double tracking for this period may properly 
be credited to the electrification annual expense in calculating 
the economics. 


Some of the terminal electrifications around New York have 
necessitated the extension of the system to large yards. The Sun- 
nyside yard of the Pennsylvania, containing 37 miles of track and 
covering 153 acres, and the Mott Haven yard of the New York 
Central having 15 miles of electrified track, take care of the pas- 
senger equipment for their respective terminals. All switching 
in these yards is done with electric locomotives supplied from 600 
volt third rail. 

The New Haven system has electrified all its terminus freight 
yards on the Harlem Eiver branch. The 11,000 volt overhead 
catenary is installed throughout, the single messenger cables being 
supported from cross catenary spans covering a number of tracks 
between poles. The Harlem Eiver yard comprises 21 miles of track 
and the Westchester vard about 15 miles of track. The main 



January, 1915 

classification yard at Oak Point has a trackage of 36 miles. The 
movements in those yards are handled by special electric switcher 
locomotives weighing 80 tons. 

There has been some controversy with the labor unions regard- 
ing the danger to trainmen from the overhead catenary in these 
yards, but they have been operated successfully for over a year 
now under a strict ride forbidding trainmen to work on top 
of the cars. 

The several yard electrifications referred to above are the best 
examples in this country. 

In this connection it might be mentioned that the comprehen- 
sive railroad terminal and yard improvements now being con- 
sidered for the City of Chicago are meeting with serious objec- 
tions on the part of organized labor against any form of elec- 
trification using third-rail or overhead trolley. There is no jus- 
tification for this extreme view and operating experience with elec- 
trifications will not sustain it. 


The supply of power for railroad electrification will usually be 
obtained by (a) purchase from a power company, (b) steam 
plant, or (c) hydroelectric plant, built and operated by the 

It is the tendency for power companies to operate an extensive 
system of transmission supplied by several generating stations. 
There are many locations in the United States where such systems 
are in operation. A large power system will usually have a good 
diversity factor and can afford to make very favorable rates. 
The several generating stations and different feeding in points 
of the transmission increases the reliability of service. Therefore, 
where a suitable power supply is available it will usually be cheaper 
and more reliable for the railroad to purchase its power for elec- 
trification rather than generate it. This will also relieve it of a 
large initial investment and the necessity of organizing and oper- 
ating an entirely separate department. 

Contracts for hydro-electric power have been made on a basis 
of $20 to $30 per horsepower per year. One electrification pur- 
chases power for .5 cents per K. W. H. Usually these power 
contracts provide for minimum and maximum demands and the 
rate depends on power factory and equivalent load factor. 

The Erie, Great Northern, Butte, Anaconda & Pacific, Michigan 
Central (Detroit Tunnel), St. Paul and some others purchase all 
power for electric traction. 

If a railroad supplies its own power for electrification from 
a steam station and has no other load, it will operate at a low 
load factor, unless a dense and uniform traffic is handled, result- 
ing in a large installation for a low average load. This means 
poor economy. A large steam turbine plant, favorably located 
outside of a city, with coal at $2.25 per ton and a load factor 
of 45% can make power for about .7 cent per K.W. H., including 
fixed charges. 

A hydro-electric plant will usually require a larger investment 
and unless there is more than one plant, with ample water sup- 
ply, a steam standby station is almost a necessity; thus again 
putting a burden on the cost of power. 

The economics of power supply for an electrification is of the 
utmost importance and the particular situation under considera- 
tion should be carefully analyzed by a competent engineer familiar 
with power generation and costs. 


The construction cost of an electrification including power plant 
will not be affected greatly by the system adopted but the char- 
acter and extent of the installation will have the greatest influence. 
For instance, in a concrete case that has been analyzed the total 
cost of electrification for a 145 mile division was about six times 
the cost of electrifying a 12 mile section in the same division for 
the same passing traffic. This comes about because of the rela- 
tively higher cost of power plant for the short section, and the 
better mileage obtained from locomotives having a division run, 
thus requiring a proportionately smaller number. 

The operating costs will likewise be in favor of the extensive 
installations even in a greater proportion than the first cost. The 

fixed charges, of course, will bear the same relation as the con- 
struction cost. 

The overhead catenary cost per mile is usually less than third 
rail. Similar construction is used for high voltage direct current 
and single phase catenary, the amount of insulation being the 
principal difference. 

The direct current systems will require substations containing 
rotative apparatus and the construction cost and operating expense 
will be considerably more than for the outdoor transformer sub- 
stations with the alternating system. If 60 cycle power is pur- 
chased for an alternating current electrification it will be necessary 
to use sub-stations with frequency changer sets in order to supply 
25 cycle power. 


The cost of locomotive maintenance and repairs per mile oper- 
ated is without doubt in favor of the electric unit as compared 
with the steam. There are two reasons why this result is obtained ; 
first, the absence of boiler, fire box, and reciprocating equipment 
in the electric locomotives materially reduces the repairs; second, 
the greater mileage obtainable with electric locomotives results in 
a lower traffic average cost. 

Depending upon the character of the traffic and the operating 
conditions under which the locomotives are used, the cost of main- 
tenance for electric units usually varies from 4 to 8 cents per loco- 
motive mile. Some of the Baltimore & Ohio tunnel electric locomo- 
tives have shown an annual maintenance cost as low as 3 cents per 
locomotive mile. This must be considered an unusually good result 
and is probably obtainable because of the character of the serv- 
ice and the great annual mileage, which averaged over 350 per day. 

The Pennsylvania, New York Central and New Haven locomo- 
tives have been operated at a maintenance cost ranging from 4% 
to 6% cents per locomotive mile. 

The cost of steam locomotive maintenance varies very widely 
and it is not safe to make general comparisons. However, reliable 
data has been obtained on one large railroad electrification which 
indicates that with electric and steam locomotives handling the 
same character of traffic and operating under similar conditions, 
the cost of maintenance and repairs per locomotive mile is just 
about one-half as much for the electric as for the steam locomotives. 


Various reasons for the electrification of portions of steam 
railroad have been given and in many cases the necessities of the 
situation governed the decision. As an alternative to double- 
tracking, tunnel enlargement, grade reductions, increase in termi- 
nal space, or other large expenditures required either by traffic 
conditions or legislative enactment, electrification will usually show 
an economic saving. That is, the recognized decrease in mainte- 
nance and repair cost of electric locomotive equipment, saving in 
crew wages, and reduction in cost of power will more than counter- 
balance the additional operating cost of electric transmission and 
distributing systems. In these cases the first cost of electrification 
is offset by the saving in not making the other improvement. In 
this connection it should be borne in mind that the first cost of 
electric locomotives — which will amount to about cne-third of the 
total cost of an electrification, including power plant — should not 
be treated wholly as an electrification investment, because they 
can usually be considered as a normal addition to the motive power 
equipment of the road. In any case there should be credited 
against the cost of the locomotives the cost of equivalent steam 
locomotives which do the same work, assuming that the railroad is 
large enough to absorb the steam locomotives displaced. 
• The cost of handling freight trains can usually be reduced 
by the higher schedule speed obtainable due to the overload char- 
acteristics and high tractive effort at low speeds of electric loco- 
motives on grades, and the larger train units which can be oper- 
ated, thus reducing the number of trains for a given traffic. It 
is also a fact that electric locomotives can make from 50% to 
100 more mileage per year than steam locomotives due to facility 
of operation, less round house time and fewer major repairs. 

Railroad electrification for straight economy over steam opera- 
tion, where there are no contingent improvements saved which can 

January, 1915 



be credited to cost of electrification, will not usually show suffi- 
cient net saving in expenses to provide for interest on the invest- 
ment and amortization. Of course all conditions must be taken 
into account and a detailed study made in any particular case to 
arrive at a final answer as to the economies. For instance, as a 
power plant represents about one-third the cost of an electrifica- 
tion, the purchase of power may affect the result and an unusually 
cheap power supply, such as may be obtained from hydro-electric 
developments in certain localities, will often make electrification 
prove economical. 

Generally speaking, the savings in operation due to electrification 
of a steam railroad result from two principal causes; first, that 
due to reduction in fuel consumption, locomotive maintenance 
and repairs, engine house expenses and other detail costs; and, 
second, that due to reduction in number of freight trains to han- 
dle a given traffic. 

The reduction in the amount of coal hauled for locomotive 
purposes, where a steam plant is substituted, would materially 
affect the traffic operation. This hauling of coal would be entirely 
eliminated where power was purchased or generated in hydro- 
electro plants. 

Electric operation of passenger trains provides cleaner and 
faster service which is attractive to the public and results in 
greater traffic, increasing the gross earnings. 


High lustered varnish, comfortable upholstery and plenty of shin- 
ing accessories don't add to the horsepower of an automobile, but 
they help to sell it. 

Neat and well chosen clothes, a pleasant and courteous manner 
and the ability to make people like you don't make you a more 
skillful workman, but they attract favorable notice and win 
' ' boosters. ' ' 

An unpleasant personality has kept many a bright young man 
from rising because he repelled people whose good word and 
active interest in him would have resulted in advancement. 

Don't fool yourself with the idea that you don't need friends. 
Don't saturate yourself with the impression that the effect your 
personality has on others doesn't matter. In this great battle of 
life if you needlessly make enemies you fight against an army. 
If you make friends you fight with an army. Whosoever is not 
with you is against you. 

The only man who is fairly safe in nursing a grouch is the boss ; 
and even he would drop it like a hot stone if he realized how it 
militated against him — how it cuts down the efficiency of his force 
by making his men work in an atmosphere of depression instead of 
in the sunshine of enthusiasm. 

Having a pleasant personality does not mean being a wild ' ' good 
fellow. ' ' It means simply presenting the best possible appear- 
ance, and having the most pleasing possible effect on your fellows. 
Not to inflict yourself upon them, but to impress yourself upon 
them. In other words, to make the world "like" you. — Person- 

Since the outbreak of war in Europe the government has shipped 
nearly 200 tons of gold, worth about $99,000,000, from Philadel- 
phia to New York without cost for railroad transportation. 

This was accomplished by sending the gold as parcel post. Kail- 
way mail pay provides compensation only for carrying the ordinary 
mail and includes no specific allowance for such extraordinary 
service as handling gold transfers for the Treasury Department. 

Not a single passenger out of the 188,411,876 carried in 1914 
on all of the 26,198 miles of track of the entire Pennsylvania sys- 
tem was killed in a train accident. Reports compiled for all the 
lines of the system, with figures for the last month estimated, show 
that Pennsylvania passenger trains traveled 67,389,381 miles in 
1914. More than 3,000 trains were operated every day — more than 
a million trains in the year. 


By A. Bennett, Genl. Fmn. Blks., C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

At the Milwaukee shops of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
we make castle nuts on three different machines, namely 4-inch, 
2-inch and 1%-inch. The largest nut we make is 3" on the 4" 
machine; the smallest is %", which is made on the 1%" machine. 
They are made from round bar iron; are shaped, slotted and 
punched in one blow of the machine and then are upset to size 
in the dies and punched and slotted with the header. 

Left Hand Die 

/f" -I2TMS 

} \ \ / 




-■5*4 4f'- 

Forged Steel 



Right Hand Die 

li" Castle Hut Forging 

Mote:- Die and header as 
used on the &' forging 
machine loco, dept blacksmith 

Section on 
Line A -8 

Dies and Headers for Castle Nuts. 

The dies we make of cast iron, faced with old axle-steel which 
we heat-treat. The headers are made from old axle steel with 
tool steel dowls doved-tailed in the end for shaping the slots 
in the nut. The punch is made from vanadium steel, heat-treated 
and tapped in the header to punch the hole in nut. I consider this 
one of the best forgings made in one operation on the Ajax 

Rough and Finished Forgings. 



January, 1915 

We make our grease cups from 2" round cold rolled steel in 
one blow, on the 4" machine. These cups have two different 
size holes, 1%" dia. x 1*4" deep and 1%" dia. x 1%" deep. 
The outside is shaped to 2%" hexagon, 1%" long by 2%" dia. 
1%" long. 

We cut the 2" steel in 3 foot lengths and forge the cups, 
which we cut from the bar with a shears attached to the side 
of the machine. These cups must be forged to size as there is no 
finish only to cut the thread. We use coke for fuel and turn out 
about 40 per hour. 


No drill, however carefully designed and tempered, can give 
anything like efficient service unless it is properly ground at the 
point. This means that both cutting edges must be at the same 
angle to the axis of the drill (59° is recommended as the best 
angle for ordinary purposes) and of exactly the same length; 
this will, of course, bring the center of the cutting edges, or point, 
in the true center of the drill and cause it to produce a round, 
smooth hole. Fig. 1 shows the point central but the angles of 
the cutting edges different. Pig. 2 shows the angles equal but 
the cutting edges of unequal lengths. Fig. 3 shows the severe 
conditions under which the drill will be laboring when both the 
angles and length of the cutting edges are different. In all these 
cases the hole will be too large, one cutting edge will be doing 
more than its share of the work, the side of the drill opposite 
that cutting edge will be crowded against the wall of the hole 
so as to get undue wear and the support which the drill should 
receive from the metal on which it is operating will be seriously 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Another very important thing to be considered in drill grinding 
is the lip clearance, or proper contour of the point back of the 
cuttiug edge. To get this correct, even on a machine, is a difficult 
problem. We are indebted to the Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
for their permission to reprint the following technical analysis 
of the theory of lip clearance on a twist drill. 

"Every portion of a drill lip when at work travels in a helix 
of its own. No two of these helices are of the same diameter, 
yet all have the same pitch because all parts of the drill advance 

' ' The ' clearance ' at any given point in the cutting lip is 
determined by, and bears a constant relation to, the tangent, at 
that particular point, of its own individual helix. 

"Therefore, near the point of the drill where the helices are 
of smaller diameter (their pitch remaining the same), these 
tangents form aeuter angles with the axis of the drill than 
where the diameters are large, as near the outer corner of the 
lip. The clearance being governed by these angles must likewise 
be steeper near the point of the drill than it is farther out on 
the lip. 

"In order to grade the clearance properly along the drill lip, 
as above outlined, from point to periphery, and curve the back 
side of the cutting edge so that maximum endurance and strength, 
consistent with free cutting, are preserved at all points, it is 
necessary that every portion of the cutting lip should, while being 
ground, rock against the grinding wheel in a path very similar 
to that in which it travels when at work. 

"If while at work those portions of the drill lip near the point 
travel in shorter paths and smaller circles than portions near the 

outer corner of the lip, then this condition should exist when the 
drill is being ground." 

Fig. 4 shows the type of grinding machine that gives the form 
of drill point just described, which is the one we have adopted as 
a result of our experience. This form is a segment of a cone, 
the axis of which is on the line a-b at the angle bdc to the 
axis of the drill. The dotted lines show the complete frustum of 
the cone, in the position which our experiments showed to be 
about right for the best all around results. 

In Fig. 5 the axis of the cone intersects the axis of the drill 
too near the drill point. The curvature near the center of the 
drill is therefore too quick, and we found that a drill ground in 
(his manner consumed about twenty per cent more power than 
the same drill ground as illustrated in Fig. 4. 

Fig. 6 illustrates the point whose surface is a segment of a 
cylinder, and Fig. 7 represents the inverted cone with axis on 
line a-b; dotted lines show the frustum complete. 

Fig. 6. 

In both these forms of point (Figs. 6 and 7), the radius of 
curvature is too small at the outside, or periphery, compared with 
that at the inside, or center. As a result, when the contour of the 
point at the periphery is approximately correct it will be too flat 
at the center, and unless the angle of lip clearance is greatly 
increased, the heel near the center will drag. If the angle is 
increased to correct this fault the cutting edge near the center 

VHO tol5°-*| 

Fig. 8. 

January, 1915 



will be so fine (i. e., have so little backing) as to endanger its 
chipping out — frequently causing the drill to break. 

Of no less importance in drill grinding is the angle of lip, 
clearance not to be confused with the contour of the point just 
dealt with. Ten to twelve degrees has proven to be the best 
angle at the periphery for a drill ground as in Fig. 4, but this 
should be increased as the center of the drill is approached until 
the line across the center of the web stands at an angle with the 
cutting edges of from 120 to 135 degrees, according to the feed. 

For heavy feeds in soft material the clearance angle at the 
periphery may be increased to 15 degrees, but care should then 
be taken that the angle at the center is as shown in Fig. 8. 
The grinding machines producing the form of point shown in 
Fig. 4 automatically take care of this increase when properly 
adjusted, which is one of their strongest recommendations. 

Lack of sufficient clearance at the center of the drill is the 
principal cause of splitting drills up the web, and grinding them 
as shown in Fig. 8 is the most effective. — Drill Chips. 


The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company has just 
issued a preliminary statement of its sickness and accident relief, 
accident compensation and service pensions on which its officers 
have been working for over a year. 

The plan includes three separate and distinct features: 

1st. Extension of the present relief department. 

2nd. An accident and compensation plan. 

3rd. Service pensions. 

The privileges of the relief department are open to every 
employee, male or female, regardless of age, position or location, 
upon payment of small monthly dues. 

The company pays the entire expense connected with the opera- 
tion and maintenance of this department, the dues being reserved 
wholly for the payment of benefits (proportional to wages) for 
sickness and accident arising from causes other than employment. 
In the event of death the amount paid from the dues will be 
duplicated by the company, which will also meet any deficit that 
may arise. 

Benefits will continue as long as disability lasts, or until the 
age of 70 years is reached, when pensions will then be granted. 

The accident compensation fund is maintained entirely by the 
company for the benefit of all employees, male or female, whether 
they belong to the relief department or not. This plan covers 
the payment for disability due to accident, or for death resulting 
from accident, while at work as an employee, and makes provision 
for both total and partial disability. In case of total disability, 
the company will pay as long as the disability lasts, even for life, 
two-thirds of the average wages received, and for partial dis- 
ability, two-thirds of the reduction in the earning capacity of the 
employee, even though the employee should eventually leave the 
service of the company. In case of death, the company will 
immediately pay the dependents, or next of kin, $150, as explained 
under the provisions of the plan, as a pension to the widow or 
dependent husband or children under 16 years of age. 

Medical, surgical and hospital expenses under the direction of 
the company's medical officers will be paid during disability from 
such accidents. 

Employees of the company shall be retired at the age of 70 
vears, and those who at the time of such retirement are members 
of the relief department, and have completed at least twenty years 
of continuous service, are to be granted a pension amounting to 
one per cent of the average monthly wages during the last ten 
years of employment for every year of continuous service, with a 
minimum of $20 per month and a maximum of $100 per month. 

Upon the death of the pensioner, one-half of the pension will 
be paid to the widow until remarriage, providing marriage 
occurred at least ten years before the granting of the pension. 
For the support of each child under 16 years of age, and for 
each wholly dependent grandchild under 16 years of age, one- 
fourth of the pension will be paid until they reach the age of 
16 years. 

The president may, at his discretion, retire any employee 
between the ages of 60 and 70 years who has been in the service 
the required time, and he may increase any pension for specially 
meritorious service, by 25 per cent, but not beyond the maximum 
pension of $100 per month. 

In those states already having workmen 's compensation laws, 
as in the case of New Jersey and Ohio, where the company also 
maintains plants, such laws may be substituted in whole or in 
part. Where the provisions of the Westinghouse plan are more 
liberal, these will generally prevail. 

Secretary Eedfield of the Department of Commerce says: "If 
you want prosperity, do your share to bring it, and do it now. 
Get that addition to your shop going; it will cost you less today 
than six months hence. Is trade a bit dull at the works? Get 
those improvements begun. Prices are low and likely to rise. 
You've been thinking of that contract work; better start it 
before things get the start of you. This country slows down a 
bit now and then, but it never stops growing. ' ' 

The Baltimore & Ohio granted a large number of the road's 
employes a holiday on New Year's Day, in accordance with the 
general observance of the day. Local freight houses remained 
closed except for the delivery of perishable shipments, and just 
as few trains as practicable were run. 

Robert H. Whitten, Ph. D. Buckram, 1,500 pages, 6x9 inches, 
two volumes. Published by the Banks Law Publishing Com- 
pany, 23 Park Place, New York. Price $11. 

The development of the economic and engineering features 
connected with the valuation of public service corporations has 
been very rapid within the last ten years, and for those inter- 
ested in this line of work it has proven very essential that notes 
regarding the decisions of courts and commissions should be 
prepared and arranged in such form that ready reference may 
be had to any one of the many features involved. 

Dr. Whitten in this book has attempted to perform this service 
and has accomplished his purpose admirably. The book segre- 
gates the discussions in as complete a manner as seems prac- 
ticable, citing features of the valuation of public utility prop- 
erty for rate making purposes, among such features being the 
questions of valuation of land, unit prices, overhead charges, 
piecemeal construction, working capital, bond discount and 
depreciation, going and franchise value, rate of return, etc. In 
handling these matters Dr. Whitten very wisely advances no- 
personal opinions based upon personal judgment only, as is so- 
frequently the case with authors upon this subject, but limits 
his considerations to a statement of court and commission de- 
cisions, and makes his deductions from said decisions. 

To the practical railroad man the book should prove of con- 
siderable interest, since the matter of railroad rates, capitaliza- 
tion, income and expenses are so inextricably involved with the 
practical operation of railroad systems that it behooves every 
one of us who is interested in the welfare of these great utility 
organizations to familiarize himself and take a personal interest 
in the matter of their regulation by state and interstate regu- 
lating bodies. While the book treats of this subject in a 
technical sense primarily it has apparently been the aim of the 
author to make his .statements as simply as is consistent with 
an accurate presentation of the facts. 

Volume I of the book was originally issued in the spring of 
1912, and discussed the theory and practice of valuation as it 
had developed up to that time. Volume II was issued in the 
summer of 1914, and contains much additional information 
regarding the development of the theory and practice of such 
matters since the issue of the first volume. The book is not 



January, 1915 

limited to a discussion of any particular class of public utilities 
but covers quite fully the entire field. 

The author is connected with the New York Public Service 
Commission for the First District, and in addition is an expert 
investigator for the department on the regulation of interstate 
and municipal utilities of the National Civic Federation. 

The book is recommended unqualifiedly to those of our readers 
who are at present unfamiliar with the manner of public service 
valuation, as a book worthy of careful study, as well as to 
those of our readers who are more or less experts along these 
lines, as a book of great value for reference purposes. 

twenty-second annual convention. Leather, 6x9 inches. 454 pages, 
illustrated. Published by the secretary. W. O. Thompson. Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

The annual meeting of this association for 1914 was held at 
the Hotel Sherman, Chicago, 111., on September 15, 16, 17 and 18, 
and it fully lived up to the motto of the association which is "To 
improve the locomotive service of America. ' ' This volume con- 
tains the results of a year's work of the association, and the eon- 
tents are of value to all interested in locomotive operation and 
maintenance. Among the subjects taken up are "Black Smoke and 
Its Belation to the Cost of Fuel and Bepairs, " "Operating Loco- 
motives at Maximum Efficiency, ' ' " Mechanical Stokers, " " Care 
of Brake Equipment," "Speed Bee-orders,"' "Chemistry of Com- 
bustion. ' ' The volume is arranged in the standard form in which 
the proceedings have been published in years past. 

MEXT. Arranged by Parker Cook, Victor building. Washington. 
D. C. Paper, 4x6 inches; 16 pages. Limited free distribu 

This booklet should be of assistance to those interested in or 
working on inventions pertaining to railway rolling stock, as it 
contains a complete classification of the patents which have been 
granted in this field. It is divided into classes and sub-classes, 
and after each classification is shown the number of patents 
granted. This enables one to get a line on the work which has 
previously been done along any certain lines. 

H. F. Staley has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Boyne City, Gaylord 4" Alpena, with office at Boyne 
City, Mich. 

George F. Fisher succeeds E. H. McCann as master mechanic 
of the Cape Girardeau Northern, with office at Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

J. Duguid has been appointed assistant mechanical superin- 
tendent of the Central Vermont, with office at St. Albans, Vt. 

H. H. Estrup has been appointed general foreman, car depart 
ment, of the Chicago 4' Eastern Illinois at Dalton, 111. 

F. W. Axdersox succeeds A. W. Harvey as shop foreman of 
the Chicago 4' North Western at Pierre, S. D. 

J. Gorman succeeds T. Dwan as car foreman of the Chicago 
Great Western at Mason City. la. 

EL F. Patmor succeeds George McLean as car foreman of the 
Chicago Great Western, with office at Oelwein, la. 

J. I. McConnell succeeds B. N. Dodge as foreman car depart- 
ment of the Chicago. Milnoukee 4' Gary, with office at Bockford. 

H. A. Exocksox, locomotive foreman of the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis 4' Omaha, has been transferred from East St. Paul, 
Minn., to Altoona, Wis. 

Thomas P. Devitt succeeds H. A. Enockson as locomotive fore- 
man of the Chicago. St. Paul. Minneapolis 4~ Omaha at East St. 
Paul, Minn. 

A. Lixdboe succeeds F. B. Jones as locomotive foreman of the 
Chicago. St. Paul. Minneapolis J Omaha at Omaha, Neb. 

O. S. Jacksox has been appointed general superintendent of 
the Chicago, Terre Haute 4' Southeastern, having jurisdiction over 
both operating and mechanical departments. His office remains 
at Terre Haute, Ind. The position of superintendent of motive 
power has been abolished. 

A. C. Schxeider has been appointed general foreman of the 
Cincinnati, New Orleans 4" Texas Pacific at the Ferguson shops, 
succeeding W. A. Ford. 

N. M. Barker has been appointed master mechanic of the Cop- 
per Bange in charge of the locomotive car and supply depart- 
ments, vice John A. Berg, assigned to other duties. His office is 
at Houghton, Mich. 

M. B. Feeley succeeds W. Mcintosh as general foreman, motive 
power department, of the Delaware, Lackawanna Sr Western, with 
office at Kingsland, N. J. 

W. G. Davis has been appointed general foreman of the Detroit, 
Toledo 4" Ironton at Springfield, O., succeeding J. A. Hannigan. 

B. Powers succeeds E. G. Sheldon as general foreman of the 
Detroit, Toledo 4' Ironton, with office at Jackson, O. 

E. West succeeds B. Powers as road foreman of engines of 
the Detroit, Toledo 4" Ironton at Springfield, 0. 

D. G. Maddex has been appointed supervisor of locomotive 
operation of the Erie at Cleveland, O., succeeding J. J. McNeill. 

E. E. Blake succeeds L. Barnes as road foreman of engines of 
the Erie at Susquehanna. Pa. 

J. J. McNeill succeeds P. K. Sullivan as road foreman of 
engines of the Erie at Cleveland, O. 

A. Copoxy, master car builder of the Grand Trunk, has been 
transferred from Port Huron, Mich., to Elsoon, 111. 

B. Woods, foreman painter of the Grand Trunk, has been trans- 
ferred from Port Huron. Mich., to London, Ont. 

E. A. Humphrey succeeds C. L. Daugherty as electrical en- 
gineer of the Great Northern, with office at St. Paul, Minn. 

F. J. Kearxey, locomotive foreman of the Great Northern, has 
been transferred from Superior, Wis., to Williston, N. D. 

Edward Biley succeeds F. J. Kearney as locomotive foreman 
of the Great Northern at Superior, Wis. 

B. E. Molt, locomotive foreman of the Great Northern, has been 
transferred from Interbay, Wash., to Gold Bar, Wash. 

J. O 'Briex succeeds B. E. Molt as locomotive foreman of the 
Great Northern at Interbay, Wash. 

Frank W. Taylor has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the International 4' Great Northern, with headquarters 
at Palestine, Tex., succeeding C. H. Seabrook, resigned. 

Norman Bell has been appointed master mechanic of the Illinois 
Central at Waterloo, la., vice Frank W. Taylor resigned to accept 
service elsewhere. 

G. A. McGee has been appointed master mechanic of the Lorain, 
Ashland 4~ Southern, with office at Ashland, O. He sueceeds Wil- 
liam Austin. 

G. D. Harris sueceeds B. D. Bichardson as master mechanic of 
the Midland Valley at Muskogee, Okla. 

C. E. Stone has been appointed general car foreman of the 
Missouri 4~ North Arkansas, with office at Harrison, Ark. 

Harry H. Trenton has been promoted to general foreman of 
the Missouri Pacific at Kansas City, Mo., succeeding William 
Donahue, resigned. Mr. Trenton was formerly gang foreman. 

Charles Emerson has been appointed road foreman of engines 
of the Northern Pacific, with office at Duluth, Minn. 

J. K. Brassill has been appointed acting superintendent and 
general master mechanic of the Northwestern Pacific, with office 
at Sausalito, Cal. 

F. G. Grimshaw has been appointed assistant engineer of elec- 
tric equipment of the Pennsylvania, with office at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

E. E. Griest has been promoted to master mechanic of the Penn- 
sylvania at Fort Wayne, Ind. Mr. Griest was formerly assistant 
master mechanic at this point. 

F. T. Huston has been appointed assistant master mechanic of 
the Pennsylvania at Fort Wayne. Ind.. succeeding E. E, Griest. 

January, 1915 



John O. Boyer has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Philadelphia Sr Beading, with office at St. Clair, Pa. 

A. D. Brice has been appointed master car builder of the San 
Antonio 4" -Aransas Pass, with office at Yoakum, Tex., vice W. T. 
Cousley, resigned. 

E. H. McCann succeeds J. H. Ruxton as superintendent of 
motive power of the San Antonio, Uvalde 4~ Gulf, with office at 
Pleasanton, Tex. 

H. Cramer has been appointed supervisor of locomotive opera- 
tion of the lines of the Seaboard Air Line south of Columbia. His 
headquarters are at Jacksonville, Fla. 

T. U. Brown has been appointed supervisor of locomotive opera- 
tion of the lines of the Seaboard Air Line north and west of 
Columbia, with headquarters at Hamlet, N. C. 

G. R. Bissett has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Seaboard Air Line, with office at Savannab, Ga. 

A. E. Hopkins, road foreman of engines of the Seaboard Air 
Line, has been transferred from Hamlet, N. C, to Americus, Ga. 

W. W. Payne has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Seaboard Air Line at Hamlet, N. C, succeeding A. E. Hopkins. 

W. J. Shreve has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the South Dakota Central, succeeding C. O. Destiche. 
His office is at Sioux Falls, S. D. 


T. A. Willson & Co., Beading, Pa., have issued circulars descrip- 
tive of their new goggle, which is especially designed for light 
work to meet the requirements of machinists and grinders. In 
these goggles the safety flange used in the heavier styles for 
chippers, etc., has been eliminated. Also the side shields are much 
lighter and of finer mesh and the temples are on the outside of 

the shields. 

• • • 

The Edwards Mfg. Co., Cincinnati, 0., illustrates and describes 
the Edwards general purpose truck in a folder recently pub- 
lished. These are for handling heavy freight by railroads and 
steamship lines and for warehouse and heavy factory use. 

• • » 

Bulletin No. 34-K of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 
is devoted to class N-SO and N-SG fuel oil, and gas-driven com- 
pressors and their application to the unit system of air power 


» * » 

' ' Asbestosteel for Eoof s and Walls ' ' is the title of an attractive 
bulletin just issued by the Asbestos Protected Metal Co., New 
York. This material consists of sheet steel which is protected 
from corrosion by having a uniform coating of asphalt on both 
sides, which in turn is protected from fire and weather exposure 
by a layer of hardened and waterproofed asbestos. It is made 
corrugated so that it can be used in connection with concrete for 
roofs and plaster for walls. 


A good trade name is a great help in advertising a product. 
Eealizing this, the firm of Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Chicago, are 
offering a prize of $100 for the best name to cover the tool steels 
which they are now selling. This firm has been selling a complete 
line of tool steel for many years, having an outside manufactur- 
ing connection. They have been manufacturing their own steel 
for some time with success, using the old names coupled with 

The contest closes at noon on April 15, the officials of Joseph T. 
Ryerson being the judges. In addition to the first prize, 300 ref- 
erence books will be given for the next best 300 names submitted. 
Full particulars with regard to the contest may be had from the 


A new method for measuring temperatures wherever heat ia 
applied has just been developed by the Carl Nehls Alloy Co., 
248 Brush St., Detroit, Mich. This consists of different kinds of 
metallic salts which are made into molecular mixtures that will 
melt down at different temperatures, throughout the range between 
220 and 1,330 degrees Centigrade. Practical means have been 
devised for using them in place of the more costly pyrometers 
and they are also very useful for checking pyrometers. In the 
latter case a cylinder of the salts is placed at the end of the 
thermo-couple and when it melts the pyrometer should read the 
same as the temperature marked on the salts. 

One way is to cast them into solid cylinders, % 5 inch in 
diameter and % inch long, as shown by those standing on end 
in the accompanying illustration. Each one is wrapped in a 
paper, on which is printed its correct melting temperature in 
degrees, centigrade, as shown by the samples laying down. For 
all temperatures below 932 degrees, F., these "Sentinel Pyrom- 
eters" can be used in an air-tight glass tube, such as is shown, 
in the center. The salts can then be used over and over again. 
By using the small porcelain saucers shown, the salts do not run 
to waste and litter up the place where they are used. This also 
enables them to be used several times, as the salt melts each 
time the temperature raises above the one marked on the cyl- 
inders and becomes solid again the moment the temperature falls 
below this degree. 

Sentinel Pyrometer Pastes and Salts. 

These salts are also made up in the form of a paste. Enough 
to make several hundred determinations is packed in the tins 
shown. Pastes with various melting temperatures can be daubed 
along a steel bar, as shown in the front of the illustration, and 
inserted into furnaces, ovens, retorts, flues, gas mains, steam 
pipes, etc., to find the temperature at which they are operating. 
The salts that melt down and those that remain solid will indicate 
the temperature, which should be between the two. By using a 
long bar one can determine whether the temperature is uniform 
in the front and back, top and bottom, or corners, of a furnace, 
oven, kiln, etc. 

This is said to be the only method that will give the exact 
temperature of tools heated in a forge fire. A paste is selected 
that represents the correct hardening temperature for the tool. 
It is daubed on the tool and when it is heated to this temperature 
the salt will melt and the tool can be taken out of the fire and 
quenched. It will make it easier if the tool is surrounded by a 
piece of sheet steel or is inserted in a gas pipe, as that keeps 
the paste from coming in contact with the fuel. 

Another handy way of using the "Sentinel" cylinders is to 
plug one end of a tube or pipe and drop in a cylinder. A small 
rod can then be lowered into the tube and made to rest on the 
salt. When the salt melts down the rod will lower and thus 
indicate that the melting temperature of the salt has been 
reached. This is useful for finding the temperatures of molten 
metals, salt bath furnaces, etc. 



January, 1915 

&fe>SelIin# >Side 

The Advance Car Mover Co. has been incorporated, with $30,- 
000 capital stock and headquarters at Appleton, "Wis. 

J. B. Berry and S. S. Eoberts have announced the dissolution 
of the firm of Berry, Howard & Eoberts and the continuance of 
business, in the general practice of civil engineering, under the 
firm name of Berry & Eoberts. Their offices are 1640-42 Trans- 
portation building, Chicago. 

The Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. has purchased from the city 
of Pittsburgh, Pa., one and seven-tenths acres, formerly the prop- 
erty of the Monongahela Water Co., for $73,961, for future exten- 

The Chaloner Safety Stop Device & Automatic Switch Co. 
has been incorporated, with $300,000 capital stock, at Jersey City, 

N. J. 

T. A. Willson & Co., Beading, Pa., were awarded the grand 
prize at the second international exposition of safety and sanita- 
tion at Grand Central Palace, New York, on December 12 to 19, 
1914. This award was on the merits of the Willson safety glass, 
the Willson goggle and the Albex eye protector. 

Henry Vogt Machine Co.'s plant at Louisville, Ky., has suf- 
fered a damage by fire of about $50,000. 

The National Brass Co., Houston, Tex., has been incorporated 
with the following officers: President G. F. Cotter; vice-presi- 
dent, J. W. Cain, and secretary, F. H. Littrell. The company will 
specialize in the manufacture of car and locomotive bearings, as 
well as general railway castings. 

The Universal Safety Brake Co. has been incorporated with 
$25,000 capital stock by R. and L. M. Bernfeld, S. Wiesenberg, 
341 Crimmins avenue, New York. 

The Bemy Electric Co., Anderson, Ind., has purchased a plot 
of land in Detroit, upon which it will erect a plant. It will em- 
ploy 1,500 men when operations are running full. The reason for 
the move is to bring the works nearer the company's center of 
trade. The concern is capitalized at $1,500,000, and has an annual 
payroll of $1,750,000. It manufactures magnetos, engines and 
electrical devices. 

The Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn., tool and machinery 
manufacturer, has bought the plant of the Pope Mfg. Co. for 
$300,000. The plant is being put in shape- for manufacturing 
operations and B. W. Hanson, works manager of the Pratt & 
Whitney Co., is superintending the installation of the machinery. 
Most of the buildings purchased are to be occupied immediately by 
Pratt & Whitney workmen, except such space as wiil be required 
for the storage of the old equipment in the plant until this is sold 
by the receiver, Col. Pope. 

E. H. Hinkens, superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio reclama- 
tion plant at Zanesville, Ohio, has entered the sales department 
of the Ingersoll-Rand Company and will be located at the Phila- 
delphia office. 

Harry C. Quest has been appointed general manager of the 
railway department of the Nubian Paint & Varnish Co., Chicago. 

C. B. Yardley, Jr., has been appointed representative of Wm. 
C. Bobinson & Son Co., Baltimore, Md., manufacturers of high 
grade lubricating oils and greases. Mr. Yardley will make his 
headquarters at the New York office. 

The Henry Giessel Co., of Chicago, has appointed Frank N. 
Grigg, 1201 Virginia Railway & Power Building, Richmond, Va., 
as its southeastern sales agent, representing them in all territory 
south of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. 

H. W. Cope has been appointed director of the exhibit of the 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. at the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national exposition and is now located in San Francisco giving 
his personal attention to the work. 

The shafting works at the Mahoning valley plant of the Re- 
public Iron & Steel Co., Youngstown, idle for several months, 
started operations Jan. 4. 

Federal Judge Baker in the United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals has made a decision giving the Railroad Supply Company 
the right to exclusive manufacture of railroad tie plates. Suits 
against several steel companies were started by the supply com- 
pany in 1908, charging them with infringing on the patents which 
were issued in 1895. The United States District Courts in Cleve- 
land and Chicago gave verdicts adverse to the supply company and 
the matter was appealed. "It is one of the most important de- 
cisions in patent cases ever made, ' ' said H. S. Hawley, president 
of the Railroad Supply Company. "It involved the basic patents 
on tie plates, and several million dollars was involved. For six 
years the case has dragged through the courts and some of the 
ablest lawyers of the country have acted as counsel." 

The American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co. reports for the year 
ended Sept. 30, 1914, net income of $1,023,572, a decline of $256,- 
015 from the total for 1913. Preferred stockholders received the 
usual 8 per cent dividends, and common stock owners were paid 
7 per cent. The surplus account was increased by the addition 
of $301,572 from earnings. The annual report says that the reduc- 
tion of revenue was accounted for by the indifferent buying of 
equipment by the railroads. A factor which worked to offset this 
decline was larger income from investments. 

Fred N. Baylies has been appointed eastern manager of the 
P. & M. Co., with offices at 30 Church street, *New York, effec- 
tive January 1, 1915. Mr. Baylies was formerly assistant sales 
manager of the Aluminum Co. of America, with office in Chicago, 
but has been a director of the P. & M. Co. since its incorporation. 

Due to the death of the late Quimby N. Evans, the copartner- 
ship heretofore existing between Q. N. Evans, J. A. Almirall and 
W. C. Adams has been dissolved and the corporation of Almirall 
& Co., Inc., has succeeded to that business. The company's offices 
are at 1 Dominick street, New York, N. Y. 

The H. W. Johns-Manville Co. has been awarded construction 
of cold storage box and installation of refrigerating machinery 
in the Municipal Lodging house at New York. 

The Jones Safety Train Control System Co. has changed 
its name to The American Train Control Co., with offices at Balti- 
more, Md. This system is in use on the Maryland & Pennsyl- 

Arthur E. Jackman has been appointed manager of the ma- 
chinery department of the Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Company, 
St. Louis, Mo., succeeding J. J. Hilpirt. 

The foundry of the Climax Locomotive Works at Corry, Pa., 
was damaged by fire to the extent of $25,000 recently. 

The Mesta Machine Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has acquired 
+ ,he rights from the Stumpf Una-Flow Engine Company, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., to build this engine in the United States. 

E. B. Leigh, president of the Chicago Railway Equipment Com- 
pany, has had a reprint, in folder form, of his article, that ap- 
peared in an October issue of "Iron Age," on "Railway Rate 
Regulation and National Prosperity." All manufacturers and 
railway supply men should read this able exposition of a most 
vital subject. 


Archibald W. Inglis, formerly purchasing agent of the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Company, died December 16 at his home in Pater- 
son, N. J. He was 54 years of age. 

Col. Edward D. Meier, former president of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, died at his home in New York 
City recently at the age of 74 years. 

Ernest A. Regestein, of the Standard Underground Cable Co., 
Pittsburgh, died at his home in that city on December 29. 

Frederick K. Fjtler, treasurer of the Somers, Fitler & Todd 
Co., Pittsburgh, machine tool and equipment dealers, died at his 
home in Atlantic City, N. J., December 31, after several weeks' 

February, 1915 




The World's Greatest Railway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


CHARLES S. MYERS, President CLAY C. COOPER, General Manager. 
C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Treasurer. OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Editor. 

Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 
Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, cars, equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, niinois. Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXIX Chicago, February, 1915 

No. 2 


Editorial — page 

An Opportune Appointment 45 

Reclaiming Car Scrap 45 

Leaving Something for Discussion 46 

Twenty Years Ago This Month 47 

Packing Equipment Standards 47 

Correspondence . . . 47 

International Engineering Congress 48 

"What Is the Matter with the United States? 48 

Railway Income and Revenue 48 

New Shops of the Chicago & Alton R. R 49 

The Car Department Paint Shop 55 

Revised Schedule of Demurrage Charges 55 

Car Department Correspondence 56 

Forging Steel Transoms 57 

A High Voltage Electrification 57 

A Tribute to George Westinghouse 57 

Characteristics of Railway Materials 58 

Economies of Freight Car Repairs 61 

Attachment for Horizontal Drilling 62 

Publicity on the B. & 62 

The Time Is Here 62 

American Car Builders' Assn 62 

The Use of Superheaters on Locomotives 63 

General News 64 

Safety in Crane Work 65 

Dynamometer Car for Japanese Railways 67 

Lubrication of Car Journals 71 

Special Brake Beam for Passenger Cars 73 

Narrow Gauge Electric Locomotive 74 

The Resumption in Business 74 

New Books 74 

Personals 75 

New Literature 76 

The Selling Side 76 

An Opportune Appointment 

In years past there has been a tendency to appoint poli- 
ticians and lawyers as members of state railroad commis- 
sions and this condition still holds true to a considerable 
extent. However, there are indications that the members 
of these commissions are now being chosen from men 
who have an understanding of the questions upon which 
they will have to pass. One of the hopeful signs along 
this line is the recent appointment of Walter Alexander, 
district master mechanic of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul Railway as a member of the Railroad Commis- 
sion of Wisconsin. Mr. Alexander, both by training and 
experience, is exceptionally well qualified for the posi- 

Among the state commissions, the Wisconsin Railroad 
Commission has shown fairness and good judgment in 
its decisions in the past, although it has sometimes been 
hampered by conditions over which it had no control. It 
will be remembered that some years ago this commission 
recommended a two and a half cent fare, but it was cut 
to two cents by act of the legislature. The law of the 
state requires that one member of the commission be a 
railroad man, and the appointment of a master mechanic 
of the state's principal railway is a fortunate and hopeful 
sign. It is to be hoped also that it pleases "Jim" DeVoy, 
for state and government regulation has been disturbing 
his peace of mind for some time now. 

This appointment suggests a new field which the rail- 
way mechanical man may be called upon to enter, for it is 
quite probable that other states will follow the lead of 
Wisconsin. Public opinion with respect to railways is 
changing and the future may see many other appoint- 
ments of railway men on commissions, where they can 
be depended as high minded men to act with fairness 
to all. No railway man is better fitted for such work 
than the mechanical official. He knows the practical 
working machinery of the road ; he is with it every day. 
He has to be up on state and government regulations, 
together with legal matters; he has to appear at various 
hearings ; he has to know about costs, tonnage rating and 
various other matters which are not strictly mechanical. 
There is an opportunity for the railway mechanical man 
to make himself of more value to his road and to the 

Reclaiming Car Scrap 

Economy is the watchword today of our railroads 
especially and of our country in general. It has a fa- 
miliar sound to the railroad man, for he has been hearing 
it for some years now, but nevertheless it has lost none 
of its force and the ambitious railway official is keeping 
sharp watch to see where savings can be made. 

Probably from the nature of its work, the locomotive 
and car department has been pressed harder in this 
respect than other departments, but it is certain that it 
is accomplishing a great deal along these lines. One of 
the points where much saving has been made is in the 


handling of scrap material, a considerable portion of against it is eliminated. Also, wherever scrap car ma- 
which comes from the car department. terial is reclaimed, the man in charge of the work must 
The reclaiming of car scrap in connection with freight be one who can be depended on to give constant and care- 
car repairs was made the subject of a paper recently ful attention to all the material handled, for this is the 
delivered before the Western Railway Club and from the basis of handling scrap with economy, 
ensuing discussion it was clearly shown that the old 

practice of burning scrap cars is fast falling into dis- T . . <-. .. . _. ~ -.. 

t A ,,, , ,, r ,. .. Leaving Something tor Discussion 

favor. Although there are of course exceptions, the 

burning up of old cars is a waste of good lumber which A lively and enthusiastic discussion of papers presented 

it has been demonstrated can be used profitably on repair before railway clubs is sometimes found to be a difficult 

work and for kindling, should it not be available for thing to get started. In general this is not because the 

other purposes. Furthermore, the burning of cars leaves papers are uninteresting and do not cover the subject; 

a mass of twisted iron which is hard to straighten, and in fact, perhaps the contrary is true. Most of the 

it is often damaged by the fire. papers are good and show a considerable amount of work 

An instance of the saving in reclaiming car scrap was on the P art of those who write them - Sometimes advance 
cited by an official of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, C0 P ies of the papers are not sent out by the secretary in 
which has tried both burning and dismantling cars. For- sufficient time for the members to look them over before 
merly in burning cars they were dumped into an old coming to the meeting. This is, of course, a great draw- 
gravel pit and the cost of switching, crane work and ba ck to an enthusiastic discussion. There are always 
reclaiming amounted to from $8 to $io per car, and the plenty of members who are qualified to discuss any par- 
scrap iron was in very bad shape. This road is now ticular subject; the difficulty is to get them started! 
tearing the cap down in a discarded siding and the Often a presiding officer will call on a number of members 
lumber saved more than pays for the cost of tearing them before getting one who will say something and then like 
down. From seven hundred cars dismantled during the as not the member will say that he can add nothing, as 
past year the road obtained $15,000 worth of lumber, at a the speaker has covered the subject so thoroughly. A 
cost of only $11,000 to $12,000. Another instance of presiding officer can do a great deal to enliven discussion, 
saving was cited with regard to metal roofs. The Louis- but he cannot force members to talk. The paper itself 
ville & Nashville removes all metal roofs from cars to be must furnish the stimulus for the discussion, 
destroyed and turns up the flanges, thereby effecting a However, papers which present a general view of a 
saving of from $175 to $200 a month. The Frisco was subject from all sides do not provoke as much discussion 
reported to be using some of its discarded cars for the as does a paper which presents a one-sided view. The 
erection of small buildings; the metal car roofs being cut paper which considers the subject from all angles does 
up into squares and used for shingles. not leave as much room for discussion, because it touches 

In the paper previously referred to, the practice of the viewpoints of practically all present. But if the 

piecing out old bolts of seven-eighths of an inch or over, writer of a paper to be given before a railway club wants 

by the welding process, was recommended, but there is to start something, let him incorporate in his paper a 

some difference of opinion as to whether or not this is very decided view on the subject in hand. Let him give a 

economical practice. The economy in this case is de- positive opinion on every point and state that this is the 

pendent upon the amount of work which has to be done only viewpoint which can be taken of the matter. Such 

on the bolt, such as turning new threads, forming a new a paper will not lack for discussion, for immediately 

head, etc. when a positive statement is made it will arouse a com- 

The reclaiming of materials which at the outset it bative s P irit and everyone will take a turn at the speaker, 

appears cannot be done economically, ofter results in Jt ma y not be pleasant for the speaker, but it will be 

unexpected savings and it is well worth a few dollars to beneficial for the society as a whole, 

give all ideas with regard to methods of saving a trial. Of course, it is not contended that the writer of papers 

Sometimes, of course, it is discovered that it costs more make absurd claims or statements, but rather that they 

to reclaim a certain part than to buy a new one. For present_all the strongest facts and arguments in support 

instance, a road tried to build up a wheel-fit on some of one view of the question, which will give the members 

small axles and found that the built-up axles cost $22.44 a chance to bring out their arguments in support of other 

as against $9.18 for new axles. It is very essential in ideas and thus provide room for discussion. This need 

work of this nature that a very careful study be made of no t detract from the value of the paper, which would 

the factors which should be included in the cost. then cover one idea thoroughly. The man who pre- 

The reclaiming of car scrap is a subject which each pares a paper gets a great deal of good from it, but he 

shop or repair point on a road must study from its own should try to share the benefits with the other members, 

particular viewpoint. The place to use scrap most for the problem with most of our clubs today is to keep 

economically is at the point where it is made, for if it a lively interest among its members. The next time you 

can be used for repairing cars at the same place it is have to prepare a paper, leave something for the rest 

obtained, the additional handling and transfer charge to do. 

February. 1915 



enfg^aRs A<fo This Montii 

An account was published of an experiment being tried 
in Italy in jacketing the cylinders of locomotives with hot 
gases taken from the smoke box. It was reported that 
the system had effected a considerable saving. 

A lap joint without any welt strip whatever was used 
hy the Brooks Locomotive Works on many boilers built 
by it. 

A paper on "Responsibility of Car Owners for Defects 
in Freight Cars" was presented before the New England 
Railroad Club. The discussion was opened by Mr. Mad- 
den, who advocated the new interchange plan and stated 
that there were four reasons why a change should be 
made in the M. C. B. rules, making car owners responsi- 
ble for all defects except as provided for. The reasons 
were: First, that in inspecting for protection road had 
to employ a larger number of inspectors than were re- 
quired in inspection for safety only ; second, in order to 
make an inspection for protection, serious detentions of 
trains resulted ; third, that a still further expense under 
the rules was incurred in the switching mileage, conse- 
quent on the setting out and returning of cars for re- 
pairs ; fourth, there was an expense incurred in tele- 
graphing for delayed freight. Others who took part in 
the discussion were J. T. Chamberlain, Mr. Rhodes of 
the C, B. & Q., Mr. Lents of the Lehigh Valley, Mr. 
Waitt of the Lake Shore, P. H. Peck of the Chicago Belt 
Line, and George West of the New York, Ontario & 

H. M. Perry resigned from the car department of the 
'Cincinnati Southern to become manager of the Madison 
Car Works, Madison, 111. 

A circular was issued to the Master Car Builders' 
Association by its committee on "Interchange of Cars." 
The circular was signed by the following : Pulaski Leeds 
(chairman), J. W. Marden, L. Packard, J. N. Barr, E. D. 
Nelson, Samuel Irwin and J. H. Rankin. 

L. P. Pomeroy read a paper before the New York 
Railroad Club on "Steel Axles." 

E. E. Davis was appointed assistant superintendent of 
motive power of the Philadelphia & Reading. 

The name of the Baltimore & Eastern was changed to 
the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic. 

J. F. Graham was appointed master mechanic of the 
Oregon Railway & Navigation Co., vice E. B. Gibbs. 

A correspondent expressed his disappointment that the 
■majority of railroad officials who attended the annual 
conventions of the Master Car Builders and Master 
Mechanics' Association paid but little attention to the 
•exhibits. This situation has improved during recent 
years, but some improvement could still be made. 

An outline of the proposed laboratory tests of locomo- 
tives by the committee of the Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation has been published. 

B. Haskell, superintendent of motive power of the 
Chicago & West Michigan and the Detroit, Lansing & 
Northern, reported that he was using burlap for pack- 
ing engine and tender truck boxes, the material being 
cut up fine preparatory to use. He found it equally 
as good as woolen waste with the additional advantage 
of costing nothing. 

John N. Reynolds severed his connection with the 
National Car & Locomotive Builder to become western 
representative of the Railroad Gazette, with office in 
The Rookery, Chicago. 

A paper on the strength of the railway car axles was 
presented by L. S. Randolph before the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. A series of experi- 
ments was greatly needed, according to the writer. 

By A. E. M. 

It has occurred to the writer that railroads could save 
quite a bit of money, and get better results with their 
metallic packing, any and all makes considered, if they 
would make all their vibrating cups in one shop. Very 
few roads do this at the present time, but the fact re- 
mains that the cups could be made more uniform and a 
great deal cheaper if the above recommended practice 
were carried out. The objection the mechanical depart- 
ment officials usually have is that cups usually are bored 
to fit the rods. Granted, but why not leave that part of 
the cups small, so when a new cup is required simply 
draw one from the storehouse, bore out the cup to fit the 
rod and the job is done. I venture to say that vibrating 
cups made in quantities with the proper tools and devices 
can be made for one-half of what, for instance, a small 
roundhouse shop could make them for ; also, and here 
is the main reason for having cups made in one shop, 
the cups will all be alike over the entire system. The 
writer has seen about 57 different varieties of the same 
type of cups on one road ; some made without even a 
template. The packing if it happens to be made by a 
manufacturer is all made the same. How could it possi- 
bly fit more than one kind of a cup. This vibrating cup 
proposition is certainly one proposition where even a 
poor system and standard is better than none. Of course. 
it should be patent to anyone that some real standard 
should be adopted for each kind of packing used, and all 
the cups made to that standard. Fixed reamers should 
be used and these kept to a standard by a master cup, or 
some other good method to insure uniformity. It would 
probably surprise the mechanical department officials 
after a few months to note that a great deal less pack- 
ing was being used and the packing that was used was 
really packing the way it should. This proposition if 
carried out the right way will surely save money and get 
results. The writer would be very glad to do what he 
can consistently in the way of suggestions. Don't wait 
for summer, do it now. 


Editor Raiki'ay Master Mechanic: 

The draft gear problem is certainly the most im- 
portant item in considering railway freight. The an- 
nual cost of repairs to cars that are damaged through 
the draft gear failure, and loss and damage claims 
resulting from this: cause far exceed all other repairs 
made to freight car equipment. The draft gear equip- 
ment on most of the old cars usedi in service today is 
inadequate to withstand the shock incident to the 
heavy power that is being universally used and there 
is only one thing to do and that is — do away with 
the old and put on the new, up-to-date modern equip- 
ment. Draft gear today is manufactured tandem, 
spring, and friction, and any of these is away ahead of 
even the most modern car construction. Short draft 
gear is used today on railroads on say seven out of 
ten cars and it appears that the only reasonable way 
would be to make as few repairs on these cars as pos- 
sible and to retire them from service as speedily as 
economics conditions permit. Macgregor. 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 

I have read with great interest the article of J. D. 
MacAlpine in the December issue on "A Shop Account- 
ing Association." Such an association would be the 
greatest step yet towards efficiency, although many roads 
have splendid systems of accounting. I believe there is 
a great deal of room for improvement, and these im- 



February, 1915 

provements cannot be made unless ideas of others are 
submitted. One feature it would bring out, which has 
been an enormous problem for a number of years, would 
be the elimination of fifty per cent of the correspondence. 
Methods could be arranged whereby those in charge of 
different departments could facilitate the labors of those 
under his supervision. The list of the subjects submitted 
by Mr. MacAlpine cover quite a large field, but the point 
to get at is to eliminate the intricate forms. Simplicity, in 
my opinion, is the greatest feature of efficiency. 

It is a well-known fact that there are at present a large 
number of mechanics who are proficient in the class of 
work to which they are allotted, but are unable to under- 
stand some of the various forms put before them, and 
oftentimes misconstrue the purpose for which they are 
made. Correspondence is virtually so much "red tape" 
to such men, but let them understand a standard form 
and the information obtained is invariably correct. I 
will certainly be glad to hear of Mr. MacAlpine's propo- 
sition being pushed along and would like to hear further 
along the same lines. Edward E. Kiefer, 

Chief Clerk to M. M., Colorado & Southern Ry., Trini- 
dad, Colo. 


The technical success of the International Engineering 
Congress is now well assured. Notwithstanding the diffi- 
culties arising as a result of the present European war, 
the committee on papers is able to count on from 200 to 
250 papers and reports covering all phases of engineering 
work and contributed by authors representing some 18 
different countries. The Congress will therefore be truly 
international in scope and character, although the rep- 
resentation from the countries involved in the European 
war will naturally be less than originally planned. 

The papers are now rapidly coming in and their char- 
acter gives the fullest assurance that the proceedings will 
form a most important collection of engineering data and 
a broad and detailed review of the progress of engineer- 
ing during the past decade. 

The committee of management is now issuing to all im- 
portant engineering societies, in this country and abroad, 
invitations to appoint official delegates to attend the ses- 
sions of the Congress, and the presence of a considerable 
body of such delegates is well assured. The Congress 
will be held at San Francisco, Cal., on September 20-25, 

or France or Germany or Servia or Great Britain or 

Every tenth Briton has enlisted. Every tenth French- 
man is at the front. Every tenth Belgian is dead. What 
does the United States know about trouble? 

If I could afford it, I would charter the "Mauretania" 
and "Lusitania" and convey a party of 5,000 American 
advertisers to Europe for a trip of education. I would 
give them a week in London, a week in Paris and a week 
in Antwerp. 

I would let them look at the United States from the 
scene of war. I would give them a look at real trouble. 
I would let them see trains, ten at a time, five minutes 
apart, packed with the maimed and dying. 

I would let them hear, from fragmentary survivors, 
the incredible story of battlefields 150 miles wide and 
armies that are greater than the entire population of 

I would let them see graves 100 yards long and full and 
Belgium, the country that was, nothing now but 12,000 
square miles of wreckage. 

Then, when they began to understand, to some slight 
extent, the magnitude and awfulness of this war, I would 
say to them : 

"Now go back and appreciate the United States, real- 
ize your opportunities. Don't start digging trenches when 
nobody is firing at you. Don't fall down' when you have 
not been hit. Don't be blind to the most glorious chance 
vou have ever had in your life. 

"Go back and advertise. Get ready for the most tre- 
mendous boom that any nation ever had. Build your fac- 
tories bigger. Train more salesmen. Borrow more 
money. Go ahead and thank God you are alive and that 
your family is alive, and that you are living in a land 
that is at peace, at a time when nearly the whole world 
is at war." 



By Herbert N. Casson. 

As I have been residing in London since the beginning 
of the war, I have been hearing the question asked on all 
sides. I have never heard any satisfactory answer. No 
one seems to know. 

Why are the American factories not running night and 
day? Why are the railroads not opening up new terri- 
tories and getting ready for the millions of immigrants 
who have already made up their minds to leave Europe 
as soon as the war is over? 

Why are there not fifty American drummers in London 
right now trying to sell $200,000,000 worth of American 
goods in place of the goods that were bought last year 
from Germany and Austria? 

Why have advertisers become quitters, just at the time 
when their advertisements were most needed and most 
effective in cheering on the business forces of the United 
States ? 

From the European point of view, the United States 
is a haven of peace and security and prosperity. It has 
no troubles that it dares to mention to Belgium or Austria 


Railway operating income for November, reduced to a 
per mile of line basis and compared with that for Novem- 
ber, 1913, shows a decrease of $42, or 14.7 per cent, 
while operating income per mile for November, 19 13, 
was 21.2 per cent less than for November, 1912. Total 
operating revenues per mile for November decreased 13.3 
per cent, as compared with November, 1913, operating 
expenses per mile decreased 13.3 per cent, and net operat- 
ing revenue per mile decreased 13.4 per cent. 

Figures prepared by the bureau of railway economics 
applicable to railways operating 228,461 miles of line, or 
about 90 per cent of all steam railway mileage in the 
United States, show that the operating revenue of these 
roads for the month of November, 1914, amounted to 
$233,812,430. This amount includes revenue from freight 
and passenger traffic, from carrying mail and express, and 
from miscellaneous sources connected with rail and aux- 
iliary operations. Compared with November, 1913, these 
operating revenues show a decrease of $32,836,569. Total 
operating revenues per mile averaged $1,023 in Novem- 
ber, 1914, and $1,180 in November, 1913, a decrease of 
$157, or 13.3 per cent. 

Reduction in Accidents, C. & N. W. Ry. 
The following statement shows the reduction in num- 
ber of accidents on the Chicago & North Western for four 
and one-half years ending December 31, 1914, as com- 
pared with four and one-half years on same basis as 
year ending June 30, 19 10, before the Safety First com- 
mittees were organized : 

173 fewer employes killed, a decrease of 35.3 per cent. 
10,671 fewer employes injured, a decrease of 27.3%. 

Februarv, 1915 



New Shops of the Chicago £& Alton R. R. 

The Shops Recently Completed at Bloomington Contain Some Innova- 
tions in Connection With the Locomotive and Blacksmith Departments 

There has lately been completed for the Chicago & 
Alton Railroad at Bloomington, 111., new shops which in 
some respects are an innovation; the placing in one 
building of the several departments of the locomotive 
shop and the layout of the blacksmith shop being quite 
different from what has been the usual practice. 


The Chicago & Alton has had locomotive and car re- 
pair shops, together with an engine terminal in Bloom- 
ington for a great many years, and when the necessity 
for increased capacity, as well as new and modern shops, 

The general layout of the new plant comprehends pro- 
vision not only for existing and probable future needs, 
but the utilization as far as possible of the old shops and 
the relation of the whole to the development of a well 
defined scheme that will ultimately use the tract in the 
most economical and effective manner. 

As will be noted from the accompanying plan the new 
layout comprises a centrally located locomotive shop 
building, an L shaped blacksmith shop, located south of 
the locomotive shop, a two-story storehouse with large 
storage platform situated east of the locomotive shop, 

Erecting Bay, Locomotive Repair Shops of the Chicago & Alton R. R. 

came up sometime ago, considered the advisability of re- 
moving these facilities from Bloomington altogether. 
This, the city of Bloomington objected to, and to show 
the sincerity of their objection offered to provide such 
land as was necessary, not only for the actual present 
needs for the enlargement of the railroad facilities, but 
also to provide enough land to take care of future re- 
quirements for some time to come. The city and the 
railroad company finally came to an agreement by which 
the city provided the land necessary for the enlargement 
of the company's shop and yard facilities, and the rail- 
road agreed to build on that location. 

The new group of buildings which have just been com- 
pleted are located on that tract of land which is northerly 
of the location of the old shops and yards, the city being 
obliged to close several streets in order that the land 
should be in one tract. 

and tire heating and flue rattler building. 

Between the buildings are located yards for storage of 
material together with the necessary tracks and platforms 
for the requisite handling and trucking. 


The locomotive repair shop is a building 619 ft. in 
length by 317 ft. in width covering an area of nearly 
4*/2 acres. Inside of this building are the erecting shop, 
machine shop and boiler and tender shop : the different 
departments having track connection with the various 
yard tracks and with the storage yards. The building 
is divided into five longitudinal bays, the central bay being 
75 ft. wide and the four side bays each 60 ft. wide. In 
the central bay is located the erecting shop and in the 
side bays are the machine departments, the boiler shop, 
the tank shop and the master mechanic's and foreman's 
offices, together with tool rooms and sub-storerooms. 



February, 1915 

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Hill 111 

General View of New Locomotive Repair Shops of the Chicago & Alton. 

This building has a structural steel frame resting on 
concrete foundations with side walls of concrete carried 
up to the window sills. Above the sills the building is 
of brick with the exception of the high walls of the 
erecting bay, which are of tile with stucco finish. The 
roof has wood purlins with 2 in. plank covered with pre- 
pared roofing. The floor in this building and in the tin 
shop consists of a 4 in. sub-base of tarred rock well rolled, 
covered with a 1 in. layer of sand and tar, in which is 
embedded an under flooring of 3 in. yellow pine overlaid 
with a 1-1/16 in. maple floor. The building is excep- 
tionally well lighted; the large window area of the side 
walls and the sawtooth and monitor construction in the 
roof giving over 28% of the floor space of lighting area. 

The co-ordination of the various departments under 
one roof without partitions is an innovation in railroad 
shop layout, and admits of such an arrangement of tools 
that work and materials may pass through the shop in an 
orderly and progressive manner with the least possible 

The erecting bay is 75 ft. wide on column centers with 
28 pits. It is served by two traveling electric cranes on 

two levels, the crane for the unwheeling of locomotives 
being of 150 tons capacity, equipped with two trolleys 
of 75 tons capacity, located on the upper runway, while 
the lower runway carries a ten ton messenger crane. On 
every alternate column between the erecting pits jib 
cranes are provided for handling materials on the front 
ends of the locomotives. 

Adjoining the erecting bay to the south is a 60 ft. bay 
in which are located the heavy machine tools, served by 
a ten ton traveling crane. Still further south is another 
60 ft. bay, in which are placed the lighter tools. The 
heavy tools are all equipped with individual motor drives, 
while the lighter ones are arranged in groups driven by 
motors of 20 to 25 horse power. 

On the north of the erecting bays are two 60 ft. bays 
for the boiler and tank work. These two bays are served 
by traveling cranes, one of 15 tons capacity and the other 
in the boiler assembling bay, of 40 tons capacity, equipped 
with two trolleys. 

The hydraulic riveter is centrally located in the boiler 
shop with tower constructed especially for it, and is 
served by its own 25 ton crane. 

General Layout of Chicago & Alton Shops at Bloomington. 

February, 1915 



Castings Platform, BJoomington Shops. 


The shop is heated by an indirect blower system located 
in two specially constructed rooms built outside of and 
immediately connected with the main walls of the shop, 
and situated one on either side of the building about mid- 
way of its length. The rooms are large enough so that 
they are divided, a part of the space being used for 
lavatory and locker rooms for the men. The blower 
system consists of two 240" steel plate exhauster type 
fans direct connected to horizontal throttling engines. 
These fans draw air through 20,200 sq. ft. vento heaters 
and discharge it through concrete underground ducts to 

register boxes located along the outside walls and on in- 
terior columns. 

The vento heaters are supplied by high pressure steam 
transmitted from the power house about 1,000 ft. away, 
at 125 lbs. pressure, which is reduced in the fan room to 
i J /2 lbs. The exhaust steam from the fan engines is also 
used in the heaters. 


The artificial lighting is done by Tungsten nitrogen 
filled lamps in 400 watt units, the lamps being so spaced 
that there are no shadows and no necessity for individual 
lamps on the machines, except for inside work. 

Tool Layout of the Blacksmith Shop. 



February, 1915 

Tool Layout of Machine and Erecting Shop. 

A suitable system of piping is provided for distributing 
live steam, compressed air, fuel oil and also water for 
fire protection, drinking and hydraulic pressure. 


The blacksmith shop is of brick and steel construction 
on concrete foundation, similar to that of the locomotive 
shop. It is an L shaped building 80 ft. in width, one 
wing being 2co ft. and the other 300 ft. in length. In the 

200 ft. wing are assembled all the steam hammers rang- 
ing from 300 lbs. to 6,000 lbs. and in the 300 ft. wing all 
the forges and small power tools. A space 100 ft. in 
length has been partitioned off in this wing to be used as 
a tin shop. This is a temporary expedient, it being the 
intention ultimately to remove this department to other 
buildings when the needs are such as to require this space 
for blacksmith work. 

February, 1915 



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Tool Layout of Machine and Erecting Shop. 

The roof trusses on the 200 ft. wing are io ft. higher 
than those in the other wing, due to the 30 ft. headroom 
required to accommodate the jib cranes and hammers. 

A lavatory is located in the angle of the L in an addi- 
tion just outside the main building, which provides toilet 
and washroom facilities for the men. The excellent ven- 
tilation given by the monitors in the roof and the means 
provided for removal of smoke and gases from the forges 
makes it an ideal shop in which to work. 

In the general design special care was taken to provide 
a layout that would afford opportunity for an orderly 
progression of the work through the shop and ease and 
economy in transporting materials or parts to the point 
of final use in the locomotive shop, with which it has 
suitable track connection. 


East of the locomotive shop and separated from it by 
a 95 ft. storage yard is located the storehouse, a two- 



February, 1915 

Interior of Machine and Erecting Shop. 

story brick building with wood roof 60 ft. wide by 250 
ft. long. The building is constructed without basement, 
the first floor being on an earth fill and affords facilities 
for handling and storing heavy materials on a level with 
car floors. 

A wooden platform on concrete piers 10 ft. in width 
extends the entire length of this building on both sides, 
while a large storage platform 80 ft. by 150 ft. with floor 
laid on an earth fill is provided at the north end. 

Ample storage bins, carefully arranged in transverse 
rows to give a maximum of light in the aisles, have been 
provided. The first floor and platforms, being on a level 
with the car floors, reduce the cost of handling heavy 
stock to a minimum. 

The second floor, where the lighter materials are stored, 
is served by an electric freight elevator of 5,000 lbs. ca- 
pacity, while a chute is provided by which small pack- 

ages, made up on requisitions, can be transferred to the 
first floor for delivery. 

At one end of the building ample well lighted office 
space has been provided for the general storekeeper and 
his clerks, together with adequate toilet facilities, and 
also a room has been fitted up as a first aid hospital. 

The plan of the yard layout shows the very convenient 
relationship of the various buildings to storehouse and 
to each other, and to the roundhouse and the very com- 
plete arrangement of tracks serving them. 

To permit of the erection of the storehouse and the 
laying of some of the tracks it was necessary to remove 
to new locations two rather old buildings built of stone 
masonry. These were of considerable size, one of them 
being two stories high, but they were successfully moved 
with their contents intact. 

The shops and layouts were designed and constructed 

Cross Section of Machine and Erecting Shop. 

Interior of Blacksmith Shop. 

February, 1915 



by Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Company of New 
York and Chicago, acting in co-operation with H. T. 
Douglas, Jr., chief engineer, and J. E. O'Hearne, super- 
intendent of motive power of the Chicago & Alton. The 
actual field construction was in charge of P. J. Watson, 

assistant engineer of the road. 

The Car Department Paint Shop* 

Some Points Which Help to Make for Better Work 

in the Railway Paint Shop 
By William Buchanan, Foreman Painter, D. L. & W. B. B. 

An up-to-date shop, first of all, must be equipped with modern 
devices for handling the work with as much dispatch and safety 
as possible, for cars at all times are in demand regardless of the 
fact that the management want them painted. 

There is no money expended in the maintenance of railway 
equipment that gives more value for its expenditure than a well 
protected car, be it of steel or wood construction. On the steel 
car, rust and corrosion soon take place, caused from the sulphur 
dripping, etc., destroying the lasting qualities of the parts 
attacked, and the car becomes weakened and is a source of danger 
in transit. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western considers it necessary 
to repaint its steel cars once in three or four years, covering all 
portions of the car, and as far as my observation has gone, the 
stenciling is always legible and most of the exterior of the 
car is in good condition. We maintain a system of painting them 
in series, so that no haphazard painting will be resorted to. 

Our wooden cars give a longer term of service. However, 
those which contain steel underframes require closer check, and 
if we discover the frames are rusting, we scrape and paint the 
frames and steel roofs whenever conditions warrant it, assuming 
that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. The 
modern wooden car is more or less of steel construction and 
should receive as much attention as the all-steel car. 

In most cases, no attention is given the underneath irons on 
cars, when in fact, of all parts, they should be protected, for a 
rusty air-line soon becomes weakened and inefficient. 

This is also true regarding the steel underframes and in fact, 
all underneath parts. Next of importance is the modern steel or 
semi-steel roofing. It is very important that it should be kept 
in first-class condition in order to preserve it. The undersides as 
well as the outsides should be well painted when being constructed, 
for the most deadly enemy to steel is moisture and there is no 
place where it is more apt to lurk than in the hidden portions of 
car construction. 

Next of importance is that of stenciling. One of the most 
expensive operations in painting cars is stenciling, and for that 
reason should be done with a desire to convey as prominently as 
possible what is required. 

The name and number of the car should be in a fixed place, so 
that a habit can be formed to know at all times just where to 
look for the information wanted. I know of no class of railway 
employees who would appreciate this more than the inspector, 
whose duty calls him out at all hours of the day and night and 
in some of the most trying places. 

The writer is most happy to say that at last a movement is 
under way to get the car owners to adopt a system of uniform 
standards of lettering, and I am sure if the time ever does 
come, everybody will rejoice, especially the men in charge of the 

Some roads have advanced the idea that painting of freight cars 
cannot be done during the winter months, especially in this cli- 
mate and out of doors. During the year of 1907, when we 
started the work at our East Buffalo shops, we painted 1,413 cars; 

nine in January, three in February, two in March, being prac- 
tically at a standstill for three months. During 1909 we painted 
2,198 cars; 156 in January, 128 in February and 182 in March. 
The present year we will close with over 3,000 cars; 177 in Jan- 
uary, 158 in February, 165 in March and 222 in April. 

I am giving you these figures to show that we have all been 
wrong in assuming that work of this nature could not be done 
during the winter months. Not only did it cut down our year's 
total output, but we were obliged to lay off men who were 
more or less of value, due to the fact that in working together 
they become more efficient and can cover more work than new 
men can, when you again wish to reorganize your gang. 

Inasmuch as most of the work done is in the open air, tracks 
should be assigned for this special purpose so as not to interfere 
with the repair men, and a perfect rotation should be built up 
in order to be able to agree on a stated output each day. 

The weighing of cars is no small item to cope with, and for 
this reason should be entrusted to a reliable man who, after 
the cars are weighed, can replace the new weight, giving us a 
report of the old as well as the new weights so that we can make 
the proper reports of same. This is very essential, especially 
where some of the cars are being equipped with the new Econ- 
omy draft gears, \nd also in weighing and billing for foreign 
cars weighed. 

The men who are assigned to look after the repair yard must 
at all times be on the alert, for whenever cars are undergoing 
repairs, more or less of the sheathing is ripped off, thus destroy- 
ing the stenciled information, which should be replaced before 
the car goes back into service. 

One item is wrong door numbers, due to the fact that an old 
door of some other car has been used in lieu of a new one- 
This is a source of confusion to those who are obliged to take 
numbers, as often the number is taken from the door instead of 
the side of the car. 

The reclaiming of paint skins and settlings is an item that 
should be thoroughly looked after, for considerable money can very 
soon find its way to the scrap pile if the stock man is not onto 
his job every minute. He is also responsible for tools and brushes 
given out each day to see that they are returned at the end of 
the day's work and placed where they belong. 

A suitable building for the storage of oil and paints is very 
essential; also modern devices for mixing same. Also, suitable 
and sanitary quarters for the workmen is very necessary, for you 
will remember that our best generals claim that no great battles 
are ever won with unhealthy men behind the guns. 

* A paper read before the Niagara Frontier Car Men 's Asso- 
ciation, December 16, 1914. 

Revised Schedule of Demurrage Charges 
On February i the American railroads put into effect 
a revised schedule of demurrage charges on refrigerator 
cars in which perishable freight is shipped. 

The new schedule of demurrage charges on these 
classes of equipment allows shippers two days' free use 
of cars; following which there is a charge of $i.oo a day 
for the third, fourth and fifth days, and $3.00 a day for 
the sixth, seventh and eighth day that equipment is held. 
For the ninth day and for each additional day after that 
time the daily demurrage charge is $5.00. 

The demurrage regulations governing the class of 
equipment which have been in effect have allowed two 
days' free use of the cars and a uniform charge of $1.00 
for each additional day. 


The Canadian railway commission will be asked by Canadian 
railroads for permission to increase freight rates throughout 
the Dominion, if increases now being asked because of changes 
in United States railroad rates be granted. 

Grand Trunk railroad officials announce their intention to 
ask 14,000 of the employes in Canada and the United States 
to accept a decrease in wages April 1, if traffic receipts con- 
tinue to decrease. 



February, 1915 

Car Department Correspondence* 

The Reduction in Unnecessary Correspondence and 

the Necessity for Brevity Are Important Points 

in Car Department Correspondence 

By Charles Claudy, Chief Clerk to Gen. Car Fmn., Belt Ry. of 


Anyone intimately associated with the handling of correspond- 
ence and reports connected with the car department will agree that 
a considerable volume of the work could be eliminated if its origin 
were handled more thoroughly and accurately. While the degree 
of efficiency varies on different railroads according to the systems 
used and energy applied in educating those originating the cor- 
respondence or reports, yet we believe that the car departments 
on all railroads are confronted with problems of a similar char- 
acter in a general way representing a large amount of wasted 
time and material, which we would be glad to find some means of 
overcoming, if possible. In discussing this subject it is not our 
purpose to enter into elaborate detail but to treat the subject more 
in a general way, trusting to bring out sufficient points to stimu- 
late a thorough discussion of the subject by the members present. 
We realize that if we had in our own department the highest 
possible degree of efficiency we would not yet have all the ap- 
parent unnecessary correspondence eliminated as we are confronted 
with the same element of trouble originating in other departments 
over which we have no control, but it is not the thought of this 
paper to introduce criticisms against other departments but to 
discuss our own shortcomings which are within our province to 
overcome, as far as possible, with the view of stimulating effort 
toward a more efficient service. The manner in which the records 
are made and correspondence handled in the car departments to a 
great extent affects the various other departments of the railroad; 
the effect being good or bad according to the degree of efficiency 
or inefficiency. The car department is called upon to furnish in- 
formation affecting such subjects as loss and damage claims, per- 
sonal injury, train accidents and responsibility for damage to 
equipment with a view of placing responsibility where it justly 
belongs, conserving resources against unjust responsibility and 
removing objectionable causes. If such information is not fur- 
nished fairly, accurately and thoroughly, it becomes at once a 
germ for unnecessary correspondence, efficiency is crippled and 
often defeats justice. 

We have said, information should be furnished fairly, meaning 
by this that no effort be made to evade responsibility through 
unjustly deflecting the information in the direction of another 
department of your own railroad or to a foreign railroad. If the 
true facts are not reflected the real intent of all reports and 
records is defeated and opens up avenues for questions with its 
corresponding train of evils. No employe should be required or 
expected to establish records or reports not tempered with justice 
and a clear conscience, as honest service in every respect is the 
foundation upon which efficiency is constructed. The informa- 
tion should be accurately and thoroughly recorded, having in mind 
such detail as may be essential for giving thorough knowledge of 
the subject at such times as it may be required. Brevity is 
efficiency when not lacking in essentials, but necessary details 
should not be sacrificed for brevity. Some employes record im- 
portant records with only sufficient details to reinforce their 
memory should they be required to use them, apparently forget- 
ting that the records made today are often to be used by someone 
else tomorrow. Therefore, important records and reports should 
be so recorded that they will be clearly intelligent to anyone 
qualified to pass upon them and we believe that this fault is a 
fruitful source of unnecessary correspondence in the ear depart- 

Unwarranted technicality or lack of the spirit of broadness and 
fairness in conducting correspondence with foreign railroads more 
especially is another source from which considerable unnecessary 

A paper delivered before the Car Foremen's Assn. of Chicago. 

correspondence arises. It is perfectly proper in some instances to 
defend a principle, although the amount involved may be small, 
for if it is a correct principle it should be correctly established, 
as the same principle may involve larger questions in the future, 
but we often find ourselves vigorously defending with technical 
arguments questions where no actual principle is involved with 
over-confidence in our own opinion and lack of due appreciation of 
the other arguments advanced with the very frequent result that 
the labor and material waste is a deficit to your railroad. 

Perhaps the largest individual source of what we term unneces- 
sary correspondence is the result of errors made in reporting wrong 
car numbers and wrong initials. Through the increase of equip- 
ment necessarily requiring more figures in composing numbers has- 
very much enlarged the opportunity for errors of this kind. While 
some of these errors are the result of office errors, they are largely 
due to errors made at the initial point of the transaction which 
was performed by the car inspector or repair track foreman. To 
eliminate these errors in their entirety seems impossible, as none 
is infallible, and when we consider the adverse conditions under 
which these records are often made, such as inclement weather 
and rush of business, we wonder if those who frequently criticise 
could do better or even so well, under similar circumstances, and 
we feel that any criticism of these errors should be tempered by 
first placing ourselves in the other fellow's position and then our 
spirit of criticism is most generally considerably modified. A 
wrong car number injected in a foreign bill for car repairs usually 
means a letter of exception from the mechanical department of the 
railroad billed to their auditing department, which in line is com- 
municated to the auditing department of the road billing, then to 
the mechanical department billing, who must investigate through 
the car accountant and also the mechanical representative originat- 
ing the information and when the error is corrected it must retrace 
its steps and after this routine has been completed the result ob- 
tained is the same as it would have been without this unnecessary 
labor and delay had the initial performance been free from error. 
A wrong initial carries with it even a greater detail of investiga- 
tion to correct than the wrong car number. Practically the same 
detail is necessary in handling claims, accidents, etc., when wrong 
numbers and initials are reported. 

To eliminate, as far as possible, such errors should be the aim 
of all car departments. Some roads resort to discipline in an 
effort to overcome these errors, but we do not look upon such 
methods with particular favor, as they are not wilful neglect of 
duty; but exercise every reasonable effort to overcome such errors 
through a keener knowledge of the effect such errors have, and if 
a suitable degree of efficiency cannot be established find a more 
fitting place in your organization for such material. 

Another means of reducing correspondence and adding to the 
efficiency of the car department is promptness in handling reports 
and correspondence. All well regulated car departments have cer- 
tain reports which are required and if these are furnished promptly 
and while the subject is fresh it will insure a clearer statement 
of facts, as well as avoid the too frequent necessity of being 
called upon to furnish them. The same is true in handling cor- 
respondence. If replies are made as promptly as possible the 
information furnished can be presented in better form, in less 
time and avoid the necessity of "urgers" being sent out which 
may require passing through a number of offices adding its share 
of work to each one as well as increasing the volume of corre- 
spondence to be examined. 

A defective filing system adds its share to confusion and unneces- 
sary labor. It is often found that the information sought is 
already a matter of record directly in our possession and through 
ineffective methods the connection is not made and we impose 
additional correspondence upon our own office as well as other 
offices through this defect. 

While we have previously touched upon brevity we wish to men- 
tion it more specifically, but at the same time retain the thought 
that it should not be practiced to the extent of destroying effi- 
ciency. A brief and concise statement of facts either in reports 
or in correspondence is far more forceful than repetition and 

February, 1915 



unnecessary details. It consumes less time of the party impart- 
ing the information as well as the recipient of same. In order to 
do this, sufficient thought should be given the subject under con- 
sideration to get a clear conception of it in the mind after which 
both brevity and detail can be rounded into a harmonious com- 
bination. Failure, in answering correspondence, to make proper 
reference to files, often results in confusion and delay which could 
be avoided if this feature was given due attention. 

The reduction in unnecessary correspondence and the standard 
of efficiency is best accomplished through an efficient organization 
from the head of the department to the lowest in the ranks. Often- 
-times men are employed to perform certain duties and perfection 
is expected when they are wholly unqualified through lack of train- 
ing to perform such service. A perfect failure in the office might 
be a big success on the repair track and often the man perform- 
ing manual labor has a keen mind for handling mental problems. 
The entire organization should be continually studied with the 
view of detecting certain dormant qualifications which could be 
readily developed into an effective service. "When your machinery 
is properly assembled and the necessary lubrication applied in the 
way of conducting a suitable system of education among your 
employes defining their duties with clearness and precision, the 
power can be turned on without much fear of serious breakdowns. 

In conclusion we wish to give a few quotations from Elbert 
Hubbard, in discussing the "efficient man," which we believe can 
be appropriately applied to each of us as individuals: 

"The efficient man is he who sees the obvious, who does the duty 
nearest him — and does it well — and keeps on." 

' ' The secret of efficiency is no secret. It is simply the possession 
of imagination to know the right and do it well." 

"Unquestionably the first step towards efficiency is self-respect. 
A grounded wire is wasted energy ; light and power come from 
contact. ' ' 

"A man's efficiency is determined by the amount of supervision 
he requires." 

By Paul H. Cain, C. C. C. & St. L. R. R., Beach Grove, Ind. 

The illustrations show the operations of making a open hearth 
steel transom for Pullman or motor trucks on a forging machine. 
The bar size is l 1 /*"^", and in the first operation the bar is 
■deflected 3" on a bulldozer. The bar ends are heated and put 
in a shearing die on the same machine, finishing the second opera- 
tion as shown in figure 1. Figure 2 shows the transom end, the 
bar size being l"xl2", sheared to a length of 11", bent and hole 
punched, giving an angle 8"x2%"xl2". These two operations are 
finisher! in one heat. Figure 3 is the transom bar and end pre- 
pared for forging machine dies. The bar being heated and the 
end being applied cold, it is then split with a chisel and riveted as 




no. i 




s t 


- pi- 







no. 5 


shown at point A on figure 3. Figure 4 shows the stationary die 
and heading tool, a special heading tool holder being used. Figure 
5 shows the stationary die, heading tool and transom end, while 
the machine stroke has gone its full length, one stroke of the 
machine welding and forming the transom end as shown in figure 
6, the finished transom. 

Precaution must be exercised in the amount of stock used in 
the bar to attain the desired fillet, as shown at point B and C, 
figure 6. In figure 2, the transom end, allowance should also be 
made for the amount of stock to attain the desired square corner, 
as shown at point E. Figure 7 shows the surface plate with 
blocks, with which the transom is squared at the same heat coming 
from the forging dies. Figure 9 shows the transom complete on 
surface plate, squared and forged to length. With the aid of 
the blocks and clamps, as shown in figure 7, the transom is squared 
accurately. Figure 8 shows a clamp which is applied to the tran- 
som bar at point F in figure 6, serving a connection for the use 
of a crane. 

After the transom bar and ends have been prepared for the 
forging machine dies the production of this forging is one tran- 
som complete every 12 minutes. The tools used are one heating 
furnace, one welding furnace with two separate compartments, a 
forging machine and a special surface plate, as shown in figure 9. 
A forging machine operator and a fire helper are required. This 
forging has been tested both as to tensile and torsional strength 
and has proved entirely satisfactory. 


Another important indorsement of the high voltage, 
direct current system for railway electrification is the 
decision of the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Company 
to employ 1,500 volts direct current for the electrification 
of the London & Port Stanley Railway. Orders have 
been placed for the initial rolling stock, including three 
60-ton electric locomotives, five four-motor multiple unit 
cars, and four trail cars. This road is about twenty-four 
miles long and connects Port Stanley on Lake Erie with 
London, Ontario. The electrification of this steam road 
division is the beginning of an extensive system owned 
and operated by the municipalities in this section. 

A Tribute to George Westinghouse 

A booklet containing a tribute to the achievements of 
the late George Westinghouse, together with an outline of 
the important events in his life, has been published by the 
Westinghouse companies, which he founded. The book- 
let is 4*^2 by 6 inches in size, is bound in flexible black 
leather and is of a very simple but rich appearance. 













— Iff 









"" "^■^ 1 ^"^ 'r~> 




fig. 9. 

Forging Steel Transoms. 



February, 1915 

Characteristics of Railway Materials 

A Description of Some of the Physical Characteristics of 
Materials Used in the Mechanical Departments of a Railway 

By E. B. Tilt, Engineer of Tests, Canadian Pacific Ry., Montreal, Que.* 

A popular description of the physical characteristics of some 
of the materials used in the mechanical department of a railway 
should prove interesting to the majority of the members and 
might lead to some profitable discussion from which we would all 
benefit. This paper may be too elementary for many and from 
these we ask their indulgence. 

Not all of us could tell offhand how to distinguish a piece of 
iron from a similarly shaped piece of mild steel, or where we 
should use bronze instead of white metal, or why a piece- of high 
speed steel can be run at a red heat and retain its usefulness. 
These and many other questions are not of the same importance 
to us all, but the explanations are interesting. As my experience 
has been mainly with the materials used in the construction of 
rolling stock I shall not discuss those required by the engineering 
department, which include rails, ties, structural steel, masonry, 
and so on. I shall not discuss devices either, but confine myself 
strictly to materials and their attributes. 

The principal groups of materials bought for railway shops, 
nearly in their order of value, are: 

1. Iron and steel products. 

2. Lumber. 

3. Brasses, bronzes and other alloys. 

4. Paints. 

5. Eubber products. 

Iron and steel products cover a very large percentage of the 
cost and construction of an engine or a car and these may be 
further subdivided into 

1. Steel 

2. Iron 

A. Polled or forged. 

B. Cast. 

A. Puddled. 

B. Cast. 

C. Malleable. 

Consider a locomotive for a moment. The spring plates, fire- 
box and boiler plates, tires and tubes are made of rolled steel; 
the axles, side rods and crank pins of forged steel; the frames, 
frame braces and cross heads of cast steel; the engine bolts and 
staybolts of puddled iron; the stack, bell stand and small fittings 
of cast iron; the journal boxes and a few small fittings of 
malleable iron. If we run over in our mind's eye the materials 
in a modern steel frame freight car we have cast iron wheels, 
forged steel axles, rolled steel sills and frames and springs, cast 
steel couplers and pedestals, malleable iron journal boxes, door 
locks and stops and minor fittings. 

A reasonable question is why are so many different qualities 
of the same material used, for all iron and steel is originally 
derived from pig iron made from iron ore. Broadly speaking, 
cast iron is used in intricate shapes where lightness and tensile 
strength are not required; where more delicacy and intricacy in 
design are evident and weight or thickness is a factor malleable 
iron is used, and where even greater strength is required cast 
steel is used. Polled steel and forged steel differ chiefly in the 
final shaping operation; for example, a tire is rolled on a special 
type rolling mill, while an axle is forged or shaped under a 
hammer or press. Wrought iron is principally used in merchant 














to 1. 


*A paper before the Canadian Railway Club. 

bar, where advantage can be taken of the so-called fiber or tough- 
ness of the iron. 

It may be well here to mention a very important factor as 
affecting the value of steel for any use and that is its carbon 
content. In order to simplify the consideration of this important 
element in its effect on iron we shall overlook the effect of man- 
ganese, a metal somewhat similar to pure iron; of phosphorus 
most commonly seen as a constituent of the striking head of 
matches; of sulphur recognized by its yellow color and com- 
monly known as brimstone; of silicon and traces of other metals, 
all of which form compounds either with each other or with 
iron which effect the characteristics of the steel. 

All are familiar with the effect of carbon in carbon tool steel 
and its results in making the tool hard when the steel is quenched 
from redness in some cooling medium. 

Low carbon boiler plate must be punched and bent, and low 
carbon tubes must be beaded, all of which are soft steel as 
compared with tires which are hard steel and must withstand 
wear. This hardness affects the tensile strength of the steel 
as well as its capacity to stretch or have ' ' elongation, " as it 
is commonly called. 

On a locomotive, steels are used varying from one-tenth to> 
seven-tenths of carbon, as follows: 
.10 to .20 Carbon, Boiler, firebox plate and tubes. 
: Bolts for side rods. 

Side and main rods, piston rods and axles. 
Knuckle pins for couplers which are hard- 
ened in oil. 
Cross head keys and tires. 
Spring steel which is specially hardened 
and tempered. 

The reason for low carbon in plates and tubes, giving what is 
termed a mild steel, is to have a soft, easily working ductile 

Bolts with .25 carbon cut with a cleaner thread than those with 
less carbon and have a greater tensile strength. 

Axles, side and main rods, piston rods and crank pins with .45%- 
carbon have fair hardness for wear and have good strength. 

Knuckle pins, which are oil toughened, have a high shearing 
vslue and good wearing qualities. 

Cross head keys have a high shearing value, tires are hard for 
wearing quality. 

Springs which are hardened and tempered have a high tensile 
strength and resistance to fatigue. 

Attention is called to an interesting attribute which all the 
steels and wrought irons have in common, and that is, that if 
you took the same cross section and same length of bar of each 
and put the same load on each, the stretch would be the same, 
provided the elastic limit were not exceeded. The "elastic 
limit" is that limit which must not be exceeded if the material 
stressed is to return to its original shape. Steels which have not 
been hardened have the elastic limit one-half of the ultimate 
strength ; for example, boiler plate with an ultimate strength of 
55,000 lbs. per square inch has an elastic limit of about 37,500 
lbs., steels which have been hardened have the elastic limit about 
two-thirds of the ultimate strength. This explains then why 
making a coil spring harder does not make it stiffer, though it is 
true that it may bend further and come back to its original 
shape, as compared with one not so hard. 

A widely held idea is that wrought iron is fibrous in structure, 
while steel is crystalline, and for this reason staybolts which are 

February, 1915 



subject to unknown stresses withstand better if made of iron. 

Iron is made by welding many bars together and then rolling 
them out, and the difference in the amount of work put on these 
two irons is easily seen. (The writer showed an illustration of 
a fibrous fracture of iron and a crystalline fracture of the same 
iron, both depending on whether the nicking extends all around and 
the bar is sharply broken or not. For comparison a fracture of 
steel of the typical crystalline kind was shown together with a 
fibrous, or perhaps more properly called, laminated steel fracture 
of a spring plate.) 

Much is heard about fatigue of metals and a failure of that 
type is shown in a crank pin which in service is pulled and pushed 
on two sides only. This is a fracture in detail because failure has 
taken place in detail or bit by bit. This type of fracture is often 
mistaken for a flaw in the material. Fractures in detail are com- 
mon on axles or on any material which is alternately put into ten- 
sion and compression many millions of times. Failures in detail are 
caused by overloading, by using too little material or allowing it 
to be used too long. 

Again, material is said to become crystalline due to its use 
or abuse, which in turn causes failure. This belief in the growth 
of crystals is probably due to failures of iron, whose fracture 
showed to be crystalline, whereas a fibrous fracture would ordi- 
narily be expected. In my opinion there is no change in the size 
of the crystals when temperature is not a factor in the use of 
material, and that the crystalline face on the fracture is due to 
the method in which failure was made, that is, the path of frac- 
ture has been altered as compared with what it would have been 
had the metal been fractured new without any use. 

There are failures because of an inherent defect in the steel 
due to a pipe or cavity in the original ingot, and there are a 
number of other defects, such as blow holes and segregations, 
which may occur in rolled steel. It is not intended, however, to 
dwell upon poor material, as it is a very small proportion of the 
total used. 

Cast steel is poured into a mold very much in the same manner 
as cast iron and is consequently used for intricate shapes where 
a stronger metal than malleable iron is required. In order to 
relieve the shinkage strains due to casting and to increase the 
ductility, steel castings are annealed. 

Malleable iron is now confined to small castings, thin in section 
and complicated in shape. Because of the fusibility of malleable 
iron at a low temperature, no greater moulding difficulties are 
found than with cast iron. Malleable castings when poured are 
chilled as white as the tread of a cast" iron wheel, and a long 
annealing is necessary to give to the iron its malleability and 
ductility. This malleability is due to the change in the condi- 
tion of the carbon in the iron. 

Cast iron is used for many purposes yet, and the largest cast- 
ings are locomotive cylinders and ear wheels, very few driving 
wheel centers being made of cast iron now. Cast iron should not 
be used where it will be in tension, unless these stresses are 
very low. 

There are three principal grades of cast iron for railway use, 
the softest and weakest being known as machinery grade, and com- 
prising those castings which machine most readily, cylinder metal, 
which is stronger, and wheel metal, which is used exclusively for 
cast iron wheels, and the chief characteristic of which is that 
the iron must be capable of being chilled to form the tread. Now, 
the interesting thing about these different grades of iron is that 
as in the case of the grades of steel enumerated earlier, it is 
the carbon which is responsible for the difference in the irons, 
only the total amount of carbon does not vary, but its condition 
does. In steel we have all the carbon in what is termed in the 
laboratory as "combined," that is, it has combined with the 
iron to form a compound. In cast iron the carbon is in two 
conditions, either as graphite showing as black flakes or small 
black spots, or also as ' ' combined. ' ' The total carbon will be 
in the neighborhood of three and a half per cent, but the com- 
bined carbon will vary from half a per cent in machine iron to 

one per cent in cylinder iron, and to all ' ' combined ' ' in the white 
or chilled portion of a car wheel. The difference in the test 
bars gotten from these different irons is all due to the difference 
in the state or condition of the carbon. 

Puddled or wrought iron is so familiar to us all that it will 
suffice to say that while steel has taken many of the places pre- 
viously filled by iron, yet the eminent suitability of iron for such 
work as staybolts and pins to be case-hardened has resulted in its 
still being used for these and many other purposes. In addition 
to making a tensile test to determine the strength and ductility 
of iron, an etched section of the iron is made. This gives addi- 
tional information as to how well worked the iron is. A test 
which is being used to distinguish between good and inferior 
irons is the so-called vibration test. In this test a special test 
piece is alternately put in compression and tension until failure 
takes place with a fracture in detail, as previously described in 
the case of the steel crank pin. Unfortunately, this test is not 
always conclusive, as differences in testing gives a greater differ- 
ence of results than the differences in the material. 

It is more difficult to tell the difference between iron and steel 
than the average person imagines, but shearing will very often 
tell the story, the iron being softer and shearing more readily. 
When this will not tell, etching will distinguish. Chemically there 
is usually much difference, for we can compare the two thus: 

Carbon Sulphur Phosphorus Manganese 

Iron 05 to .15 .02 to .07 .075 to .20 Trace to .20 

Steel 10 to 1.50 .02 to .07 .02 to .10 .20 to .80 

The greatest difference usually is in the manganese. 

A very noticeable difference between mild steel and iron is the 
poor thread which cuts on mild steel, the metal dragging, while 
in iron a clean thread is readily cut. Steel makers, in order to 
make steel that will thread well, purposely leave the sulphur high, 
and the phosphorus too, and much hexagonal cold drawn steel 
which threads so well is very poor material. So, too, in working, 
hot steel is not formed as easily as iron, and it is harder on both 
machines and dies to work steel than it is iron. The most of the 
common steel pipe is made from Bessemer steel, which is high in 
phosphorus, because this steel welds very readily and threads well. 

It is often desirable to identify the variety of steel which 
may be under consideration, to know whether it has been made 
by the crucible process, the Bessemer process, the acid or basic 
open hearth process. At the present time the amount of steel 
made in electric furnaces is relatively small. Expensive steels 
only are made by the crucible method, say steel costing from 6 
cents a pound up, so that price generally determines the use of 
crucible steel. The Bessemer steel is generally distinguished 
from the open hearth steel by its higher phosphorus content, 
0.7% to 1%, and its high manganese. It is very hard to distin- 
guish between acid and basic open hearth, and its source will often 
have to furnish the clue. Basic open hearth is usually lower in 
phosphorus and sulphur than acid open hearth, because it can be 
so made, but otherwise there is no way of readily telling which 
one has, either by physical tests or the chemical analysis. Usually 
it doesn't make much difference, though engineers will be found 
with preference for acid open hearth because of the initially 
better stock, from a chemical viewpoint, that is necessary to 
make it. 

In addition to the common steels a number of alloy steels are 
used. The best known now are vanadium steels, and they may 
be in any form that steel is supplied, and it will suffice to say 
that vanadium makes for soundness, and that these steels are 
heat treated. Where a steel is to be specially treated or "heat- 
treated," as it is termed, then chromium' is also added, the chro- 
mium making the steel more susceptible to the effect of quench- 
ing. Vanadium steel is commonly used as castings in frames, 
with chromium for axles, rods, tires and springs, and it has been 
used in cast iron for cylinders. Manganese steel is most commonly 
used where much wear is met with, rubbing blocks on locomo- 
tives and knuckles of couplers are the principal uses. It takes 
from .12% to .14% of manganese in the casting, which is after- 



February, 1915 

wards quenched to give the qualities desired. High silicon and 
manganese steel have been used for spring steel. Nickel and 
nickel chrome steels have not attained any great use yet in loco- 
motive and ear building. 

Alloy steels are much used for cutting tools, and we have the 
original high speed steels with chromium and tungsten to give the 
wonderful cutting qualities. Then the addition of vanadium im- 
proved these steels and gave a superior class of high speed steels. 
Latterly cobalt has been added, which made an improvement, so 
that we have now the double superior steels. Xo doubt this will 
give a continued improvement, but it is expected the English 
language will break down in attempting to supply adjectives to 
adequately express the quality, so we will be reduced to using a 
letter, such as is supplied to describe the amount of work done 
on iron. The custom was to designate as B, BB, or BBB, in 
referring to the number of times that the wrought iron was 
worked, and this method has been so popular as representing 
work that the general public is now worked into accepting steel 
chain which is described as B, BB and BBB. 

The self -hardening tool steels depend largely upon tungsten for 
their properties. In high speed steels, as in carbon steels for 
cutting tools, it is our old friend carbon that gives the hardness 
forming the carbide of tungsten and of chromium, which remain 
hard at a red heat. The carbide of iron is soft at a red heat, 
hence high speed steels may be run at a red heat, while carbon 
steels must be run at a low temperature. 

The bronzes, brasses, and white metals are a small but interest- 
ing group, and if we think that we know less about them than 
we do about iron and steel it is perhaps because the latter have 
received more study and attention. We do not consider a yellow 
or red metal as any more complex than cast iron, yet, given the 
analysis of a piece of cast iron and some little history, we will 
fairly well tell its attributes. 

Bronzes may be described as copper base metals with up to 
.10% of tin and some smaller amounts of lead and zinc, while 
brasses are a copper base with additions of zinc up to one-third 
the total weight. The bronzes are used chiefly for bearing metals 
and steam metals, while the brasses are for decoration. About a 
railway shop the bronze-bearing metals are usually known as 
"brasses," which is the old name for any mixture containing 
copper, but we consider bronzes the better term. Bailway bronzes 
and brasses may vary somewhat on account of the melting of the 
return scrap, and a consistent effort must be made to keep them 
up to a given formula. Bronzes and brasses both cast well, and 
in addition to castings considerable brass in sheet form and pipes 
is used. The chemical analyses are the checks on the quality of 
these materials and indicate reasonably well the characteristics 
of the metals. In bronzes a reasonable strength is needed, and, 
if possible, total absence of porous or hard spots. In brasses 
color and soundness are the main considerations. An addition 
to this class of metals in the last few years is plastic bronze, 
which is a copper metal containing as much as .359o of lead. 
This is a satisfactory metal for bearing purposes and is reason- 
ably cheap. 

With the exception of locomotive rod and driving box bronzes 
the other bronze bearings are lined with white metal. The white 
metal is lead with antimony, thirteen per cent or less, and tin from 
two to six per cent. The antimony and tin are added to make 
the lead hard. Here it is well to explain that lead is often termed 
a frictionless metal, but this is certainly a misnomer. There is 
no metal which produces more friction than lead does when used 
alone, but unfortunately it is cheaply hardened by antimony and 
then becomes of greater value. The value of lead mixtures is the 
ease with which they change their shape to conform to any altera- 
tion in the relative position of the journal and the bearing, and 
consequently there is always present a large bearing area. Theo- 
retically, the lubricating material, oil or grease, forms a film 
between the bearing and the journal, and the advantage of a 
metal which can adapt itself easily to keep this oil film or wedge 
unbroken and of greatest area must be a valuable bearing metal. 

White metals, with tin as the principal constituent, have only 

a limited use in railway work and are used where the duty is 
exceptionally severe, either with excessive pressures or high tem- 
peratures, as for metallic packings, are a rule. White bearing 
metals with a high content of zinc are not commonly used, as 
far as we know. As with bronzes, chemical analysis is the prin- 
cipal way of checking up the quality of the white metals. 

The rubber products used by a railway are comparatively small 
in value but are of much interest. Hose for air, steam and water 
are the most important, and are now being purchased on speci- 
fication basis with satisfactory results. As in every other line 
of industry, the use of scrap must be considered and with the 
advent of increasing amounts of rubber grown on plantations, 
the "Fine Para" rubber from the upper reaches of the myste- 
rious Amazon Biver is forming a smaller part of rubber products 
than formerly. In hose we look for the cotton duck to give the 
• strength and permit of sufficient flexibility while the rubber 
protects the duck and makes the hose air, water, or steam tight. 
As yet physical tests, including stretching and recovery, and 
the strength tests are the principal ones to gauge the quality of 
the rubber. The chemical analysis of rubber is more widely done 
now that standard methods are promulgated by the chemical 
societies and a reasonably accurate measure of the constituents 
of any rubber is now readily made and the amount of new and 
old rubber determined. 

Physical tests on the strength of the duck are made, too, so 
that the physical and chemical tests, together with the knowledge 
of the physical construction, permit one to ' make a reasonably 
good judgment of the service which may be expected from any 
sample of hose. 

The problems of the rubber hose maker are varied, for it can 
be seen that with rubber compounds and cotton duck he must 
provide steam hose which must be flexible when used at a tem- 
perature of 250° F. or more, while with the same material air 
brake hose must be flexible at 25° below zero. That this is 
successfully done is an indication of the skill of the rubber 

Paints form one of the interesting groups of materials that 
the inspecting and testing engineer has to do with, and quite often 
the paint manufacturer and the chemist are not in agreement as 
to what constitutes the best paint for any particular job. There 
are good paints and plenty of them, but likewise there are poor 
paints and perhaps even more of them. Paint making has not 
yet emerged from the stage of shop formulae and trade secrets, 
and until such time as paint making is as open to the engineering 
world as the iron and steel industry, or as the rubber industry is 
becoming, there will always be considerable disagreement and 
dissatisfaction. After all is- said, service is what is desired in 
paint as in everything else that a railway uses, but the great 
difficulty is to agree upon what constitutes satisfactory service. 
We might twist the immortal quotation of Bret Harte to fit 
by saying: 

Which I wish to remark — 
And my language is plain — 

That for ways that are dark 
And tricks that are vain, 

The "Paint-Maker" is peculiar. 

However, that viewpoint is undoubtedly unfair to a large industry 
which includes many honorable manufacturers. 

The present most satisfactory way to buy paints is to have 
a color card, specify the consistency of the paint desired, and 
leave the rest to the paint manufacturer. In specifying any 
composition one is usually opening up a fruitless discussion. 
Linseed oil is still the most satisfactory paint oil and while other 
oils are being used, and with success, yet linseed oil has not been 
displaced. Within the last few years there has been much good 
literature published in connection with paints and much testing 
work has been done jointly by paint manufacturer associations 
and engineering societies. Progress is being made and the final 
lesult is not as hopeless as these remarks on paints, would lead 
vou to believe. 

February, 1915 



Lumber and timber, while forming an important material, is 
not on a written specification basis like many other materials. 
This is bought on grades, men skilled by experience in the work- 
ing up of lumber judging as to the suitability and quality of the 
lumber skipped. Specifications are used and merchant lumber 
associations have definitions of grades and imperfections, but the 
inspection of lumber will probably remain in the hands of the 
men who make its production and use their life's work. 

In drawing up specifications, the characteristic of materials 
are described or exhibited by the tests, but sometimes a specifica- 
tion is criticized in that the tests asked for are not those which 
show the suitability of the material for the use to which it is to 
be put. For example, the quenching of a piece of boiler plate 
or boiler tube at a red heat in water and the requirement of 
subsequent bending without cracking is not anything like what the 
material is subjected to in use. But this test is a check on the 
carbon, for low carbon material is desired, and this method of 
checking the carbon content is quicker even than a laboratory 
analysis and quite as satisfactory. 

An enumeration of the characteristics of materials is not the 
only thing necessary to insure good material and the manufac- 
turer's assistance in giving "full measure," so to speak, in 
meeting the requirements, together with the manufacturing skill 
of his organization, will insure a generally better material than 
where an effort to just meet or beat the specifications is aimed 
at. It should be added here that there are still some companies 
whose pride in quality is greater than their pride in quantity, 
and given a choice, a disagreement with the former mentioned 
is preferred. Occasionally the infallible company is met, which, 
like the king, ' ' can do no wrong, ' ' but that is their viewpoint 

Economies in Freight Car Repairs 

An Enumeration of Twenty-nine Specific Instances in 
Which Economy Can Be Effected in Re- 
pairing Freight Cars 

By H. H. Harvey, Genl. Car Finn., C, B. & Q. R. E. 

It hardly seems necessary to say anything about increased size 
of locomotives, longer trains, rougher handling of cars in switch 
yards, etc., as compared with conditions only a few years ago, for 
you are all familiar with these changes. 

Neither is it necessary to call attention to the gradual general 
increase in the cost of freight car repairs or the necessity for econ- 
omy in everything pertaining to the operation of railroads, as 
you are all familiar with this also and are no doubt making special 
efforts to keep expenses down to a minimum in your particular 

So far as the freight car repair problem is concerned one of 
the most important questions at the present time is to get rid of 
short draft timbers extending only to the body bolster and secured 
to draft sills by only about four %-in. or 1-in. bolts. Cars so equipped 
are not safe to handle in the heavy tonnage trains in general 
use on all of our larger trunk lines, and if owners wish to con- 
tinue them in service, they should placard them and keep them on 
their own rails regardless of the capacity of the cars. 

Only recently I saw a box car that had been given heavy gen- 
eral repairs, repainted and made practically new above sills, and 
it had six 5 in. by 8 in. longitudinal sills, with short draft tim- 
bers depending entirely on the vertical bolts with which they were 
attached to draft sills. "Work of this kind is not economical, nor 
is it safe, and it should be discouraged in every possible way. 

This, however, is not what I had in mind, but it is such a good 
example of what should be done that I cannot forego the oppor- 
tunity of mentioning it. 

Many economical practices in freight car repairs have been 

* Extracts from a paper presented before the Western Railway 
Club on January 19, 1915. 

brought out in the past few years and I would invite your atten- 
tion to some that have come to my notice. 

Before mentioning them I wish to state that few, if any, of 
them are original with me and that most of them are in quite 
general use on various roads, but they will serve as reminders to 
bring out others. They are as follows: 

(1) Welding or piecing out old bolts. Bolts % in. and over 
in diameter can be welded or pieced out to any desired length 
under a Bradley hammer at a saving of at least $15.00 a thousand 
and they will give satisfactory service. 

(2) Old 1%-in. truss rods from dismantled cars may be made 
into brake shafts by upsetting lower end and truing up drum 
under ha mm er, and drawing upper end down to proper size for 
ratchet wheel for a distance of about four feet. This makes a 
good stiff shaft, at a considerable saving over cost when made of 
new iron. 

(3) Column bolts for arch bar trucks may be made from old 
1%-in. body truss rods, by upsetting the two ends about four or 
five inches, truing up under a hammer and leaving center of bolt 
1% in. 

(4) Old 1%-in. truss rods from dismantled cars may be ham- 
mered down under a Bradley hammer into 2 in. by % in. flat, 1 in., 
1% in. or 1*4 in. round, at a saving of from $5.00 to $12.00 per 
ton over new iron. This, of course, does not apply where roads 
have their own rolling mill. 

(5) Coupler pockets cracked or broken at rivet holes may be 
pieced out at considerable saving. 

(6) Coupler pockets may be made from old arch bars from dis- 
mantled cars. 

(7) Draft springs that have taken a permanent set may be 
heated, stretched to proper length and retempered. 

(8) Flanges may be sheared from old truck channels, and the 
web made into plates for strengthening wooden draft sills between 
end sill and body bolster. 

(9) Brake shafts from dismantled box and stock cars may be 
cut off and made into shafts for coal and flat cars. 

(10) Brake rod jaws from dismantled cars may be cut off and 
used in making rods for repair work. 

(11) Metal brake beams from dismantled cars may be used for 
repair work on system light capacity cars, or in changing from 
wood to metal beams. 

(12) Very good brake beam hanger supports may be made from 
old arch bars, which, when riveted to channel type spring plank 
make an economical way to change from outside to inside hung 

(13) Many malleable castings may be replaced with forgings 
or pressings made from scrap at shops, at a less cost than price of 
malleable. Carlin pockets are a good example of this. 

(14) Old wrought iron body bolsters may be sheared to size 
and made into deadwood plates, carrier irons, tie straps and many 
other things. 

(15) A very good bottom brake shaft support may be made 
from old arch bar tie straps. 

(16) The good part of broken sills, and good sills from dis- 
mantled cars may be made into sill splices, at a saving of about 
one dollar per splice. 

(17) The bottom two-thirds of short pieces of second-hand sills 
can be used in making running board saddles, grain strips, blind 
girth, cripple posts, etc. 

(18) Lining from dismantled cars, if carefully removed, can be 
used in repairing other cars. 

(19) Lower course of roof boards from dismantled cars can, if 
carefully removed, be used in repair work. 

(20) Good sheathing on dismantled cars, if carefully removed, 
may be used below side and end doors, in making end doors for 
repair work and also for sheathing on bunk and company service 

(21) If a road uses grain door nailing strips on inside of side 
door posts, old flooring from dismantled cars may be used to good 
advantage in making these strips. 



Februarv, 1915 

(22) Oak earlins from dismantled cars can be made into first- 
class outside cross braces for side doors. 

(23) Good second-hand brasses may be rebored and relined at 
considerable saving ; if filled brasses are used it is often necessary- 
only to rebore them. 

(24) Second-hand nuts, if promptly picked up from around 
repair tracks, can usually be reclaimed by simply giving them an 
oil bath. 

(25) It pays to remove nuts from broken stub ends of bolts by 
hand, but it is still better to do it with a machine. 

(26) Cracks in floors of box cars can be calked with oakum and 
much flooring saved. 

(27) Use flooring not to exceed six inches in width in box cars 
and avoid renewal on account of shrinkage cracks that will cause a 
leakage of small grain. 

(28) Use plates at least three inches square under vertical rod 
heads at side plate and also under heads of bolts going through 
sills, to prevent them pulling down into plate and sills. This only 
applies to ears with wooden sills and plates. 

(29) The ends of old box cars may be greatly strengthened by 
applying 1%-in. end lining, extending from corner post to cor- 
ner post. Many grain leaks may be avoided by fitting this lining 
tight to floor at girth. 

The road with which I am connected has found it a good prop- 
osition to build, at their own shops, from five to seven hundred 
stock cars per year to use up good material from dismantled cars 
which otherwise would be sold as scrap. These stock ears are 36 
ft. in length with steel center sills and treated intermediate and 
side sills. In practically all cases we have been able to use 
second-hand material in their construction, with the exception of 
the lumber, steel sills, post pockets, brasses, bolts, etc. This sec- 
ond-hand material is carefully inspected, worked over and worn 
parts removed, so that cars are just as good as if all new mate- 
rial had been used in their construction. 

Many of the practices enumerated are in general use, and no 
claim is made for anything original. 

By V. T. Kropidlowski. 

The writer happened onto the above tool in one of the western 
shops. It can be used to good advantage for countersinking holes 
in flanges of black flue sheets, and for a variety of other work of 
similar nature, whereby time can be saved and work accomplished 
otherwise impossible. 

The body A, Fig, 1, can either be drawn out of a solid block, 
by cutting out the space where the gears go, or it may be made 
from two pieces of round bar, by splitting them at one end and 
drawing the spbt ends out into the required flatness and welding 
the two shapes together at the flats, then bending the flats to 
the forked shape, so that the trunnion-like projections, B and B', 
stand at right angles to each other. The sockets in B' and B 
can be drilled in a drill press. B receives spindle C, which has a 

Radial Drill Press Attachment. 

Morse taper at one end to fit the spindle of the drill press, the 
other end projecting through into the forked part, where it 
receives gear E . B' receives spindle D, and a regular Morse taper 
socket, is in this spindle for the reception of the drills, it being 
trunnioned at the other end. where it protrudes through into the 
forked space, and receives gear F, which gear meshes with gear 
E. The yoke G is made of flat merchant iron, bent and shaped to 
go round the forked end of the body A, the two free ends being 
twisted so that the flat surfaces are horizontal and on the level 
with the top edge of the yoke part, and at the extreme ends 
these free ends are bent downwards, so as to bolt a cross-piece 
across them (cross-piece H), which carries the feed screw and 
handle I. 

Fig. 2 shows the tool applied to a drill press, countersinking 
holes in the flange of a back flue sheet. 

How the Baltimore & Ohio deals with the newspapers in matters 
of public interest concerning its affairs was shown in the case of a 
train accident recently. "When a report reached Superintendent 
Lechlider that the Chieago-Xew York express train had been 
derailed at Warwick. O., early that morning, he telegraphed the 
city editors of each of the Cleveland papers, requesting that a 
representative accompany him to the scene or that the local cor- 
respondent get in touch with him. The newspaper man at War- 
wick was given every detail of the accident, in which no one was 
hurt although the train ran 100 yards along the right- of -way. 


Eailroad buying is active as the larger railroads come into the 
market for their year 's requirements. Especially heavy purchases 
of spikes and other supplies have been ordered, and several good 
rail and steel car orders have been placed. The railroads are put- 
ting forth every possible effort, apparently, to alleviate the in- 
dustrial stress by doing as much buying as their resources and 
needs will permit. 

The railroads need revenue. They need extensions. They need 
new energy. They need equipment. They need credit. They 
ought not to be compelled to expend most of their strength in 
fighting off the assaults of political pirates and professional dema- 
gogues. Having accepted public regulation in good faith, when 
they state their case, with evidence to support it, they should be 
fairly heard and honestly judged. They have been so heard and 
judged, as their leading representatives admit. Now let them 
spend their money. It is time to keep promises, to justify argu- 
ments, to fulfill expectations. The day of the prophet is at hand. 
— Xew York World. 

Fig. C — Radial Drill Press Attachment. 


The American Car Builders' Association has been formed 
by various car manufacturers to bring about the standardization 
of freight car equipment, thereby effecting considerable economies 
in manufacture. The organization is the result of a recent sug- 
gestion of the American Railway Association. J. M. Hansen, 
president of the Standard Steel Car Company. Pittsburgh, is presi- 
dent of the association: W. H. Woodin, of the American Car & 
Foundry Company, New York, is vice-president, and William Bier- 
man, of the Standard Steel Car Company, Pittsburgh, is secretary. 

February, 1915 



The Use of Superheaters on Locomotives' 

The Particular Value of the Superheater in Railway Service and 
the Results Which Have Been Obtained by Its Application 

By W. M. Ostermann, Asst. to V. P., Locomotive Superheater Co. 

The influence of superheating upon the design and 
operation of locomotives is quite revolutionary, and much 
more unusual than in stationary power plants. You are 
all farniliar with the engineering refinements that have 
attended the development of the stationary reciprocating 
engine and boiler plant. 

The keynote of locomotive design and operation has 
always been simplicity, and railroad men have maintained 
an attitude of conservatism well founded upon their 
experience of having had to operate numerous power 
plants on wheels with a high degree of precision and 
often under conditions that are adverse to the proper 
maintenance of any kind of machinery. 

However, that there are today in Operation about 
32,000 locomotives equipped just with the one design 
of superheater I am going to speak to you about later on, 
nearly twelve thousand of which are being used on the 
railroads of this continent, and that a very large per- 
centage of the locomotives being ordered at this time are 
equipped with the device, is a proof of the fact that the 
benefits are such that they demand ready appreciation. 

The principal reason why an improvement of cylinder 
performance, or in other words a reduction of the weight 
of steam per indicated horse power hour, is of particu- 
lar value for locomotives, is to be found in the limita- 
tions of weight and clearance imposed upon the locomotive 
boiler, limitations which have been felt more and more 
as the demand for horse power capacity grew. The sta- 
tionary plant designer has no serious difficulties in pro- 
portioning his engine and boilers so as to furnish a cer- 
tain amount of sustained power. All he needs is money 
to provide himself with sufficient boiler room space and 
substantial foundations. His skill is employed for choos- 
ing, among the known improvements, a combination that 
will produce a horse power with a minimum of coal and 
with the maximum of assurance for uninterrupted serv- 
ice. Fundamentally different is the problem of the loco- 
motive designer. His efforts are directed towards ob- 
taining a certain amount of sustained power with the 
help of a boiler, the weight of which is limited to what 
is required for the purpose of adhesion, the cross section 
of which is moreover limited by road clearance and the 
length of which is limited by the curves of the track as 
defining a maximum of rigid wheel base. 

Increasing wages of train and engine crews, the desire 
to increase the operating efficiency of existing track, some- 
times inability on the part of the railroads to reduce 
their grades in pace with the development of the traffic 
and recently the introduction of steel and steel under- 
frame cars, are factors that are responsible for the rapid 
growth of weight and power of locomotives in this coun- 

The average weight has been increasing fast : for in- 
stance, it was 112,600 lbs. in 1902, 163,600 lbs. in 1913, 
and recent figures of the average weight of 1,250 locomo- 
tives ordered during 1914 show same to be 286,000 lbs. 

A comparison of heating surfaces in stationary and 
locomotive boilers is very instructive. While a square 
foot of heating surface is provided in stationary boilers 

*Extracts from a paper presented at a meeting of the 
Chicago section of the American Society of Mechanical 

for evaporating from four to seven pounds of water per 
hour, locomotive boilers have to evaporate as much as 
twenty pounds and more per square foot of heating sur- 
face. Some recent Pennsylvania tests produced evapora- 
tions of 23.3 lbs. per square foot of heating surface under 
forced conditions and with coal as fuel. In view 7 of such 
extraordinary figures illustrating better than any argu- 
ments could the limitations under wdiich steam has to be 
generated in locomotive operation, the possibilities of 
relief were tremendous as brought about by any device 
that could decrease the pounds of steam per indicated 
horse power hour and that at the same time, which is very 
important, could be applied without materially impairing 
the boiler efficiency or greatly increasing the weight of 
the locomotive. This relief was provided by a correctly 
designed locomotive superheater. 

I am not going to give you a historical outline of the 
development of the art of locomotive superheating, nor 
can I mention all of the various existing designs. I will 
only speak of one which is at present used in the United 
States in preference to other existing designs, a super- 
heater which is generally called the Schmidt or top-header 
superheater and of which there are upwards of eleven 
thousand in use. It is one of the fire-tube or, more gen- 
erally speaking, of the parallel-flow type, the latter in 
distinction to the smokebox superheater that operates on 
the series principle and that, in other words, utilizes the 
heat of the gases that is left after same have been in 
contact with the evaporating surface. I wish to mention 
in this connection that fire tube superheaters of the same 
general flue arrangement were designed and successfully 
introduced by Mr. Yaughan of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway in Canada, and Mr. Cole of the American Loco- 
motive Company in the United States. 

Xow let us regard some of the results that can be 
obtained with a correctly designed smoketube superheater. 
From a combination of the results of tests made by Dr. 
Goss, the Pennsylvania R. R. and others, we infer that 
the greater saving at the higher horse power is the direct 
result of higher superheats obtained. In fact, the super- 
heat increases at a nearly constant rate with the indicated 
horse power of the locomotives and varies in a generally 
similar manner with the draft and the rate of evaporation, 
both of which, as you are aware, are automatically regu- 
lated to suit the load of the locomotive through the 
agency of its exhaust. The superheater is therefore an 
effective power booster for the locomotive and this is a. 
very valuable feature of it from an operating standpoint. 
The more steam demand there is made upon the boiler, 
the more water has to be evaporated per square foot of 
evaporating surface, the more coal has to be burned per 
square foot of grate and the more intense is the action 
of the superheater in decreasing the specific steam con- 
sumption of the locomotive. There is an increasing 
superiority of the superheated engine performance over 
the saturated engine performance in the curves as the 
horse power increases. The saturated locomotive boiler 
does not possess any boosting feature, on the contrary 
the moisture in the steam fast increases, making the sat- 
urated locomotive fall down when forced. The action 
of the superheater in boosting the steam temperature and 
power of the locomotive probably finds its limit of bene- 
fit at the point where too great an increase of cut-off halts 


a further reduction of specific steam consumption. Just of resistances to the flow of the two parallel streams of 

at what speed and power this takes place depends upon gases, the one flowing through the large flues in touch 

the proportions of the boiler, as compared with the cyl- with the superheating and the evaporating surfaces, the 

inders and wheels, and the problem of the designer is to other with the evaporating surface only. This ratio is 

provide the boiler with its proper share of evaporating and for a given length of boiler equal to the ratio of net 

superheater heating surface so that the largest possible internal areas through the large tubes and through the 

amount of sustained horse power can be had at the speed small smoke, tubes. Upon it depend the steam tempera- 

at which the engine is required to operate normally. tures that are obtained in the cylinders at various power 

In a locomotive, the area of the indicator card is indica- outputs, the power boosting and economizing features 

tive of sustained haulage capacity. The larger the card of the fire-tube superheater. At the present time, they 

at a certain speed, the more tons one can hang on to the are designed in such a manner that temperatures of about 

drawbar of a locomotive, and the greater the latter's earn- 620 ° to 650 are obtained for maximum sustained horse- 

ing capacity. The addition of a correctly designed super- power. The steam temperature is in a manner of inci- 

heater to a locomotive makes it possible to greatly increase dental interest only, and it is not the purpose of the 

the area of the card at a certain speed and to therefore design to reach a certain temperature. What is wanted 

increase the haulage and earning capacity of a saturated is a maximum increase of sustained power from a given 

locomotive, by increasing the cut-off or by "dropping her boiler. The more large flues and superheater units are 

down," as the engineers say, and still retain the balance applied, the more highly can the steam be superheated, 

between steam generation and consumption. but also the greater is the sacrifice of evaporating surface, 

Savings in coal and water per unit of power devel- and in consequence thereof, the misgivings of the designer 

oped are now being obtained in every day operation. As of olden days who does not give up a square foot with- 

a rough average, a coal saving of 25% and a correspond- out a fight. The intrusion of the superheater units into 

ing water saving of 35% can be expected and thermally the boiler therefore meant a compromise with the boiler 

accounted for with the knowledge that we have of the man, but as shown the influence of superheating upon 

average amount of cylinder condensation that exists in specific steam consumption is so great that the net result 

saturated locomotives. is a tremendous gain. 

Comparing two locomotives with identically the same It is possible that still greater fuel economies and 

engines and wheels — a case which presents itself often power increases than at present obtained can be had from 

when a superheater is applied to an existing saturated the superheater that produces higher steam temperatures, 

locomotive — and assuming further that it would be pos- but from what I said before this superheater would not 

sible to take sufficient horse power out of the superheater be practical from an operating standpoint unless it can 

engine so that it burns the same quantity of coal as the do so with comparatively small sacrifices of evaporating 

saturated engine per hour without an appreciable increase surface. This aim can be achieved with a superheater 

of coal consumption per indicated horse power developed, of a similar, parallel flow of firetube type, that provides 

then on the basis of the fact that the superheater engine for a still closer juxtaposition of superheater and evap- 

can produce one horse power hour at 25% less coal than orating surfaces, for an arrangement of superheating sur- 

the saturated engine, we can inversely figure that the face within still smaller smoketubes than the present 

superheater engine has 33^% more cylinder horse power superheater provides for. In this manner, it is possible 

and from 45% to 55% more drawbar horsepower avail- to obtain a more effective abstraction of heat from the 

able than the saturated engine. In operating terms, draw- gases and obtain higher superheats without sacrificing 

bar horsepower is tractive power times speed of train, boiler efficiency. Such an arrangement is actually in use 

For the same speed of both engines and trains under now i n Europe and its introduction in this country may 

comparison, the drawbar pull is about proportional to be possible in time. 

the tonnage, so it would seem that the superheater en- A number of problems that presented themselves with 

gine can haul 45% to 55% more tonnage at the speed the introduction of superheated steam in locomotive 

of the saturated locomotive working at a correspondingly operation, such as the obtainance of good lubrication, 

larger cut-off than the latter. Now that is practically proper maintenance at roundhouses, et al., were attacked 

impossible due to these reasons. The superheater loco- an d successfully solved in a short time through sys- 

motive has not any more starting effort than the sat- tematic efforts on the part of the railroads, problems the 

urated locomotive of the same engine dimensions and discussion of which would lead me too far. There is 

particularly on poorly graded roads the starting feature no logical reason why the problem incidental to the use 

governs the tonnage that can be handled ; besides the f st iH higher steam temperatures could not be solved 

specific coal consumption increases as the cut-off is a i so 

increased in a progressive manner, and what share this 

feature has in preventing too great an increase of ton- GENERAL NEWS. 

nage depends upon the cut-off at which the ^f^ commo dity rates from Chicago, Mississippi 

engine had to be worked, whether it was overboilered 01 *«* sed and intermediate territory to Utah 

underboilered. An increase of speed in order to utilize *J P ed the intergtate commerce 

the greater drawbar horsepower available is often pos- ancl c . om . . *° ! Hfifil1 

sibk in practice. In that, case, the drawbar pull in- c ™ ^ ^ ^^ the higher rates proposed by the 

creases also per ton of tram handled, but I have never ™J e £ m ™ ^ an P d P the Chicago g Milwaukee and St. Panl 

heard of a case where all the excess of drawbar horse- f ™™ J**, carloads of cem J, ' lime , stucco , plaste r, roofing 

gr\^etrX^e " KeJheEg ^h L salt from St. Pan, Minneapoiis, Buluth and points in 

must always be reaped in the form of fuel and water North |££» d *^ n and Maine Eailroad have issued 

saving, and in all practical cases is the fireman bound J^X, proposed bill by whi ch legislative authority is 

to save some of his physical efforts merging of the company and the thirty-six lines it 

Before, I stated as much as that the proportions of the ask d r the m g p y ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

superheater within the given locomotive boiler determined %™l?™™™ YoTl , t New P Haven and Hartford Railroad in 

the curve of sustained horsepower available at various t 10n ot tne l \ ew J aiv< 

speeds These proportions are characterized by the ratio Boston and Maine affairs. 

February, 1915 



Safety in Crane Work* 

A Number of Good Suggestions on a Phase of Safety 
Work Which Has Received But Little Attention 

In a thoroughly modern shop an injury to an operator of a 
crane is unusual. The crane manufacturer or the shop manager 
is usually 'willing to see that every needful thing, of a substantial 
nature, is provided for the safety of the craneman. A substan- 
tial crane cab or cage, containing -well-guarded control apparatus, 
is part of the modern traveling crane. Iron or steel stairways -with 
hand-rails and toe-boards afford safe passage for the craneman 
from the ground to the cage, and from the cage to the upper 
deck of the crane. All gears and movable parts of the trolley 
are supposed to be guarded, safety handles have been designed 
for the hoisting hooks, and careful inspection aids in keeping 
the slings and other accessories in proper -working condition. 

There is nothing of a mechanical nature, however, that will 
cope with the uncertainties of the human equation in a shop. 
The workman who does not understand the risks he assumes, or 
who has a penchant for taking a chance, or who is careless or in- 
different, should never be allowed to engage in crane work. Such 
a man will take a short cut under a load that is being raised or 
lowered, or he will pass through a narrow space between the 
load and the wall, when by taking a few extra steps he could 
easily go by on the wide and safe side, or he will do other 
equally unwise and unsafe things. The remedy for such conditions 
lies in education and discipline; and the adoption of special 
rules and regulations for the craneman and his crew, and of 
general rules for all other employees in the shop or yard, con- 
stitutes the first step in this direction. The foreman of the shop 
or yard where cranes are in use should make sure by indi- 
vidual examination and inquiry that every employee knows the 
rules and understands what they mean, and he should be held 
responsible for the strict observance of them at all times and 
under all conditions. 

A ladder or stairway should be provided at one end of the crane 
runway in every instance, to give access to the crane cab; and 
when two cranes are operated on the same runway, ladders or 
stairways should be installed at both ends. The cranemen should 
always use these ladders or stairways when going to the crane 
cages or leaving them. All gears on the trolley and other 
parts of the crane should be guarded, and no one should be 
allowed on top of the crane while it is in motion. "When repairs 
are necessary, run the crane to the end of the shop, if possible, 
and always see that the power switches are locked in the open 
position before work is started. If other cranes are in use upon 
the same runway, so that it is not possible to run the damaged 
crane to the end of the building, see that the safety bumpers are 
placed at each end of it, to prevent the others from running into 
it while the repair work is going on. 

The bottom of the trolley should have a sheet-metal pan fast- 
tened beneath it, to catch any parts that may work loose, and 
prevent them from falling upon employees on the floor below. 
Guards should be provided in front of the truck wheels, to re- 
move any obstructions that may be upon the crane tracks, and 
to prevent injury to persons who may be working upon the 
tracks. The platform on the top of the crane should be of steel, 
equipped with a railing, and also with a side board to prevent 
tools from falling. All electrical wiring for cranes should be 
enclosed in conduits, and it is particularly important that limit 
switches be provided, in all cases, for both the main and auxiliary 
hoists. Keep all tools, oil-cans and waste in a closed metal 
box, securely fastened to the crane or to the runway at some 
convenient point. 

Woodwork should not be used around a crane, because it is 
likely to become oil-soaked, and it is then exceedingly combustible. 
If it should take fire the craneman would have to run the crane 
to the stairway in order to escape, and the motion would increase 

* From The Travelers' Standard. 

the fire and add to the craneman 's danger. If he tries to leave 
the crane in any other way than by the regular ladder or stair- 
way, he will be exposed to hazards of other kinds, and these will 
be accentuated by his haste. 

The craneman should always sound the warning bell before 
raising or lowering a load, or before starting the crane; and 
he should never move a load in any direction until a signal has 
been given by the proper person. The crane crew usually know 
when a movement is about to take place, and are out of harm's 
way; but some of them may fail to hear or see the signal when 
it is given. The sounding of the bell gives definite warning to 
the worker to get clear, and it also warns the other employees in 
the shop who are not immediately concerned with the movements 
of the crane, but who are likely to pass into the danger zone 
without noticing the crane unless the bell is sounded. 

The craneman should never permit any person to ride on the 
load nor on the slings or hooks, and he should be held responsi- 
ble for the enforcement of this rule. See that all employees are 
instructed with regard to this point, and that they know that the 
craneman has full authority to order them off. If they refuse 
to leave, the craneman should decline to start the crane, and it 
should be made clear to him that he will be sustained in this 
action by his employers. Some craneman, rather than cause 
trouble between their fellow workmen arid those in authority, 
will disregard the rule and start the crane; but they should 
remember that they are equally liable to discipline in such cases, 
and that they share the responsibility for any accident that may 
occur. It is not kindness to a man to cover up his errors by 
exposing him to peril of life and limb. 

The crane operator should never allow slings, chains, cables 
or hooks to drag along the floor of the shop, and he should never 
start the crane carriage until the slings, chains or hooks are 
entirely clear of the floor or ground. Even in the short dis- 
tance that the crane might travel before the chains leave the 
floor, the slings or hooks may become caught on some obstruction 
and cause an accident. 

If the floor of the shop is well filled with workmen, it is 
advisable to have a man precede the crane and its load by ten 
or fifteen yards, and give warning to all employees to stand 
aside till the crane has passed. This is especially desirable when 
handling truck loads of material, or loads of any other kind 
which may slip out of the slings from vibration or any other 

A craneman should never try to straighten a load by swinging 
it against a car, building, wall or supporting column. If, after 
raising the load, he notices that it does not ride straight, he 
should sound the warning bell and lower the load and let the 
hookers readjust the slings. Swinging the load against a car or 
building often subjects the cables or chains to sudden jerks 
that may increase the stress upon them three or four fold, and 
cause them to give way. Naturally this greatly increases the 
likelihood of accidents. The men on the floor cannot read the 
craneman 's mind, and therefore cannot know that he intends 
to swing the load. They may pass between the load and a car 
or post without any intimation of danger until it is too late to 
escape except by lying down; and to lie under a load while it 
is swung against a post to be straightened appears to us to 
be about as safe and pleasant as lying in the middle of a railway 
track and waiting for a string of freight ears to go by. 

When a heavy load is to be handled, the craneman should first 
raise it a few inches to find out whether or not it is well bal- 
anced, and to make sure that no undue stress is thrown upon 
any part of the slings. This procedure will also permit him to 
test the braking apparatus. If anything is wrong with the 
brakes or with the adjustment of the slings, the load should be 
lowered at once, and no attempt should be made to move it until 
it has received the necessary repairs or adjustments. Caution in 
this respect is especially important when molten metal is to 
be handled, even in small quantities. 

The craneman in charge of a magnet crane should use extreme 
care in its operation. With this type of crane the load is held, 



February, 1915 

not by slings or chains, but by the intangible force of magnetism; 
and the complete shutting off of the electric current, or any 
marked decrease in its strength, 'will let the load drop immediately 
and •without the least warning, with serious results to any person 
beneath. Whenever it is possible to do so, arrange to make the 
current supply for a magnet crane entirely independent of all 
other power or lighting circuits, in order to avoid interruptions of 
the supply that might otherwise be caused by trouble in other 
parts of the circuit. Magnet cranes should not be used inside 
of buildings, nor in any location w^here they will pass over work- 
men below. 

Cranes of any kind, ajid particularly magnet cranes, should 
never be stopped over a passageway unless men are stationed 
at each end of the passageway to warn employees. All em- 
ployees should be instructed with respect to the principle under- 
lying the action of the magnet crane, so that they will realize 
the special danger of standing or passing beneath the load. 
Even if the magnet has no load, but has the power on, a man 
passing close under it may be exposed to danger if he is carry- 
ing steel or iron on his back or shoulders. If the metal comes 
near enough the magnet will draw it up, and the action is so 
quick and unexpected that the man may also be lifted before he 
has time to release his hold. In any such case the first and most 
natural impulse of the craneman is to shut off the current; but 
if he does so, he immediately destroys the attractive influence 
of the magnet, and the steel or iron that it has seized falls back 
again upon the workman, very likely with serious consequences. 

When a magnet crane is exposed to the weather, make sure 
that the electrical conductors are in first-class condition at all 
times. Conductor losses or leakages during damp or rainy weather 
often weaken the holding power of the magnet. In the winter 
mouth3 ice is likely to form on the power rail or the trolley 
wire, nnd when the brush on the power rail or the wheel of the 
trolley reaches the icy section, the contact becomes broken or 
imperfect, and the load usually drops. It is therefore highly 
important to k*ep the conductors free from ice at all times. 

The majority of what may be termed "minor injuries" among 
crane workers occur in connection with hooking up or unhooking 
the loads. It is not at all uncommon for workmen, after applying 
the hooks to a load, to hold them in place with their hands until 
the slack of the hoisting cable is taken up and the hooks take 
a good grip. The point of contact and the angle which a hook 
makes with the load usually change somewhat the instant the 
weight is lifted, and unless the workman anticipates these changes 
his fingers or hand are quite likely to be caught, and perhaps 
crushed or cut off. In many of our industrial plants safety 
handles are attached to all hooks used in crane work. We 
strongly favor the use of such handles, because they enable the 
workmen to hold the hooks in place with safety until the load 
bears on them. In shops where safety handles are not provided, 
the workmen should use notched pieces of wood of convenient 
size. By pressing the notched section against the hook, the 
latter can be held in place without danger of crushing the hands 
or fingers, and the men are also free from danger in ease the 
load suddenly slips or twists around, or in case a part of the 
hoisting apparatus breaks. 

The hookers and the craneman should work together, to see 
that both the crane and the crane trolley are directly over the 
center of the load to be handled. If either one is off center, 
the load will swing when it is raised, and will be likely to in- 
jure anyone in its path. When the hooks or slings are in place 
and the slack is taken up, the workmen should immediately 
stand back several feet from the load. 

The hookers should never, under any circumstances, stand in- 
side a car into which material, approximately as long as the car, is 
to be lowered, or from which material of similar length is to be 
raised. The margin of space at the sides or ends of the car 
is then small when compared with the uncertain length of the 
swing of the load, and the craneman (particularly if the cab is 
at one end of the crane and the material to be lowered into the 
car at the other end) may easily make a mistake of a few inches 

in manipulating the load. As the load is lowered it may bear 
for a fraction of a second upon the side or end of the car, until 
its own weight pulls it away with a swinging, jerky motion. A 
miscalculation of the position of the exact center of the load, 
with respect to the center of the trolley, will also cause the load 
to swing when it is raised. Under either of these conditions 
the men in the car have little or no chance to escape injury. In 
fact, the safety zone in a car is so limited that it is better for 
the workmen to remain outside, even though the material han- 
dled is only half the length of the car. 

The man who will stay in a car when a large load is being 
handled, has his counterpart in the man who will continually go 
into a narrow space between a load and a neighboring wall or 
post. It is often necessary to place a load twelve or eighteen 
inches from a wall, but it is not necessary for a workman to get 
into this space while the load is being raised or lowered. The 
load will probably come to rest without any mishap, but the 
workman has no guarantee to that effect. The cables may 
twist and swing a corner of the load around, crushing the man 
in the narrow space; or a block of wood or some other unnoticed 
object may be lying on the floor just where the load is to be 
placed and when the load is lowered this obstacle may cause it 
to tip far enough to kill or seriously injure the workman on the 
narrow side. 

The sheave or block to which the hook is secured should be 
effectively enclosed, to prevent the hands of workmen from being 
drawn into it when slackening off the cables. So far as pos- 
sible, the hooker should avoid trying to loosen a cable by pulling 
it down on the inr mining side of the block. His fingers may 
be caught between the sheave and the chain or cable, and be 
cut off or badly crushed. It is far safer to grasp the out- 
running side, and pull up and away from the sheaves or pulleys. 

The crane crew and all other employees in the vicinity should 
keep well away while the chains or cables are being withdrawn 
from under a load, because they may catch and tip the load 
over. In such an event the action is sometimes so quick that the 
men have little opportunity to get out of the way. Sometimes 
a chain will catch on the load, but not firmly enough to tip it 
over, and as the steady pull of the crane overcomes the hold of 
the chain the latter will fly out suddenly and with great force. 
We have frequently seer, chains jerked from under loads, in 
this way, with sufficient force to cause instant death if one of 
the links should strike a man on the head. 

Another prolific cause of accidents consists in men working on 
the crane runways without taking sufficient precautions for their 
own safety. When a man is obliged to work on a runway, he 
should first of all notify the craneman, but he should not depend 
on this warning as his sole protection* against being run down 
by the crane. The craneman may forget the workman, or he 
may misjudge the speed or distance, and so run the crane against 
him. A warning flag should be placed on a nearby column in 
plain sight of the craneman, and buffers should also be clamped 
to the crane rails a few yards from the point where the work 
is being done. If the craneman then forgets the man on the 
runway, and also fails to note the warning flag, his attention 
will be forcibly directed to the matter when his crane strikes the 
buffers. If no buffers arc supplied, the workman should have 
a stout rope safely fastened in a convenient place, so that he 
may easily slip down to the ground in case of danger. 

In plants having machine-shop galleries located beside crane 
runways it is important to screen off the runways from the gal- 
leries for their entire length. 

The foregoing are some of the most common and important 
causes of accidents in crane use, and they can all be avoided, 
as we have tried to show, by the exercise of proper care. The 
installation of safety devices will help greatly in this direction, 
but educational and disciplinary measures are even more im- 
portant, because many of the workmen know about the various 
hazards that we have mentioned, and yet fail to observe the 
safety rules that would prevent the consequent injuries or reduce 
them to a minimum. 

February, 1915 



Dynamometer Car for Japanese Railways 

A Car Recently Designed and Built in This Country 
Which Embodies Every Up-to-date Feature for Test Work 

By E. C. Schmidt, Prof. Ry. Engr., University of Illinois. 

Some months ago the writer was commissioned by the Imperial 
Government Bail-ways of Japan to design and to have built in 
this country a dynamometer car. This car, which was com- 
pleted and shipped during the past summer, has recently ar- 
rived in Japan. This article aims to present only a general 
description of the car and its equipment, while the illustrations 
are relied upon to convey some idea of the details to those inter- 
ested. The general dimensions and the general specifications of 
the car were laid down by Mr. S. Matsune, chief of the motive 
power section of the Government Eailways. In the choice of 
the car design and of the type of equipment, as well as in all 
details, the designer was left free to follow his own judgment. 

Like most other dynamometer cars, it was designed to measure 
and to record data needed in making tests to determine train 

rear end of the car are occupied by a berth section, lockers, and 
lavatories, leaving a workroom 7 ft. 9 in. by 27 ft. long which 
contains the recording apparatus, work bench, desk and other 
equipment. The car is equipped with an axle generator and 
storage battery which furnish current not only for the lights 
but for the motor and magnets incorporated in the recording 
apparatus, and for other electrical equipment. 

Motion for all apparatus within the car is obtained, by means 
of gearing, from the axle of an auxiliary truck located behind 
the forward car truck. This truck carries a pair of small wheels 
on a single axle, whose directional relation to the car axis 
remains fixed, thereby permitting a simpler arrangement of 
gears than if the motion were derived from one of the axles of 
the regular trucks which have a considerable motion with 

Fig. 2 — Dynamometer Car for the Japanese Railways. 

resistance and tests of locomotive performance on steam roads. 
It is accordingly equipped to record drawbar pull, drawbar work, 
speed, time, distance traveled, position of mile-posts and sta- 
tions, the direction and velocity of the wind with respect to 
the car, and the vacuum in the brake cylinders. In addition to 
these records, it is possible on occasion to record also much data 
of locomotive operation as the time of taking indicator cards, 
the position of reverse lever and throttle, locomotive boiler pres- 
sure, and so forth. 

The car itself is 47 ft. 10 in. long over the buffers, 8 ft. 6 in. 
wide overall and 12 ft. high. It has therefore a somewhat smaller 
cross section than the ordinary American passenger coach and 
resembles more our interurban ear's. The underframe and plat- 
forms are of steel, the body of wood and finished within in 
quartered oak. The trucks are of 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, of all-steel 
construction and suitable for high speeds. The car has the 
buffers, vacuum brake, and hook and link couplers, which are 
common in Japanese railway practice. Thirteen feet at the 

respect to the car axis. Furthermore, since the wheels of the 
auxiliary truck are not subjected to brake shoe action, their 
diameter changes much less rapidly than the diameter of the 
regular truck wheels and consequently the speed of motion of 
the apparatus within the car is subject to less variation and 
correction than if the motion had been transmitted from one 
of the regular truck wheels. Provision is made for raising the 
wheels of this truck from the rail when the apparatus within 
the car is not in operation, and all gearing is therefore out of 
action except when it is actually doing useful work. A similar 
device has been in successful operation on the dynamometer 
car of the University of Illinois for the past eight years and it 
has been retained in this design for the reasons here suggested. 
The dynamometer for measuring drawbar pull consists essen- 
tially in an oil-filled cylinder mounted on the center sills toward 
the front end of the car. Through a yoke the piston of this 
cylinder is connected to the car drawbar and consequently the 
whole pull of the locomotive upon the car is received against the 



February, 1915 

,''." --::■:— 

pipe ? 

Fig. 1 — Plan and Elevation of Dynamometer Car. 

oil in the cylinder. The pressure built up in this oil is transmitted 
through a 94-inch pipe to a small indicator which is located on 
the recording table within the car, and whose design resembles that 
of the ordinary steam engine indicator. In order to avoid the 
friction arising from piston packing, the dynamometer cylinder 
and its piston are ground to a nice fit and no packing is used. 
The maximum pull to be registered by the car is 80,000 lbs. The 
sectional area of the dynamometer cylinder is about 91 sq. in. and 

the maximum working pressure in the oil, therefore, will not exceed 
880 lbs. The springs in the indicator may be changed from test 
to test to correspond in strength with the maximum working 
pressure in the oil. Apparently the use of a hydraulic cylinder in 
a dynamometer car originated with P. H. Dudley, who about 
1879 installed such a cylinder in a car which he then operated on 
the New York Central Eailroad. The use of this type of dynamom- 
eter, which has many advantages over the ordinary spring dyna- 
mometer, was revived at the University of Illinois in 1898 when it 
was incorporated in their first test car. It has since been used 
rather generally in the dynamometer cars built for American 

The general design of the dynamometer mechanism is shown in 

To car body bolster 

/Top of rail 

Fig. 3 — Auxiliary Truck and Gearing. 

February, 1915 



Fig. 4 — Dynamometer Machinery and Portions of Underframe. 

one of the accompanying illustrations. This design has been some- 
what complicated by the fact that the owners insisted on retain- 
ing the ordinary buffers, even though it should prove necessary 
to separately register on the record the amount of the buffer 
thrust. It has proved feasible, however, to avoid so recording 
the buffer thrust and the operation of the car has been thereby 
considerably simplified. To accomplish this there is provided in 
the drawbar mechanism an equalization lever which swivels on a 
pin carried in the central axis of the drawbar yoke. The buffers 
instead of having their seat in the car frame, deliver their thrust 
against the ends of this lever. The thrusts on the buffers, there- 
fore, merely set up in the drawbar mechanism internal stresses 
which are not transmitted to the dynamometer cylinder, and the 
buffer thrusts in nowise affect the pull record. The arrangement 
is more easily understood by reference to figure 4. 

All parts of the buffer and drawbar mechanism are carried by 
rollers to minimize friction. For the same reason the piston of 
the dynamometer cylinder is not packed as above stated and, as 
a result of this, a certain leakage of oil takes place past the 
piston. To compensate for this leakage, oil must be pumped into 
the cylinder. This may be done even while the car is in operation 
by means of a hand operated pump which draws its supply from 
an oil reservoir within the car. The leakage from the cylinder is 
received in a drip tank and is returned thence to the oil reservoir 
by means of compressed air, which is supplied by a small motor- 
driven compressor located within the car. 

All records are made on a continuous strip of paper 30 in. 
wide, which moves over the surface of the recording table shown 
in figures 5, 6 and 7. In this recording machine the motion is 
received from the auxiliary truck and transmitted to gearing con- 
tained in the gear case shown on the base of the table. From 
this gearing motion is communicated to the rollers which drive 

the paper, to the speed recorder, the speedometer, and the work 
recorder. When desired, the paper may be driven by means of a 
motor mounted on the table base; in which case the records are 
made on a time base instead of on a distance base. When driven 
from the truck below the car, the paper travels either ^ in., 
Yi in. or 1 in. for each 100 ft. of car travel. When driven by the 
motor, the paper travels at either 5 in., 20 in. or 80 in. per min- 
ute. As may be seen in figure 7, all the pens for the various 
records are arranged to travel in the same straight line. Datum 
pens arranged in front of these lines draw base lines for the 
records of pull, speed, wind direction and brake cylinder pressure. 
These four records are drawn as curves by pens which are mechan- 
ically connected to the pull indicator, the speed recorder, the 
wind vane, and the brake cylinder indicator. All other records 
are drawn as straight lines with offsets occurring in the lines at 
certain intervals. The pens for these records are all controlled 
through the medium of electro-magnets. 

The speed record is obtained by means of a Boyer speed re- 
corder mounted on the base of the table and directly geared to one 
of the spindles of the main gear case. The motion of the speed 
recorder piston rod is transmitted to the upper surface of the table 
and transformed from vertical to horizontal motion by means of 
a slotted bell-crank which moves a small carriage on the top of 
the table shown at the right in figure 7. This linkage suffices 
also to increase the normal maximum travel of the Boyer gauge 
from 3 in. to 6 in. Provision is made for driving this instrument 
at twice its normal speed. For low speed tests, the speed recorder 
is run in high gear and for high speed tests, in the low gear. The 
shift from high to low gear may be accomplished either by one 
of the operating levers or by means of an electrically operated 
clutch which goes into action when the speed curve pen reaches 
the limit of its travel. By these means the average ordinate of 



February, 1915 


ront View of Recording Table. 

the speed curve may be kept as great during a slow speed freight 
run as with a high speed passenger train, the scale of the record 
being, of course, different in the two cases. In addition to the 
speed recorder, upon whose record all calculations are based, there 
is provided for convenience in determining momentary speed a 
speedometer such as is commonly used on automobiles. These 
instruments have a range up to 85 miles per hour, and it is ex- 
pected that the car will occasionally be operated at that speed. 

Wind direction with respect to the car axis is recorded on the 
chart by means of a wind vane mounted on the roof of the car. 
The spindle of this vane projects downward to the recording table 
where, through a crank and yoke, it is connected to the wind direc- 
tion pen. This pen draws a curve whose ordinate is the sine of 
the angle made by the wind vane with the longitudinal axis of 
the car. The wind velocity record is obtained by means of an 
anemometer of the pattern used by the United States weather 
bureau, which makes its record on the chart through the medium 
of a pen controlled by an electro-magnet. 

The pen which draws the record of pressure in the brake cylin- 
der is carried on an extension of the piston rod of a small indica- 
tor similar in design to an .ordinary steam engine indicator. The 
cylinder of this instrument is connected with the main cylinder of 
the vacuum brake and the curve drawn is therefore one whose 
ordinate is a measure of the difference between atmospheric pressure 
and the pressure in the brake cylinder. The record of distance 

traveled is made by a pair of contact points placed on one of the 
gears of the main gear train which makes one revolution for each 
1,000 ft. of car travel. These contact points control an electric 
circuit through one of the magnets, which in turn controls the 
distance pen. 

It is frequently desirable in calculating train resistance from 
dynamometer car records to know the total work performed at 
the drawbar. To record this work continuously on the chart 
obviates the burdensome task of otherwise measuring the area 
under the curve of drawbar pull, which in many cases involves 
operating a planimeter over a record from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty feet long. Many dynamometer cars have for 
this reason been equipped with some form of planimeter whose 
purpose is to automatically record the area included between 
the curve of drawbar pull and its datum line. The design of 
the work recorder or planimeter used on this car is shown in 
figure 8. It consists essentially of a finely ground steel cylinder 
which is in contact with and is rolled by a ground spherical 
surface. The spindle which carries the segment of the sphere 
shown in the photograph bears a fixed relation to the table. By 
means of gearing this spherical segment is driven at a rate 
proportional to the travel of the paper. The cylinder, on the 
other hand, is carried in a frame so pivoted that it may be 
turned about a vertical axis. To this frame near the bottom 
there is attached an arm, a portion of which appears in the 
photograph. This arm terminates in a wheel which plays in a 

Fig. 6 — Rear View of Recording Table. The Paper Rolls Have 

Been Omitted in Order to Give a Clear View 

of the Mechanism. 

Fig. 7 — Top of Recording Table Showing Pens. 

slotted carriage carried on the end of the rod attached to the 
drawbar pull pen. The carriage may be seen at the left side of 
the table in figure 7. By means of these connections, any move- 
ment of the drawbar pull pen results in a corresponding change 
in the angle of the frame which carries the rolling cylinder. The 
cylinder is kept continually in contact with the sphere by means 
of a spring attached to the cylinder frame. When the instru- 
ment is in operation, the spherical surface, as previously stated, 
revolves at a rate proportional to the travel of the paper chart, 
and the angle which the cylinder makes with the axis of the 
sphere depends upon the length of the ordinate of the curve of 
drawbar pull. The roll of the cylinder which is directly pro- 
portional to the speed of revolution of the sphere and to the 
tangent of the angle which the cylinder axis makes with the 
sphere axis, is consequently also proportional to the paper travel 
and the pull curve ordinate. In other words, the roll of the 
cylinder is proportional to the area included under the curve of 
drawbar pull. The proportions of the instrument are such that 
for each 3 sq. in. of area the cylinder will make one complete 
revolution. To record the roll of the cylinder on the chart, there 
is provided on the flange carried on the end of the cylinder a 
small projection or button which closes a pair of contact points 
once during each revolution of the cylinder. These contact 
points form the terminal of an eletric circuit which passes 
through one of the magnets carried on the bridge on the table 

February, 1915 



Fig. 8 — Work Recorder of Planimeter with Cover Removed. 

top. The armature of this magnet is connected in its turn to 
the pen which makes the work record. This pen draws a 
straight line which is interrupted at each revolution of the work 
recorder cylinder by a small offset. The distance between these 
offsets corresponds to 3 sq. in. of area lying between the draw- 
bar pull curve and its datum line. 

The time record is made at both edges of the chart by means 
of two pens mounted on one rod which is operated by the cam 
and magnet mechanism shown at the left of the recording table 

(see figure 7). A clock making electric contact every five sec* 
onds controls these magnets which in turn operate the pen rod 
through the medium of a pair of cams. The design is such that 
the record distinguishes not only five-second intervals but one- 
minute intervals as well. 

Such other records as the position of mile posts, position at 
which indicator cards are taken, reverse lever position, throttle 
position, locomotive boiler pressure, etc., may be made on the 
chart by means of a number of extra pens whose arms are con- 
nected to the armatures of electro-magnets mounted on a bridge 
across the table top. These magnets are controlled by means 
of push buttons located either in the car or on the locomotive. 
The wiring for such electric connections is permanently installed 
in the car. 

Upon the suggestion of the owners, the car was designed so 
that it could be knocked down for shipment. In a car of this 
nature, this requirement has, of course, considerably involved the 
design and has somewhat increased the cost of construction. The 
cost of reassembling the car in Japan will also doubtless be con- 
siderable. Investigation indicated, however, that these disad- 
vantages were more than sufficiently offset by the very high freight 
which would have been charged for transporting the entire car 
as a deck load and by the extra insurance rates which would have 
been charged had the shipment been carried in that way. 

As additional evidence of Japanese progressiveness, it may be 
of interest to add that the Japanese Government Eailways have 
also recently installed near Tokio a thoroughly equipped labora- 
tory for testing locomotives. With this plant and the dynamom- 
eter car, the Japanese railways have at their disposal for experi- 
mental study of the problems of locomotive and train operation, 
facilities which are equalled on only one American railway. 

The Lubrication of Freight and Passenger Car Journals 

The Influence of Bearing Surfaces, Wedges, Oil Boxes, Trucks 
and Track Condition on Journals of Freight and Passenger Cars 

By W. A. Clark. 

The history of railroading tells us that from its incep- 
tion, trouble, delays and serious damage has occurred 
from the overheating of car journals and brasses. 

The records of the engineering and mechanical asso- 
ciations show that they have for years worked for prog- 
ress by striving to improve the practices in this particular 
field of service. 

Under different headings and in a general way, we will 
present for consideration some of the things that enter 
into and make successful lubrication possible, as against 
some of the causes that produce other experiences. 
Theory and practice must, necessarily, go hand in hand. 

Lubrication, like other problems, should be worked out 
systematically, the results summarized and used as a 
guide in practice. 

Journals and brasses must be smooth and true ; brasses 
of the proper diameter and of strength to resist spread- 
ing, or closing, under the maximum pressure imposed. 

Wedges should be correct as to dimensions : if too 
large, having a crown bearing only, thus reducing the 
area of contact, concentrating load on top or to the side, 
causing excessive friction, with a rapid heating of brass 
and journal. Under heavy capacity cars, if wedge has 
a side bearing and not a crown bearing, it will cramp 
brass to side of journal and cause heating. 

Oil boxes are a factor in lubrication. There are a 
variety of designs, shapes and sizes and different results 
are obtained from the extremes in either case. Some 
boxes are very narrow, making it difficult to place, or 
keep the sponging in proper position. There are other 
boxes considerably larger that allow the sponging to 

* A paper delivered before the llissabe Railway Club. 

become disarranged to the extent that it soon works 
away from the journal. There are boxes that after they 
are properly packed, the sponging will have very little 

Should excessive friction develop between brass and 
journal, trouble manifests itself when the temperature 
rises more rapidly than it can be absorbed by the metals 
in contact, resulting in its soon reaching the danger point, 
or where the lubricant ceases to be effective. At this 
stage the oil volatizes, or passes off in vapor, conse- 
quently it does not reach the parts under pressure. They 
in turn seize, increasing the friction, thus increasing the 
heat until brass breaks or melts. With the journal bear- 
ing surface destroyed, if kept in motion without atten- 
tion, the heat will increase until journal is burned off, or 

Trucks should be square and true, or brasses may be 
forced against box or fillets, or against or on top of col- 
lar. The box may be out of line with the result that heat- 
ing will occur in proportion to the freedom that brass has, 
or the amount that truck is distorted. 

The above items may be considered as being purely 
mechanical influences. When they exist unduly, success- 
ful lubrication, cannot be obtained until mechanical de- 
fects are remedied. 

To the average individual a heated journal is assumed 
to have been caused from a lack of oil. Few ever look 
further, or appreciate the fact that although packing may 
appear dry on the top, there may be ample oil in the bot- 
tom of box. However, there are a number of causes 
with a combination of conditions other than a lack of 
oil, that do produce hot boxes. 


One of the principal causes of hot boxes is the work- brasses that received the same care and treatment in the 

ing or moving of the sponging or packing. The lateral same class of cars and service, yet showing marked wear 

movement forces the packing away from the inside, or and abrasion with very short service and mileage, in fact, 

fillet end of journal. It must follow that a surface in had to be removed account of not being in condition for 

contact under pressure and revolving will generate heat further service. 

at the point where packing and oil do not touch the jour- This might appear to conflict with some of the theories 

nal. This heat is conducted to the full length of bear- in the matter of friction and lubrication, but it clearly 

ing and in time causes a hot box. This is a difficult con- demonstrates that certain mixtures, or the treatment of 

dition to detect from an outside examination of box. It same, gives longer life with less abrasion and wear when 

can be discovered and corrected by using the packing used in comparative service. 

spoon to replace or put packing to back end of box and With the use of the proper grade of oil it is assumed 
in contact with full length of journal. The pouring of that the lubricant prevents any contact of the metal bear- 
oil in a box that is running hot from this cause will only ing surface. On this point there may be a question as to 
give temporary relief unless the packing is first pushed which law of friction governs. At times it may be the 
back so as to touch, or be in contact with the full length law of friction of solids, that is, independent of the sur- 
of journal. faces in contact, but dependent on the total pressure. Or 

Another point is, that the oil box as used on railway the law of friction of liquids, that is, independent of the 

equipment, cannot be half, or even one-quarter filled with pressure per square inch, but is directly dependent on the 

oil, for the reason that the hole in the back of box is area and increases as the square of the velocity, 

about 1^2 inches from the bottom. When this level is Journal friction consists of the load on the journal, 

reached the oil can run out at back as fast as it might be times the coefficient of journal, times the diameter of the 

poured in at the front. journal, divided by the diameter of the car wheel. The 

This should show the necessity of having a good grade coefficient of journal friction is the one quality that is 
of saturated waste placed and kept in the proper position affected and variable to the extent that it is increased or 
in oil box. It should be a practice when examining decreased by the conditions and application of the lubri- 
boxes, or when they show signs of heating, to use a pack- cant, or, it is affected jointly by the bearing metals in con- 
ing spoon to put sponging back in contact with journal, tact, or by the metals and oil interposed. 

The most important element in the lubrication of car Dross or sand when mixed with the bearing metal 

brasses is that the oil be conveyed to every part of the cause heating, unequal hardness, or, what is termed "hard 

journal. spots," cause heating from the fact that the soft metal 

Axles and journals as now made from steel, give little wears away, concentrating the pressure on the high spots, 
trouble. The percentage of hot boxes originating from causing excessive friction with a rapid rise in tempera- 
journal defects are small. ture and ultimately a hot box. The only remedy for this 

The brass or bearing has a direct influence on the man- trouble is to change the brass, 

ner in which a journal will run. Every precaution should About the year 1885 the practice of using a lead lining 

be taken to procure a perfect fit with a grade of bearing 1/16 of an inch thick was tried on car brasses. A few 

metal suitable to withstand severe service. In following years later it was adopted as a general practice. With 

up and investigating hot box reports, a number of brasses the small loads carried at that time no trouble from the 

that caused trouble were examined. In nearly every case lead lining was experienced. 

the lining had worn away at the center and not at the Today, heavier linings are in use. It is necessary to 

ends of the brass, due to a variation in the structure of use alloys, or harder substances to get results. When 

the brasses. On breaking brasses longitudinally for ex- pure lead is used and pressure in excess of 400 pounds 

amination, they were found to consist of a different mix- per square inch is on bearings, the lead will squeeze or 

ture at the center than at the ends. Others were found flow. As there is only one direction that it can take it 

that were not solid, or had longitudinal fissures or flaws, moves downward, shutting off the supply of oil between 

The difference in the rigidity of the metal in the brasses the journal and brass, causing brass to heat rapidly and 

induced an unequal distribution of the pressure. Abra- invariably ruining journal. It would seem proper to use 

sion occurred at the middle, causing excessive heating a high grade of metal for the lining of car brasses. A 

and a hot box. Foundry practice should aim to have more general investigation of this subject would undoubt- 

the metals mixed in the proper proportions and heated to edly be the means of showing the importance of the 

a temperature to make the finished bearing of good, clean proper mixtures for journal bearings in heavy capacity 

homogeneous metal of equal hardness all the way car service, 

through. The linings in use on the European railroads are made 

The question of foundry practice, or the care exer- from copper, tin and antimony and may be considered as 
cised in manufacturing car brasses is one of the most having tin as a base. The general American practice is 
important features in furthering perfect lubrication, to use lead and antimony. Lead, antimony and tin or a 
Brass foundry practice is still so dependent on empirical lining with lead as a base. A dynamometer test of 65 to 
laws that it is difficult to reach definite conclusions as to 80 cars with lead lining as against others made from 
the exact nature of the alloys to produce the best car babbitt, or of copper, tin, antimony and copper, tin, anti- 
bearing. So much depends on the methods used, or treat- mony and lead, would probably show some surprising re- 
ment given, that a chemical analysis if of no great value suits in an increase or decrease in journal friction, abra- 
as a guide to any rigid formula. The same ingredients sion and fuel, thus showing the advantage of a tough 
differently treated will produce bearings of a marked homogeneous anti-friction car brass lining, 
variation. This being the case the foundry that gives close Questions bearing on the economics of journal bear- 
attention to the proven practice will make the most suit- ings have not been fully proven. It is my opinion that a 
able brasses, having strength, solidity, toughness, and field is open for investigation in the matter of the corn- 
good anti-frictional qualities. parative abrasive, wearing and frictional qualities of dif- 
I have noted brasses that have been in service on 100,- ferent mixtures of metal and their comparative wear on 
000 capacity ore cars eight to ten years, with a mileage journals. 

of from 80,000 to 90,000 miles, that did not show any With a 70 car train we have 56o car journals. With 

marked abrasion or wear. I have also noted other a small decrease or increase of friction per journal, a 

February, 1915 



noticeable loss or saving on brasses, journals and fuel 
would be effected. There is one point that would have 
to be considered in a test as suggested and that is, that 
trains in question be equipped with good anti-friction 
side bearings of the same pattern in order that flange 
friction might not be confused with journal friction. 
The question would then be simplified as anti-friction 
side bearings bring down to a very low point the friction 
from flange contact. The resistance then to be deter- 
mined could be taken as that from the journal, or the 
friction of rotation and friction between the wheel and 
rail, or rolling friction. 


The application of electric lighting dynamos to passenger cars 
has always involved trouble on account of interference between 
brake beam and belts. Whether the beams are outside or inside 
hung, the proposition is one that requires a constant watchfulness 
on the part of the mechanical department in the matter of 
designing apparatus to clear. It is possible, when the beams 
are outside hung, to arrange for the belt to pass on top of the 
beam if the drive is more than five feet from center of inside 
axle to center of dynamo, and if the drive is shorter than this 
the beam must pass between the belt. 

On six-wheel trucks having inside hung beams or for four- 
wheel trucks arrangement, the limiting conditions seem to be 
that of clearance behind the beam, which makes it impossible to 
provide for a diamond truss construction of any kind. Having a 
36" wheel with shoes 1%" thick when new, and tires 2%" thick, 
it is safe to assume that the beam would advance 3" closer to 
the center of the axle, when shoes and tires are worn to the 
condemning limit. This means that an initial clearance of 3%" 
must be provided for between end of fulcrum and face of axle. 
The trussed type of passenger brake beam has never provided 
sufficient clearance for belts where the dynamo is suspended from 
the body of the car and the drive is 5' 0" or over. It is difficult 
to provide a beam of uniform section having sufficient strength 
if connections to brake rigging is made at the center, and yet, if 

Special Brake Beam, 25 Ton Car. 

inside hung beams have been provided, it is obviously a mistake 
to provide an equalizing lever in order to make connection to the 
beams near the brake heads and in this way reduce the section 
necessary to carry the load. 

The combination of two 10" 32-pound bulb angles with a 
*4"xl0" web plate is now in use on a northern road as a brake 
beam. This compound section illustrated herewith covers the 
lightest construction obtainable for cars fitted with six-wheel 
trucks having 5"x9" axles. The weight of car carried on this 
style of truck has reached 84 tons in some designs of passenger 
equipment now operating in this country and it means that about 
28,000 pounds pressure per beam is obtained at 60 pounds cylinder 
pressure, or practically 49,000 pounds for an emergency appli- 

This road also uses the forged brake beam, as it is easy to 
make and having dies to fit the various brake heads on the 
market, the sleeves are changed, a separate design of casting 


att Sleet 

Brake Beam Safety 

Chain Hook 

General Arrangement 



February, 1915 




2- Bulb Angles 

10" ® 31 lbs. foot 

I- Plate - 10" x^ 1 



Moment of f 2-1? = 2x/l6 = 26200 

Compound Section S Plate = 20.33 

L 1 = 252.33 

bending Moment ( M -- 5I = 16000 x 252.83 
at Canter \ o 5.38 


751, e/o 

PI W?J = M= 751.910 
4 8 

60 P , 350x60 = 751.910 

IS P= 749.285 
P- 49.952 'lbs. 

betterment is more than sentimental; it is getting to be actual. 
The stimulation of foreign purchases is helping domestic trade. 
In copper there is a lull in buying, but those in touch with the 
situation look for resumption of activity soon and further 
strengthening of prices. There is no let-up in consumption of 
copper in the fighting countries, and it is certain that there will 
be a steady absorption of metal for a long time -to come, on 
armaments. The stock market is giving a good account of itself. 
For investment, there has probably not been for years such an 
opportunity to purchase good securities at low prices. 

Position Wanted: Have had eleven years' practical and cler- 
ical experience in the car department, serving as car repair bill 
clerk, chief clerk in car repair and car cleaning departments and 
as M. C. B. clerk and inspector. Will accept position in any 
part of the country, providing salary is in proportion to condi- 
tions. Address "Car Man," Care Railway Master Mechanic, 
431 So. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Load at center wifh extreme fibre stress 16,000 lbs. 

Method of Computing Strength of Special Brake Beams. 

being required for each make. Some of these forged beams 
having a 2"xl0" cross section, and some of the regular trussed 
beams were tested recently by the mechanical department of 
this road to find out how strong the trussed beams now in 
service were. One of these trussed beams was tested up to 
75,000 pounds, at which point the sleeve broke. The trussed 
beam was supported on 60-inch centers with the load applied at 
the fulcrum hole. The compression member was a 3", 9-pound 
channel, the tension member a rod 1%" diameter (30% carbon), 
the weight of the beam was 160^ pounds and the depth of 
strut 14 inches. The results of the tests are as follows: 

Total Deflection 

Load Trussed Beam Forged Beam 

20,000 lbs 060" .055" 

30,000 lbs 102" .085" 

40,000 lbs 150" -US" 

50,000 lbs ' 157" -155" 

60,000 lbs 242" .195" 

Basing calculations on a car weighing 160,000 pounds and 105 
pounds cylinder pressure the fibre stress in the forged beam is 
21,002 pounds. Under the same conditions the fibre stress in 
the bulb angle or combination beams is 14,780 pounds per 
square inch. 

Narrow Gauge Electric Locomotive 

An interesting type of electric locomotive has been 
constructed for service at the mines of the Braden Cop- 
per Company in Chile, by the General Electric Co. It 
is a 25-ton, double truck machine for 30-in. gauge, and 
has an overall height of only jy 2 ft. The four drawing 
motors are each rated at 45 h.-p., 250 volts, multiple unit 
control, and automatic air brakes are also included in 
the equipment. It is probable that this locomotive is the 
heaviest with the narrowest gauge and the lowest overall 
height of any machine of this type ever built. 


The basis for a general resumption of active business is pres- 
ent in the condition of retail stocks, which are low, and in the 
great wealth of the agricultural classes through high prices real- 
ized and being realized for their products. What is needed is a 
great buying movement. This must come initially from the rail- 
roads. Eailroad buying has not started in volume, but there are 
evidences of coming activity in this direction both in rails and 
equipment. Business in steel, textile fabrics, food products, 
leather and rubber show improvement through increasing orders, 
with some price tendencies upward. Sentiment is bettering, but 

Henry J. Spooner.. Cloth, 6x9 inches, 746 pages, illustrated with 
over 1600 figures. Published by Longmans, Green & Co., 4th Ave- 
nue and 30th Street, New York. Price $3.50. 

The author is professor of mechanical and electrical engineering 
at the Polytechnic School of Engineering, London, England, and 
while the work contains some references to English practice, as 
a whole it covers its subject very well and completely. The first 
five chapters are devoted to drawing and the subject is treated 
in a manner that the beginner will find it easy to learn. The 
remaining chapters deal with matters relating to design and con- 
struction, and are illustrated with many details of machine parts. 
The following titles of some of the chapters suggest the scope of 
the book: "Riveted Joints," "Bolts and Nuts," "Bearings, 
Journals and Hangers," "Pistons and Piston Rods," "Engine 
Excentrics. " One of the most complete chapters is that on 
"Materials Used in the Construction of Machines." Each chap- 
ter is concluded with a set of questions and suggestive draw- 
ing exercises. While the book is intended to be helpful in 
teaching work, it contains interesting and valuable matter for the 
man in the drafting room and shop. This is the third edition 
of the book and it has been carefully revised. 

TION. Proceedings of the forty-seventh annual convention. 
Cloth, two volumes, 6x9 inches, 1045 pages, illustrated. Pub- 
lished by the secretary, J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen building, 
Chicago, HI. 

Volume two of these proceedings contains a report of the com- 
mittee on electric headlights. This book of 380 pages is a very 
complete treatise on the subject, for, in addition to the committee 
report and the ensuing discussion, it contains a summary of state 
headlight laws, comments on other tests and a great deal of 
valuable data pertaining to the subject. The association is to be 
congratulated on getting this matter together in one volume. 
Volume one contains the balance of the report of the convention 
which was held at Atlantic City on June 15, 16 and 17, 1914. 
the forty-eighth annual convention. Cloth, two volumes, 6x9 
inches, 968 pages, illustrated. Published by the secretary, J. W. 
Taylor, 1112 Karpen building, Chicago. 111. 

Following the practice of last year, the standards, recom- 
mended practice and code of rules of the association are given 
together in volume two, while the proceedings of the conven- 
tion held at Atlantic City last summer are incorporated in volume 
one. Among the subjects covered by committee reports are : Brake 
shoe and brake beam equipment; car construction, trucks and 
wheels; coupler and draft equipment; damage caused by unload- 
ing machines; overhead inspection of box ears; tank cars; train 
brakes, signals and lighting. 

February, 1915 



Cloth, 3x5 inches. Published by 1ST. Remington Co., Baltimore, 
Md. Price, 50 cents. This publication comes out this year with 
about one fourth of the matter contained within its covers re- 
written and brought down to date. The amount of helpful in- 
formation contained is surprising, considering the price. It con- 
tains a large collection of electrical engineering notes, tables, rules 
and data. 

inches. Published by N. Remington & Co., Baltimore, Md. Price, 
50 cents. This collection of mechanical notes, tables and data is 
brought down to date this year by new sections on structural iron 
and steel work, strength of flat plates, limit gauges, cost of power, 
proportions of Tee slots and Morse tapers. Some of the tables 
have been extended and others revised. 

J. P. Dolan succeeds R. A. Billingham as master mechanic of the 
Apalachicola Northern with office at Port St. Joe, Fla. 

D. E. Barton succeeds E. E. Maehovec as master mechanic of 
the Atchison, Topeka 4" Santa Fe at Argentine, Kan. 

T. C. O'Brien has been appointed general foreman of the 
Baltimore $• Ohio Southwestern, with offices at Lima, O. 

Martin Murphy has been appointed general boiler inspector 
of the Baltimore 4r Ohio Southwestern, with office at Cincinnati, O. 

A. E. McMillan has been promoted to master mechanic of the 
Baltimore 4~ Ohio Southwestern at Washington, Ind. 

W. H. Kellar has been appointed assistant master mechanic of 
the Baltimore Sr Ohio Southwestern, with office at Cincinnati, O. 

William Malthaner has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Newark division of the Baltimore 4~ Ohio, with office at Newark, O. 

E. S. Foster has been appointed general foreman of the 
Bangor 4~ Aroostook at Oakfield, Me. 

W. C. Dean has been appointed traveling engineer of the 
Bangor $• AroostooTc, with headquarters at Derby, Me., succeed- 
ing E. S. Foster. 

G. Whitley has been promoted to assistant superintendent of 
motive power of the eastern lines of the Canadian Pacific, with 
headquarters at Montreal, Que. 

C. Kyle has been appointed master mechanic of the Atlantic 
division of the Canadian Pacific, with headquarters at St. 
Johns, N. B. 

W. A. Barnes has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Chicago, Burlington 4" Quincy at Ottumwa, la. 

C. Ratjsch has been appointed master car painter of the Chicago, 
Burlington 4" Quincy at Aurora, 111., succeeding J. D. Hall. 

W. P. James succeeds Charles Ray as car foreman of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee 4~ St. Paul (Puget Sound lines) at Tacoma, Wash. 

F. J. Anderson has been appointed traveling engineer of the 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis 4" Omaha at Sioux City, la. 

J. J. Reid succeeds William Malthaner as master mechanic of 
the Delaware 4" Hudson at Oneonta, N. Y. 

G. S. Graham succeeds J. J. Reid as master mechanic of the 
Delaware 4" Hudson at Carbondale, Pa. 

B. Trentman succeeds E. Jones as foreman of car repairs of 
the Delaware 4" Hudson at Oneonta, N. Y. 

V. H. McGinnis has been appointed traveling engineer of the 
Denver 4" Liio Grande vice A. G. Titus. His office is at Grand 
Junction, Colo. 

J. T. Holt succeeds F. Constantine as locomotive foreman of 
the Great Northern at Sandstone, Minn. 

Wirt Parker succeeds F. Heins as master mechanic of the 
Gulf 4" Sabine Biver, with office at Fullerton, La. 

E. J. Bryant has been promoted to master mechanic of the 
International 4" Great Northern, with office at Mart, Tex., vice 
W. G. Hall. 

S. T. Armstrong has been appointed master mechanic of the 
International 4" Great Northern at Palestine, Tex., vice T. Windle, 

P. Roquemore has been appointed mechanical engineer of the 
International 4r Great Northern, with headquarters at Palestine, 

Norman Bell has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Illinois Central at Waterloo, la., succeeding F. W. Taylor. 

H. H. Buckman succeeds W. E. Myers as master mechanic of 
the Interstate Public Service Co., with office at Greenwood, Ind. 

W. P. McDevitt has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Kentucky 4- .Indiana Terminal, with office at Louisville, Ky. He 
succeeds John F. Newhouse. 

A. Brand succeeds B. B. Carge as master mechanic of the Lake 
Terminal, with headquarters at Lorain, O. 

J. Pickley succeeds J. Keller as road foreman of engines of 
the Lehigh Valley, with headquarters at Wilkes Barre, Pa. 

H. Selfridge has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Nevada Northern, with headquarters at East Ely, Nev. 

Omar Blood has been appointed general foreman, car depart- 
ment, of the New York Central at Sandusky, O., vice R. A. Fitz, 

F. J. Barry has been appointed master mechanic of the New 
York, Ontario 4r Western at Childs (Mayfield Yard), Pa., vice 
W. H. Kinney, resigned. Matters relative to steam heat and 
lighting have been placed in charge of A. Kipp, general car 

S. P. Seifert has been appointed supervisor of the car depart- 
ment of the Norfolk 4r Western, with office at Roanoke, Va. 

J. E. Mohaney succeeds W. J. Luke as general storekeeper of 
the Norfolk Southern, with headquarters at Norfolk, Va. 

J. K. Brassill has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Northwestern Pacific, with headquarters at Tiburon, 

R. H. Flynn, general foreman of the Pennsylvania Lines West, 
has been transferred from Louisville, Ky., to Bradford, O. 

T. B. Farrington succeeds C. W. Kinnear as general foreman of 
the Pennsylvania at Bradford, O. 

P. J. Neiskins succeeds C. Sonburg as general foreman of the 
Pere Marquette at Chicago, 111. 

C. Taylor succeeds P. G. Nelson as general foreman, car depart- 
ment, of the San Antonio, Uvalde 4r Gulf, with headquarters at 
Pleasanton, Tex. 

K. H. Martin has been appointed general equipment inspector 
of the Southern, with headquarters at Washington, D. C. 

L. Atwell has been appointed general foreman of the Southern 
at Selma, Ala., succeeding T. S. Krahenbuhl. 

H. G. Sttjbbs has been appointed general foreman of the 
Southern at Macon, Ga., succeeding W. P. McDevitt. 

W. C. Burel succeeds H. Selfridge as general foreman of the 
Oregon Short Line at Salt Lake City, Utah. 

William H. Murray has been appointed foreman of the Oregon 
Short Line at Montpelier, Ida., succeeding W. C. Burel. 

E. F. Needham, superintendent of the locomotive and car 
departments of the Wabash, has had his headquarters moved from 
Springfield, 111., to Decatur, 111. 

Walter Alexander, who has just been appointed a member of 
the railroad commission of the State of Wisconsin, has for the 
past thirteen years held positions as assistant district master 
mechanic and district master mechanic at Minneapolis and Mil- 
waukee with the Chicago, Milwaukee 4" St. Paul By. The law 
creating the railroad commission of Wisconsin requires that one 
member be familiar with transportation conditions and problems 
and it was Governor Philipp's idea that a man who has had 
practical experience in railroad operation as well as a technical 
training as a mechanical engineer would be best suited for the 
position. Mr. Alexander was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1872, 
and came to Milwaukee in 1873. After receiving a common school 
education he served an apprenticeship as a machinist and drafts- 
man with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, and was also em- 
ployed as a fireman with that company. While so employed he 
prepared himself for college and entered the University of Wis- 
consin in 1893, graduating from the mechanical engineering course 
in 1897. He received a second degree in engineering the follow- 



February, 1915 

Walter Alexander. 

ing year and after three years instructional work in engineering 
at the University of Wisconsin, one at Armour Institute and one 
at the University of Missouri, he returned to railroad service as 
assistant district master mechanic at Minneapolis. Two years 
later he was transferred to Milwaukee to a similar position and 
later on was made district master mechanic, which position he has 
held up to the present time. As district master mechanic he has 
had charge of the motive power work on lines east of the Miss- 
issippi river. 


G. M. Bunting, general car foreman of the Pennsylvania at 
Cleveland, O., died on January 6, and was buried in Lakeview 
cemetery, Cleveland, on January 8. He was born on September 
4, 1862, and was 52 years of age. He had been in the employ of 
the Pennsylvania railroad for thirty-two years, having been 
general foreman of the car department for the past twenty-three 
years. Mr. Bunting had been a member of the Chief Joint Car 
Inspectors and Car Foremen's Association since 1899 and the 
funeral was attended by a number of the members. The follow- 
ing resolution on his death was formed by a committee composed 
of W. D. Mooney, George Lynch and William Westall: 

"It having pleased the Divine Providence to remove from our 
midst Brother George M. Bunting, be it resolved in the taking 

from us of Brother Bunting this association loses a valued mem- 
ber, who, by his honest worth, integrity of character and genial 
manner, endeared himself to all. 

"Be it further resolved that we extend to his beloved wife and 
children our heartfelt sympathy in the bitter loss they have sus- 
tained, and be it further resolved that a copy of these resolutions 
be forwarded to the bereaved family, to the Bailway Master 
Mechanic, and spread upon the minutes of the next meeting of 
this association. ' ' 


The General Electric Co., Schnectady, N. Y., has issued a bul- 
letin descriptive of an oil-testing set recently developed by this; 
company. It is used for testing the dielectric strength of oil 
for use in high-tension oil-insulated apparatus. 

* * * 

Forging Talk number 6 of the National Machinery Co., Tiffin, 
O., takes up the ' ' friction-slip ' ' type of fly wheel recently adopted 
for use on National forging machine. The construction is such 
as to allow the wheel to slip if the machine becomes stalled, thus 
protecting it from abnormal strain. 

* * * 

"Centrifugal Pumps" is the title of a 64-page bulletin just 
issued by the Terry Steam Turbine Co., Hartford, Conn., giving 
details and data on various turbo-pump applications. The princi- 
ples of operation and construction of the centrifugal pump are 
clearly explained, as are the details of the steam turbines used for 
driving them. Because of the wide latitude of speed possible with 
the turbine — the unit occupies a much smaller space than would be 
required for a pump performing the same duty but driven by a 

reciprocating engine. 

* * # 

• The Armstrong Cork & Insulation Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has. 
issued a booklet the title of which is "At War with Heat. ' ' 
It deals with the various types of ' ' Nonpareil ' ' insulation. 

gme Selligg Side j 

G. M. Bunting. 

C. B. McElhany, assistant general manager of sales of the 
Cambria Steel Company, has been appointed general manager 
of Sales, succeeding J. Leonard Eeplogle, who has resigned to 
enter the service of the American Vanadium Company. 

James S. Llewellyn has been elected secretary, and Paul 
Llewellyn treasurer of the Chicago Malleable Castings Com- 
pany. James S. Llewellyn will continue to hold the office of 
works manager at the West Pullman works. 

Thomas S. Grubbs, auditor and secretary of the Westing- 
house Machine Co., has been elected secretary and assistant 
treasurer of the Union Switch & Signal Co., and George F.- 
White, of the Westinghouse Machine Co., has been elected as- 
sistant secretary of the Union Switch & Signal Co. 

H. Bortin, formerly engineer in charge of valuation depart- 
ment of Union Pacific B. B. for four years, and member of its 
valuation committee; lately assistant to general secretary of' 
Presidents' Conference Committee on Federal Valuation of 
the Bailroads, announces his entry into private practice as con- 
sulting valuation engineer, with office at 149 Broadway, New 
York city. 

Standard Union Concrete Equipment Co. has been incorpor- 
ated to manufacture machinery to make concrete. The incorpor- 
ators are Louis A. Bice, Brooklyn; E. M. Kolstad, New York; 
Walter B. Darby, Westfield, N. J. 

The Lehigh & New England has ordered 500 tone of struc- 
tural steel for its new shops at Pen Argyl, Pa., from the 
American Bridge Co. 

February, 1915 



The Schaefer Equipment Co., manufacturers of the Schaefer 
truck lever connection and other railway specialties, has re- 
moved to Suite 2138 Oliver building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The Spencer Otis Co., Eailway Exchange building, Chicago, 
has now been incorporated with a capital stock of $75,000. 
Edward A. Grams, Abner J. Stillwell and O. Guernsey Orcutt 
are the incorporators. 

The Shippers Eefrigerating Car Co., Chicago, has been in- 
corporated with a capital stock of $500,000. The incorporators 
are Henry H. Phillips, I. J. Home and Oscar Anderson. The 
company is represented by Pain & Hurd, Eookery building. 

The Bucyrus Company, The Western Wheeled Scraper 
Company and The General Equipment Company have recently 
opened a joint office at 715 Commercial Trust building, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. The office is in charge of E. G. Lewis. 

The Eailway Safety Appliance Company has been incorpo- 
rated in Delaware by J. E. Hart, George Clare and J. D. Gray, of 
Chicago. The concern controls patents on railway safety devices, 
and has a capitalization of $1,000,000. 

The O. H. Davidson Equipment Company, Denver Colo., has 
been appointed western representative for the Electric Controller 
& Manufacturing Company, of Clevelaand, Ohio. 

The Daniels Safety Device Company has moved its offices 
from 327 South La Salle street to the Continental & Commercial 
National Bank building, 208 South La Salle street, Chicago. 

The Liberty Railway Products Company, Chicago, 111., has 
been incorporated with $22,000 capital stock to manufacture rail- 
way supplies. Geo. S. Pines, Albert G. Eosenbaum, Benjamin 
Mesirow, 111 West Monroe street, are the incorporators. 

William H. Kinney, formerly master mechanic of the New 
York, Ontario & Western at Carbondale, Pa., has entered the 
railroad sales department of the Dearborn Chemical Company, 
Chicago. He will havj his headquarters at the company's New 
York office. 

J. A. McCulloch, engineer of the National Tube Company, 
was recently elected chairman of the mechanical section of the 
Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. 

W. S. Ottinger, district sales manager of the Cambria Steel 
Company, has been appointed assistant general manager of sales, 
to succeed C. B. McElhany, who has been appointed general man- 
ager of sales. Mr. Ottinger will be succeeded as district sales 
manager by F. J. Krouse. Albert S. Johnson will become as- 
sistant district sales manager, succeeding Mr. Krouse. 

L. H. Mesker has recently become associated with the sales 
department of the Kearney & Trecker Co., Milwaukee, Wis., and 
will represent that company in Ohio after February 1. 

W. P. Mellon has been appointed railway sales manager of the 
southeastern district of the Flint Varnish Works, with headquar- 
ters in New York. Mr. Mellen is widely known throughout the 
country among operating, purchasing and mechanical officials. He 
is conspicuous as an exponent of high grade salesmanship, pos- 
sesses a rare knowledge of varnishes and paints and enjoys a per- 
sonal popularity among those with whom he comes in contact, 
enviable indeed. While his prestige is undimmed by his absence 
of several years, he returns to the fraternity with the expressed 
good wishes of many prominent men interested in railroad prog- 
ress. He will do his share of that we are certain. 

M. A. Sherritt, for several years associated with Manning, 
Maxwell & Moore, Inc., New York, as manager of the company's 
Philadelphia branch, resigned this position on January 25 to be- 
come vice-president and general manager of Sherritt & Stoer Co., 
Inc., dealers in machine tools and railway and machine shop 
equipment. The company will occupy its new offices in the Finance 
building, Philadelphia, on February 1. 

Samuel Higgins, formerly general manager of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford, has been elected president of the Stand- 
ard Heat & Ventilation Co., of New York and Chicago. 

N. D. Carpenter, district manager of sales for the Carnegie 
Steel Co., at Detroit, Mich., with headquarters in the Ford build- 
ing, has resigned, effective Feb. 1, 1915, and will be succeeded by 
Frank E. Spencer, formerly connected with the Pittsburgh sales 
office of the same company. 

Lyndon F. Wilson, vice-president of the Railway List Co., has 
resigned to become vice-president of the Bird-Archer Co., of New 
York, effective April 1, 1915. 

Mr. Wilson was born at Eush Lake, Wis., November 4, 1883, 
and was educated at Eipon College, Lawrence University, and 
the University of Wisconsin. Before entering college he was 
engaged as an operator in the office of his father on the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul, and later, after considerable machine shop 
and power plant experience, he became an engineer in the service 
of the Interior Department of the United States Government. 
After one year in the service he joined the engineering department 
of the Western Electric Company, where he was engaged until the 
fall of 1908 when he became mechanical department editor of the 

Lyndon F. Wilson. 

liailway Eevicic. In March, 1909, he came to the Eailway List 
Co., as editor of the Eailway Master Mechanic and later became 
editorial director of the publications of the company, namely, The 
Monthly Official Eaihcay List, Eailway Engineering and Main- 
tenance of Way, and Eailway Master Mechanic. In September, 
1913, he was made a vice-president of the company. Mr. Wilson 
has a pleasing and forceful way about him, a loyal disposition and 
the ability to accomplish what he undertakes. He is well ac- 
quainted with the railway and supply fields, and his former asso- 
ciates, in wishing him the best of good fortune, predict abundant 
success in his new work. After April 1st Mr. Wilson will be 
located in the Chicago office of the Bird-Archer Company. 

The Marion Steam Shovel Co., Marion, O., has elected the 
following officers for the coming year: President and general 
manager, Geo. W. King; general superintendent, B. P. Sweeny; 
vice-president and treasurer, Frank A. Huber ; secretary and 
director of purchases, Harry C. Barnhart; vice-president and 
assistant general manager, Charles B. King. 

E. M. Nicholson has been placed in charge of the advertising 
of the Stark Boiling Mill Company, Canton, Ohio. 

H. H. Seabrook, formerly district manager of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company in Baltimore, has been ap- 
pointed district manager of the company at Philadelphia, suc- 
ceeding J. J. Gibson, who has become manager of the tool and 
supply department at East Pittsburgh. 

The William B. Pollock Co., Youngstown, O., has re-elected 
the following officers: President, Porter Pollock; vice-president 
and general manager, Charles W. McClure; secretary and treas- 
urer, William G. Wilson; general superintendent, William W. 



February, 1915 

J. A. McFarland has recently been appointed southwestern 
district manager of the Bird-Archer Company, ith headquarters 
in the Frisco Building, St. Louis, Mo. Mr. McFarland was born 
on October 23, 1880, at Mendota, HI. After finishing his com- 
mon school education he entered the University of Illinois from 
which he graduated in a chemical course in 1903. He began rail- 
way work in May, 1903, being connected with the chemical depart- 
ment of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Topeka, Kan., and 
left this road on January 1, 1904, to become assistant in the 
testing department of the Chicago & Northwestern. In February, 
1905, he became chief chemist of the Missouri Pacific, remaining 
in this position until May, 1909, when he took charge of the St. 
Louis office of the Dearborn Chemical Co., looking after their 
railroad business in that territory. In July, 1911, he left that 
company to become chemist and engineer of tests of the Frisco 
system, and later became connected with the Standard Bailway 
Equipment Co., where he remained until his recent appointment. 

J. A. McFarland. 

Earl F. Scott, has been appointed representative of the Terry 
Steam Turbine Co., for the state of Georgia, with offices at 702 
Candler building, Atlanta, Ga. 

Davtd A. "Wright, who for several years past has been con- 
nected with the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., New York, as 
district manager in the West, has opened an office for himself 
as manufacturers' agent at 140 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 
111. He will specialize on labor saving and pneumatic machinery, 
cranes, etc. 

The John Seaton Foundry Co. and the Locomotive Finished 
Material Co., Atchison, Kan., have consolidated, and will continue 
the business of both companies under the name of the Locomotive 
Finished Material Co. The directors of the consolidated com- 
panies are: John C. Seaton, H. E. Muchnic, Clive Hastings, W. C. 
Ferguson and G. L. Seaton. 

Fire badly damaged the insulated wire department of the John 
A. Boebling's Sons Co. at Trenton, N. J., recently. The loss is 
estimated at $1,000,000. 

The Asbestos Protected Metal Co. has moved its general 
offices, including the executive, accounting, sales and engineering 
staffs, from the Beaver Falls, Pa., plant to the First National 
Bank building, Pittsburgh. The manufacturing operations of the 
company will continue as heretofore, at Beaver Falls, Pa., and 
at Waltham, Mass. 

The Southern Wheel Co., successor to the Decatur Car Wheel 
Works, Birmingham, plans extensive improvements to its plant 
which will enable it to produce railroad frogs and switches, as 
well as forgings and castings. 

The Kennedt-Stroh Corporation, of Pittsburgh, with a cap- 
italization of approximately $2,500,000, has taken over all rights, 
processes and factories of the Kennedy Mfg. & Engineering Co., 
of New York, the Stroh Steel Hardening Process Co., the Law- 
rence Steel Casting Co., and the Best Mfg. Co., of Pittsburgh. 

Fred O. Paige, vice-president of The Bird-Archer Co., with 
office at New York, has resigned. 

William C. Eeitz, treasurer of the Pittsburgh Steel Co. and 
the Pittsburgh Steel Products Co., Pittsburgh, has resigned as 
treasurer of the former concern to devote all his time to the 
interests of the latter, having also been elected secretary of the 
Pittsburgh Steel Products Co. 

The Car Lighting Co. has been incorporated with $100,000 
capital stock in New York. It will deal in railway equipment. 
The incorporators are W. H. Black, L. W. Young, W. P. Horn, 
132 Madison avenue. 

The Bethlehem Steel Co. has let contract for nine one and two- 
story buildings to be erected at New Castle, Pa. This plant will 
be used as an export depot. 

Considerable damage resulted from an explosion Dec. 26 at the 
plant of the Boston Gear Works, at Norfolk Downs, Mass. 

C. P. Howard, formerly a member of the firm of Berry, Howard 
& Boberts, announces the opening of an office, 1603-4 Transporta- 
tion building, Chicago, as consulting engineer. 

The Canadian Car & Foundry Co., Ltd., of Canada, will open 
an office in London with the intention of broadening out its trade 
in other British possessions, mainly Australia, South Africa, India 
and the Far East. 

The Chadeloid Chemical Co., of New York, is entitled to a 
preliminary injunction against the Wilson Bemover Co., according 
to a decision of the United States district court for the southern 
district of New York. The case is one of some importance in the 
paint and varnish remover trade. 

J. Bogers Flannery, chairman of the Pittsburgh Foreign 
Trade Commission, was a speaker at the chamber of commerce 
dinner in the Fort Pitt Hotel, Pittsburgh, on January 13. 

Orders for lathes from Europe continue to come in, the B. K. 
LeBlond Machine Tool Co., of Cincinnati, having received a con- 
tract for 200 such machine tools for prompt delivery. 

The Trenton Smelting & Befining Co., Trenton, N. J., has 
been incorporated for $100,000. The incorporators are Charles H. 
Cunningham, John H. Hamilton and Dennis S. Bresnahan. 


James F. McElroy, president of the Consolidated Car Heating 
Company, Albany, N. Y., died at Laconia, N. H., on February 10, 
at the age of 63 years. 

Samuel D. Kinney, superintendent of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, at Eddystone, Pa., died at his home in Philadelphia, Jan- 
uary 22, aged 51 years. 

Charles S. Price, for 18 years general manager of the Cambria 
Steel Co., and for two years its president, died unexpectedly on 
January 10 at his home near Johnstown, Pa., from what is be- 
lieved to be heart failure. He had been ill for some time, but 
was confined to his home only a few days prior to his demise. 

Barton Sewell, president of the Braden Copper Co. and vice 
president of the American Smelting & Befining Co., died Jan. 7 
at his home in New York. 

Leonard W. Kent, formerly eastern sales agent of The P. & 
M. Company, with offices in New York, died suddenly at his 
home in Westwood, N. J., on January 24. 

C. A. Thompson, formerly superintendent of motive power of 
the Central of New Jersey, died at Jamaica, N. Y., on January 4, 
at the age of 81. 

T. L. Chapman, at one time superintendent of motive power of 
the Chesapeake 4' Ohio, died at Caldwell, N. J., on December 30, 
at the age of 71. 


Publishers' Announcement 

From the homogeneous to the heterogeneous, from the simple to 
the complex, from the primitive man living alone to modern man 
living with due regard to others as well as himself, from savagery to 
civilized society, a long step from prehistoric man to the present day. 

Only yesterday in the limitless measurement of time was the 
inception of railroading and today is its development and the com- 
pleting of its growth. This rapid growth of an intricate gigantic 
industry, almost within the lifetime of one man, has meant the meet- 
ing and solving of more problems than have ever been given to man- 
kind since primitive man turned his back upon his animal ancestors 
and set his face toward the wonderful civilization which we enjoy 

There are many units in this forward march of the great trans- 
portation systems. A small unit, still having its part to play, is the 
railway publication. One of the smallest of these is RAILWAY 
MASTER MECHANIC. Its size does not minimize its importance. 
It occupies a special position in the railway field and is performing a 
work not attempted by any other journal. It becomes then a neces- 
sary link in the chain. 

The function of a railway publication of the character of this 
journal should be to furnish a medium for the intelligent discus- 
sion of the problems confronting the railway man and the solution 
to the problems as given by the railway supply man. 

Railway Master Mechanic is not a paper exclusively for 
the railway man, nor exclusively for the railway supply man. It 
is for both of them and equally so. 

Taking a broad view of the field occupied by this journal, with- 
out bias and without prejudice, this publication will be edited with 
the idea of "the greatest good to the greatest number" in the field of 
railway motive power, cars, equipment, shops, machinery and 

Railway Master Mechanic. 



March. 1915 

Master Mechanic 

Bruce V. Crandall, Publisher 


Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 221 

Eastern Office: SO Church Street, New York 
Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, cars, equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to Bruce V. Crandall. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 


Chicago, March, 1915 

No. 3 


Publisher's Announcement 79 

Editorial — paoe 

Mechanical Men and the Public 80 

Standardization of Shop Methods 80 

Steel Ends for Freight Cars 81 

Correspondence 81 

The Locomotive Outlook in England 82 

The Situation in Brief 82 

St Louis Car Foremen's Association 82 

Machine Forging 'Work, C. & X. TV. Ry 83 

Becoming a Leader 85 

The Nerves of an Engineer 85 

Suburban Type Locomotives 86 

Engineering of the Panama Canal 86 

Truck Side Frame Forces and Stresses 88 

Operating Expenses, X. & W. Ry 94 

The Mechanical Department and the Public 94 

Saving Electrode Holders 96 

Square Brake Shaft and Drop Handle Arrangement 97 

Tunneling Record Broken 99 

Swinging on Trains 99 

The Value of a Locomotive in Service 100 

Executive Committee Meeting 103 

New Books 104 

A Locomotive with a Water Tube Firebox 105 

M. C. B. Inspectors for Checking Repairs to Foreign Cars 107 

Magnet for Removing Metal 108 

The Car Surplus 109 

Personals 109 

Obituary 110 

"Willmarth Radial Drill 110 

Automatic Nut Tapper 110 

Landis Chaser Grinder Ill 

New Literature Ill 

The Selling Side 112 

Mechanical Men and the Public 

The work of the mechanical department of railways 
is not such as to bring it in close touch with the road's- 
patrons. On times gone by the public, through its legis- 
lators, did not take the deep interest in railways that it 
has in recent years and for these reasons railway me- 
chanical officials often considered themselves quite widely 
separated from the public at large. 

The viewpoint of the railway man is changing in this 
respect, however. He is seeing the advantage in getting" 
before the public and getting it acquainted with the true- 
conditions which face the country's second greatest in- 
dustry. A very good illustration of this is an address 
recently delivered before the Rotary Club of Shreveport, 
La., by W. H. Sagstetter, master mechanic of the Kansas^ 
City Southern at that point. This address, while it con- 
tains some interesting thoughts for railway men, was 
delivered before a representative public body and did a 
great deal of good in promoting a better knowledge and' 
understanding of railway mechanical matters among those 
who heard it. 

Such addresses do much to give the public a better- 
knowledge of our railways and their needs, and if rail- 
way men take full advantage of their opportunities they 
can do much to create a better sentiment. 

Standardization of Shop Methods 

The growth of standards in American railway practice- 
has been steady and there is every reason to believe that it 
will continue. In the mechanical department the Master 
Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' Associations have 
done much to standardize rolling stock and equipment, 
and in this work our government is contributing its share- 
also. Much necessary work still remains to be done by 
these associations, however, as for instance, the standard' 
box car. 

The standardization of methods in railway shops, on- 
the other hand, is a field in which but little work has been- 
done. Whether or not good may be accomplished by 
work in this line is a question at least well worthy of 
debate. In an article in the February issue of The En- 
gineering Magazine, Ernest Cordeal states that "the laclr 
of efficiency in the performance of the multitudinous tasks 
included under the heads of maintenance of equipment is 
due in a great part to a lack of standard methods where- 
from it may be definitely known just how each one of the- 
details should be handled." He advocates especially that 
each road standardize its own shop methods, by means of 
a careful study of the various methods in use at the sev- 
eral shops, but he does not dwell long on the subject of 
standardization of the shop methods throughout the 
country. It is quite safe to say that the consummation of 
the latter idea will not take place at an early date. 

It is true that methods of doing a certain class of work 
in different shops on the same system often vary consid- 
erably, and frequently it is accounted for by local condi- 
tions. Whether standards of shop methods for an entire- 

March, 1915 



system can be established with success is possibly a de- 
batable question also. Standards would necessarily be 
subject to change more or less frequently, due to chang- 
ing conditions, the introduction of labor saving machinery, 
etc., and this might offset the benefits derived. On the 
other hand the central tool room plan and the manufac- 
ture of certain parts at a central shop has proved success- 
ful and is a step in this direction. Undoubtedly frequent 
conferences between the superintendents of the shops 
of a system, while it would not result in hard, fixed stan- 
dards, would benefit all concerned for the real object of 
the shop official is to do good work at as low a cost as 

Steel Ends for Freight Cars 

Steel has gradually been supplanting wood in railway 
freight and passenger cars, and the value of its use in 
future car construction can scarcely be questioned. One 
particular development along this line, which has come 
into prominence during the past few years, has been the 
steel end for freight cars. The ends of box cars are sub- 
ject to heavy strains and shocks, of which there is plenty 
of evidence in any repair yard in the way of broken 
sheathing and cars with the entire end broken out. The 
placing of a strong bulwark to take the shocks, due to 
shifting loads and other like conditions, is attained by the 
use of the steel end, and it appears that it has been 
very successful in preventing damage to the car body at 
this point. 

Although the steel end is being applied to both new and 
old cars, it has particularly found favor for application 
to old wooden box cars. However, it must be remem- 
bered that even the application of a steel end to an old 
car is not an insurance against damage, for if the body 
and corner posts are so far gone that they will not stand 
their share of the strain, the end is lacking the proper 
backing and cannot do its work. The end must be 
fastened securely, and the car framing must at least be 
in fair condition. Otherwise it scarcely has a just oppor- 
tunity to prove its worth. 

Possibly the only objection to the steel end in use has 
been that it sweats somewhat, especially when loaded with 
grain. This objection is taken care of on some roads by 
placing a bulk-head inside the car. 

Railway mechanical men, as a whole, are very favor- 
able toward the steel end. Still its use has not been ex- 
tended as rapidly as its merit deserves. Its cost, of 
course, is somewhat higher than the ordinary end, and 
conditions have been such during the past two or three 
years that repairs had to be made with the least expendi- 
ture possible. Some railway officials contend also that 
the price asked for the ends is too high. 

The steel end, even if the initial investment is per- 
haps higher, will add to the life of wooden box cars very 
materially. The life of the box car is but short at best, 
and it is gratifying to note that the steel end is gradually 
finding favor. 

Editor. Railway Master Mechanic: 

I think that the time is here when associations such as 
the St. Louis Car Foremen's association and others should 
be organized at all cities where interchange of cars takes 
place, and they should in turn be a branch of a general 
association which would be made up of say five members 
from each city. Any recommendations that a branch 
had to make could be made to the general association 
through their representatives. In this way all the recom- 
mendations would be included in one, from all points in 
the country. In other words the recommendations would 
be coming from every car man in the country, in a con- 
crete form, and would greatly assist the Master Car 
Builders in their deliberations, by eliminating recom- 
mendations from so many individual organizations. I be- 
lieve nearly everyone will agree that from the car men 
on the ground, should come the practical suggestions and 

I also believe that all railroad officials should insist 
that their men should be members of these organizations, 
and see that they are active members, and the officials 
themselves should attend the meetings whenever possible. 
The old saying: "United we stand, divided we fall," ap- 
plies to all branches of business, and the car business is 
no exception. What hurts most of all is to have men 
with good ideas keeping their ideas to themselves, and 
fearing to express them for fear they will not meet with 
the approval of someone else. Association has a wonder- 
ful way of doing away with this as through it "bill" out 
in California, has met "Jim" up in New York, and feels 
a friendship, and a confidence that could never be created 
by correspondence or over the telephone. 

W. P. Elliott, Foreman Car Dept., 
Wiggins Ferry Co., East St. Louis, 111. 

Editor, Railz>.'ay Master Mechanic: 

I noticed an article in the January, 191 5, issue headed 
"A Substitute for Files for Air Brake Repair Work" 
by Frank J. Borer, Air Brake Foreman, Central Railroad 
of New Jersey. 

While all railroads have a perfect right to manage air 
brake work to suit themselves and use any tool they see 
fit, I do not agree with Mr. Borer in his use of emery 
powder or emery paper in facing slide valves or slide 
valve seats of triple valves. These ingredients should 
never be used where an air tight fit is necessary, as emery 
of any kind will bed itself in the brass and as soon as 
the valve and seat come in contact with each other, cut- 
ting will begin. 

Square files manufactured for the different size valves 
should be used for this purpose, furnished by the air 
brake company, as they will cut the seat perfectly even. 
In my experience of thirty years as an air brake repair- 
man and inspector I find these files to be the most eco- 
nomical tool for this purpose and will last for years if 
properly taken care of. 

In my regular monthly inspection on line of road, I 
find a good many triple valves with leaky slide valves 
which have recently been cleaned, oiled and tested. I 
have also made inspections in different railway shops 
where I was not known as an air brake man. I found 
in a good many places that when the triple valve is 
placed on the test rack and the slide valve leaks, a 
heavy grease is applied which will stop the leak while 
triple valve is on the test rack, but as soon as placed in 
service the grease will blow off or create undue friction 
on the slide valve and seat, thereby causing undesired 
quick action, clogged ports, etc. This slide valve then 
has to be removed and the work all done over again. 



March, 1915 

Air brake work not done properly is useless and each 
repairman should be supplied with the proper tools if 
good results are expected. It is very disappointing to 
see a brake stenciled as having been cleaned and oiled on 
a certain date and find it unfit for service three or four 
weeks after the date of cleaning, necessitating a duplica- 
tion of the work. 

A section foreman once employed his son to carry 
water to the section hands, but he was found inefficient 
and his father secured a place for him in the machine 
shop in order that he might learn the machinist trade. 
The boy was soon found inefficient there and was like- 
wise transferred to the car shop in order that he might 
make a car repairer, but it was soon found that he would 
not make a success there and the car foreman remarked, 
"We'll make an air brake man of him." Now, if this boy 
could not make a water boy, machinist or car repairer he 
certainly could not make an air brake man. I merely 
mention this to illustrate that you can not expect good 
results of the air brake if you do not provide the proper 
tools for the repairman to work with. 

It should be borne in mind that the air brake is the 
most important safety appliance of today and if not 
properly taken care of is worthless and will produce 
disastrous results. 

In conclusion would like to say that any grinding 
compound whcih has a disastrous result on air brake 
material should not be used, and I would be glad to see 
an expression from other air brake men alon? this line. 

F. von Bergen, 
Chf. Air Brake Ins., N. C. & St. L. Ry., Nashville, Tenn. 

interesting to note that comparative tests are being car- 
ried out with the Robinson and Schmidt superheaters in 
this class, some members of which are also adapted for 
feed-water heating. The Northeastern Railway locomo- 
tive shops are making a new departure in the construction 
of some electric locomotives. 

A special note to hand from the British Superheater 
Corporation points out that this company started the past 
year with a considerable number of orders on their books, 
and were compelled to increase their staff and accommo- 
dation in order to cope with the increasing business. 
Since the outbreak of the war a number of orders have 
been placed with them for the fitting of the Robinson 
locomotive superheater, although it was the original in- 
tention to install a rival system of German origin. 

The Locomotive Outlook in England 
Looking around the British locomotive departments it 
does not appear that on the purely mechanical engineer- 
ing side of railway work there are any particular signs 
of any new developments. The employment of superheat- 
ing in locomotive practice is now becoming quite general, 
and the number of types of superheater being employed 
under service conditions holds out the promise that the 
last ounce of economy in coal consumption which can be 
attained by such a system will be achieved. If the 
Schmidt is still the type usually fitted, a large number 
of locomotives of the Great Central and other railways 
are using the Robinson, and the London & Southwestern 
and the Great Northern railways are now fitting' super- 
heaters designed in each case by their own locomotive 
engineers, which differ in many respects from older 
designs. A feature common to both these new super- 
heaters is the employment of two independent heaters for 
the saturated and superheated steam. In detail, however, 
there are many differences between Great Northern and 
South Western practice, though a great advantage com- 
mon to both is that the elements are interchangeable. 
Feed-water heating, in spite of the obvious soundness of 
the principle, has met with little favor at the hands of 
railway engineers. 

Reference may be made to one or two of the locomo- 
tives put into service during the past year. One of these 
is the powerful 2-8-0 coal locomotive built in the Great 
Northern shops, which is designed to haul loads of 1,200 
tons. On the Great Western Railway, which has always 
taken a prominent part in locomotive construction, a 
notable engine is the 2-8-0 tank, and another is the four- 
cylinder 4-6-0 type. The Swindon superheater and the top- 
feed arrangement are employed, and the working pres- 
sure is the somewhat high one of 225 pounds. On the 
London & Southwestern Railway the main work has 
been the addition of a number of 4-6-0 mixed traffic en- 
gines, which have done very useful service, and it is 


Railway operating income for December, reduced to a 
per mile of line basis and compared with that for Decem- 
ber, 1913, shows a decrease of $28, or 11.4 per cent, while 
operating income per mile for December, 1913, was 16.9 
per cent less than for December, 1912. Total operating 
revenues per mile for December decreased 11.3 per cent 
as compared with December, 1913, operating expenses per 
mile decreased 11.3 per cent, while net operating revenue 
per mile decreased 11.4 per cent. 

For the calendar year 1914 railway operating income 
per mile decreased $382, or 11.5 per cent, as compared 
with the calendar year 1913. The corresponding de- 
crease in 1913, as compared with the calendar year 1912, 
was 6.6 per cent. Operating revenues per mile for the 
calendar year 19 14 decreased 7.6 per cent as compared 
with 19 1 3, operating expenses per mile decreased 7 per 
cent, while net operating revenue per mile decreased 9.3 
per cent. 


At the November meeting of the Car Foremen's Asso- 
ciation of St. Louis a motion prevailed that the further 
organization be considered, and that a committee be ap- 
pointed to work along these lines. This committee re- 
ported at the next meeting, having drawn up a constitu- 
tion and by laws, and submitted several recommendations 
which were adopted by the association. At the January 
meeting the following officers were elected : 

President — J. C. Burke, F. C. D. Mo. Pac. ; vice presi- 
dent — F. L. Meyer, F. C. I., Penn. R. R. ; secretary — 
Miss P. M. Weigman, Sec. C. L. I. office ; treasurer — W. 
S. Wright, F. C. D. E. St. L. & S. 

The following were elected members of the Executive 
Committee : 

H. A. Lightner, Gen'l F. C. D., I. C. R. R. (chairman) ; 
M. W. Halbert, C. L. I. ; J. F. Fergeson, F. C. D., South- 
ern Ry. ; R. R. Lowell, Gen'l F. C. D., C, B. & Q. Ry. ; 
C. D. Mitten Gen'l F. C. D., Armour Car Lines ; R. W. 
Bowler, Trav. Gen'l Car Foreman, St. L. S.-W. Ry. ; W. 
P. Elliott, F. C. D., Wiggins Ferry Co. 

It is the intention to bring together all persons interest- 
ed in matters pertaining to interchange of cars, and the 
handling of repairs, and to hold both night and day 
meetings so that the night inspectors and others may 
bring up points that may come to their minds and get 
the benefit of common discussion. This will be of 
much benefit as the majority of car foremen can attend 
the day meetings along with the night men. 

The prospects of the association are very bright and 
being located as it is at one of the largest points of 
interchange in the world, there is much to be accom- 

March, 1915 



Machine Forging Work, C. & N.-W. Ry. 

Some Examples of Machine Processes at the Chicago 
Shops of the C. & N.-W. Ry. Which Cut Down Labor Cost 

By T. E. Williams, Master Blacksmith 

The principal problem confronting the railway black- 
smith foreman today is how, without a large increase in 
payroll, to keep up with the increasing size and number 
of forgings demanded by the increase in size and num- 
bers of locomotives. It is true that steel castings have 
done away with many forgings, but such large numbers 
are still demanded that machinery must be made use of in 
the solution of the problem. Some machine processes 
which have helped to considerably keep down labor costs 
at the Chicago shops of the Chicago & North- Western 
Railway are described herewith. 

The first example is that of a clinker hook, shown in 
figure i. Six distinct operations are required in the manu- 
facture of this piece and the material from which it is 
made is %x4-inch wrought iron bar stock for the hook 
and round bar iron for the handle. The piece shown in 
figure 3 is first punched from the bar by means of the 
punch and die shown in figures 4 and 2, the space A being 
first punched off the end of the bar. This is the only 
waste which occurs in the entire process. The punching 
is done on a bulldozer. 

The second operation consists in heating the punching 
to a yellow heat and drawing down the shank B to %-inch 
on a Bradley hammer. It will draw out to about 10 
inches in length. At the same heat the drawn-out shank 
is set in the anvil and the prongs CC are bent out at right 
angles to the shank. The piece is then reheated and the 
Bradley hammer again used to draw the prongs down and 
shape them to their final shape. 

The dies used for these operations are shown in figures 
5 and 6, figure 5 being the top die and figure 6 the bottom. 
The space D is used for drawing out, E for smoothing 
and shaping to proper taper and F for edging. 

The next operation is that of bending the prongs of the 
hooks into their final shape, using a bulldozer. The dies 
are not shown as the operation is so common. They are 
simply two cast iron forms bolted in the proper position 
on the machine. The fifth operation is that of welding 

the completed hook to the bar, which is done on the Brad- 
ley hammer, using %-inch swedge dies. 

The sixth and final operation is that of bending the 
handle loop to the required shape. The bending is done 



%• Tap bolt 

■ I t *- Nirkel ttee 




Nickel steel shear 

W.I. boclQ 



J f^\ 


<y Vi 




— 7*— » 


i'Toper' *—6'^\z»V- 3: 
' S" 

no. 4. 



Dimensions to suit 

A. 5crap axle steel 


Taper to suit -^~H \ 
Bradley hammer ' ' 


7 3« 1 


N -\ 

finish all orer 
Material- 5c rap axle stee- 
case hardened 


no. 6 *-?4 l 

Dies and Method of Making Clinker Hooks. 

Fig. 7. Apparatus for Bending Handle Loop. 



March, 1915 






* ' 4 

7 s -g r- 

5teel castings 
K Finish all over 









J 3.1 .1,, _Jl-L_ 


V — si* — * 


H (D 





-J- 1 

Dimensions 1o 
suit machine 





Scrap axle steel 

Fig. 10. 

Driving Spring Block and Dies. 

cold by means of the apparatus shown in figure 7. The 
former labor cost of manufacturing these hooks has been 
reduced about 50 per cent by the adoption of the above 

Another excellent example of the labor saving made 
possible by the use of machinery is the manufacture of 
the driving spring block, shown in figure 8. The type of 
die used in the process is shown in figure 9. Only one- 
half is shown, as the other die is identical except for the 
pin H and the plate I and, of course, being opposite 
handed. A recess is made in the half not shown, to re- 
ceive the projecting part of the plate I. The plunger used 
is shown in figure 10. 

The material used is %x7-inch wrought bar iron, which 

is first sheared into pieces 7 inches long. One of these 
pieces is heated to a yellow heat and placed in the dies, 
resting on edge on the plate I. The pin H prevents the 
piece from tipping back. One operation is sufficient to 
completely form the piece, the shearing, punching and 
gibbing being done in one blow. This operation is unique 
in that a shearing operation is done with the dies instead 
of the plunger, which is usually the case. The hardened 
tool steel inserts shown at JJ shear off the corners of the 

By means of this device, a 75 per cent reduction in 
labor was accomplished. The size of machine used in this 
particular case is a 6-inch Ajax, but the operation is possi- 
ble on a 5-inch machine." 

In figure 1 1 is shown an equalizer hanger, in the manu- 
facture of which considerable saving is possible when 
machine labor is substituted for fire labor. It is a part, 
too, which is common on all heavy power of recent con- 

The material required per part consists of one piece of 
wrought iron 7^x3x61 inches, one piece 2^x3x16 inches, 
and enough scrap iron to form the thick end, which will 
be about 1^x4x8 inches. 

The first operation is to heat the long piece to a yellow 
heat and, using a bulldozer, bend into a U-shape. At the 
same heat the U-shape is closed down onto the %x3xi8- 
inch piece, as shown in figure 12. Here again, on account 
of their simplicity, the dies used to do the bending are not 

The second operation is carried out by the use of the 
steam hammer. The pieces, as received from the bull- 
dozer, are heated to a welding heat and welded together. 
At the same heat the body is drawn down to 1^4x3 inches. 

For the third operation, a 6-inch Ajax is used, although 
the work could be done on a 5-inch machine where a 6- 
inch is not available. Scrap wrought iron is piled onto 
the end of the piece to a size of about 1^x4x8 inches. 
The pile and end is then heated to a welding heat and up- 
set to the final size of the piece. For this operation the 
bottom recess of the die, shown in figure 15, is used with 
the plunger shown in figure 13. 

The fourth and last operation is done during this same 
heat. The piece is inserted in the vertical recess of the 
same dies, and by means of the plunger shown in figure 
14 the slot is punched, the recess K, figure 15, taking care 
of the punching. The corners of the slot are trimmed off 

Fig. 14. 




1 ~* ; 


8 3 /4"^ 



Fig. II. 

Fig. 12. 


3$ "> 




Cast iron 
Finish a/I oyer 


Fig. 15. 


Equalizer Hanger and Dies. 

March, 1915 



UO-MU bk. t-M-U 

Chicago & North Western Railway Co. 


Lot No. 

/> If 6 

/0 - 3 


app»o*e! or (his by his superior officer, at once manuiaciure me touowing articles lor 

The Foreman under 
will, upon appmral of Ibis by his superior officer, at once manufacture the following articles for 

and charge the time and material expended thereon to above "Lot" number and notify me through his 
superior of Its completion, and Insert below the quantity of material not used but charged to said Lot number. 

(Ttui blank » to b* Hot diractljr la lb* hnd ol lb* Stop lor tnr m mL—on by Mm 1 j ibr Foreman. ) 

. Storekeeoer. 




Order Form, C. & N. W. Ry. 

"by hand. This method of manufacturing these parts has 
reduced the cost of labor about 75 per cent. 

At first sight, it may appear that there are more opera- 
tions than necessary on the first and last pieces described, 
"but they are so divided that when the same operation fol- 
lows itself a sufficient number of times, greater economy 
is possible than when too much is attempted in the same 

Becoming a Leader 

We hear a great deal about "faithful service," but it 
should be borne in mind that "faithful service" alone will 
not lead to promotion. There are any number of men 
who are now in the twilight of their days who have been 
performing "faithful service" for many a long year but 
who are practically in the same position that they were 
twenty-five years ago. It is true that they may be getting 
a larger salary, but the position is the same and they have 
received increased pay because of long service and not 
because of a much greater value of their service. When 
they die their places will be filled by men at one-half 
the pay and the work will be done just as well and just 
as faithfully performed. Men are naturally honest and 
faithful. It is only when some strong temptation comes 
that they are led astray. 

But to become a leader or the head of a department a 
man must be not only faithful, but forceful and pro- 
gressive. If he proves his fitness for a higher position 
"he will get it in due time. If not, he will either be dropped 
or he will keep in the same old groove until death finds 
him at the same old job or until he is put on the pension 
list for "faithful service." 

Every great railway company or corporation desires 
to have their men promoted. A man who rises from the 

ranks and knows the business from the lowest ground 
up is the most valuable man. 

Before a man can become a leader or the head of a 
department, he must acquire the one habit that is char- 
acteristic of all leaders — the habit of making good. 
Making good does not mean doing your work so that it 
will be approved. The work must be done so that it will 
not only be done well, but nothing from it will "come 
back" for criticism. 

A man should strive to improve the methods by which 
his work is done. A man should study the methods of 
men above him who have won their positions by ability. 
A man must work, he must develop his mind, he must 
study all things that will make him more valuable to his 
company, he must take care of his health, he must be 
honest with all men and particularly with himself, he 
must know his own business and he should keep himself 
posted on all competing lines of business. — Graphite. 

The Nerves of the Engineer 

One of the questions being seriously considered in the 
arbitration of the differences of the locomotive engineers 
and employing railway companies is whether the en- 
gineers shall hereafter be subjected to "surprise tests." 
The railway companies contend that many accidents, ac- 
cording to reports of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, are due to engineers failing to heed block signals. 
They argue that it is necessary to use unexpected signals 
at times to test the vigilance and the reliability of the 
engineers. On the other hand, the engineers complain 
of the practice as heedless torture. One witness stated 
that twice he had undergone the experiment of test sig- 
nals. When it was suggested that two such experiences 
in several years surely caused no great hardship, he 
responded that two such trials were enough for one life- 
time. Other witnesses bore him out and gave specific 
instances of where men subjected to surprise tests had 
jumped from their engines in terror, receiving serious 

While the general public is not qualified to decide the 
controversy, the discussion reveals a feature of railway 
life to which few have given any heed. The life of a 
locomotive engineer appeals to the imagination. With his 
hand on the throttle which controls the movements of 
the steam monster, he seems a monarch, the very em- 
bodiment of man's mastery of nature. 

The man who walks carelessly across a railway track 
in front of an onrushing train forgets it. The man who 
runs across, as if in the greatest hurry of his life, al- 
though he usually turns around and watches the train 
go by, also forgets it. He feels that he is safe. But the 
engineer is alarmed. He does not know but that the man 
is deaf. The train has such a momentum that it could 
not be stopped. Old engineers say that they have had 
their nerves shattered by such incidents. One who ad- 
mitted that his gray hairs did not come from age thus 
described it: "If you were swinging an ax and a child 
should quickly place its finger between the ax and the 
log, how would you feel ? This is the kind of experience 
that every locomotive engineer must suffer, sometimes 
many times a day. The fatalities are infrequent, but no 
mathematical computation of probalibities can remove the 
anxiety of the helpless engineer. He dreads what may 
easily happen." If the public could but realize the posi- 
tion of the man in the cab he would be spared many 
nerve-racking experiences. Furthermore, many needless 
accidents would be avoided. One of the slogans of the 
Safety First movement should be : "Put yourself in the 
engineer's place." — St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 



March, 1915 

Suburban Type Locomotives for the Grand 
Trunk Railway 

Due to the Necessity of Hauling More and Heavier Cars, Six 
Powerful Units Have Been Placed in Service at Montreal 

Six suburban type locomotives have recently been de- 
livered to the Grank Trunk Railway by the Montreal Lo- 
comotive Works, Ltd. These locomotives have been put 
in service between Montreal and Vaudrieul, a distance of 
24 miles, and between Montreal and St. Hyacinthe, a dis- 
tance of 37 miles. Where this kind of traffic is frequent, 
the suburban type engine can be used to good advantage. 
Delays caused by turning the locomotive are eliminated, 
as the suburban type can run in either direction with 
equal advantage. 

This traffic on the Grand Trunk was formerly handled 
by 4-4-2 suburban type locomotives having I7"x22" cylin- 
ders and a total weight of 128,600 pounds. As this traffic 
increased 2o"x26" moguls and ten-wheelers were also 
used. New suburban cars have recently been placed in 
service which weigh 138,000 pounds as compared with 
75,000 pounds weight for the older class of car. As it 
was also desired to increase the number of cars in a 
train, it became necessary to design a more powerful 
engine. Former experience with the traffic and the 
different types of engines used influenced the railway 
officials in deciding on the suburban type for the new 
power. These new engines are handling an average train 
of seven cars. Trains of five cars were the average with 
former power. 

The design in general follows the standards of the 
builder. An interesting feature is the combination of 
the Gaines combustion chamber and a Security brick 
arch. This combination secures a very complete deflection 
of the gases whereby better combustion is obtained ; the 
back end of the firebox is more fully utilized, with a 
resulting increase in the generation of steam ; and the 
amount of smoke is reduced to a minimum, which is so 
important in this kind of service. The front truck is 
equalized with the drivers, as it was not desired to have 
more than two systems of equalization. Other features 
are: a Schmidt superheater, outside steam pipes, self- 
centering valve stem guide, extended piston rod, the 
improved throttle lever bracket which has also been ap- 
plied on the Mikados for this road, long main driving 
box, and vanadium main fumes. 

Other data with regard to these locomotives follows : 

Cylinder, type Piston, 21"x26" 

Tractive power 30,940 lbs. 

Factor of adhesion 4,7 

Wheel base, driving 15'-11" 

Wheel base, total 38'-ll" 

Weight in working order 262,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 146,000 lbs. 

Weight on trailers 67,000 lbs. 

Weight on engine truck 49,000 lbs. 

Boiler, type Straight top, radial stay 

Boiler, O. D. first ring 71 9-16 in. 

Boiler, working pressure 200 lbs. 

Firebox Wide, 129 in. x 75% in. 

Firebox, thickness of crown, %"■ tube, V- 2 "; sides, %"; back, 

Firebox, water space front 5"; sides 4%"; back, 4%" 

Heating surface, tubes and flues 1,604 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 173 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, arch tubes 31 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 1,808 sq. ft. 

Superheater surface 347 sq. ft. 

Crate area 47 sq. ft. 

Wheels, driving dia. outside tire 63 in. 

Engine truck 4 wheel center bearing 

Trailing truck 4 wheel center bearing 

Grate, style Eocking bars, G. T. std. 

Piston rod, dia 3%" 

Tank, style Waterbottom 

Tank, capacity 3,500 U. S. gal. 

Tank, capacity fuel 5 ton3 

Engineering of the Panama Canal 

Volume I of the Transactions of the International 
Engineering Congress will comprise a unique series of 
papers on the engineering of the Panama Canal. The 
various topics and subdivisions of the work have been 
arranged by Colonel G. W. Goethals, Chief Engineer of 
the Canal, and now Governor of the Canal Zone. Colonel 
Goethals has also selected the author for the treatment 
of each paper, and he will himself contribute the intro- 
ductory chapter. The various authors are in general the 
officers who were in direct charge of the actual work of 
construction, and the collection of papers thus becomes a 
first-hand account of the engineering of the Panama 
Canal, written by the men who were in immediate and 
responsible charge of the undertaking. There will be 
twenty-four papers in all, profusely illustrated, twenty- 
two of which deal with actual constructive and engineer- 
ing problems connected with the work, one with the pre- 
liminary work in municipal engineering in the Canal Zone, 
and one with the commercial and trade aspects of the 

Suburban Type Locomotive, Grand Trunk Ry. 

March, 1915 











































March, 1915 

Truck Side Frame Forces and Stresses 

Comprehensive Tests Recently Made Have Contributed Valuable 
Information as to the Proper Distribution of Metal in Frames 

By L. E. Endsley, Prof. Ry. Mech. Engr., Univ. of Pittsburgh 


The design of the different members of a freight car 
truck for a good many years has received careful atten- 
tion, but so far as the writer knows, no definite informa- 
tion has ever been obtained with regard to the actual force 
coming on the side frame, until the work herein described 
was undertaken. 

The object of these experiments was to obtain the 
actual force coming on the truck side frame and from 
the force thus obtained, to check some test on a truck 
side frame in which the writer has assumed certain forces. 

The three main forces to which the side frame is sub- 
ject are, the downward spring pressure, the end thrust 
of the bolster, and the twisting of the side frame which 
the spring plank gives it when the car is on a curve and 
the inside pair of wheels is attempting to get ahead of the 
outside pair of wheels. Of the three forces just men- 
tioned, the maximum direct vertical force had often been 
estimated and was generally considered to be not over 
twice the normal load on the frame when the car was 
standing still. That is, the vibration of the car up and 
down on its spring might carry the pressure underneath 
the spring from almost nothing to double the normal 

Some years ago, experiments were conducted by placing 
in the center of the spring a short block of wood in which 
a nail was driven, and as the car body moved up and 
down, the upper spring cap would drive the nail deeper 
and deeper into the wood, and from this the total com- 
pression of the springs was obtained. But so far as 
the bolster pressure against the side of the frame and 
the twist of the spring planks, nothing in the writer's 
knowledge had ever been attempted. 


The car used in the test was a Pennsylvania standard 
H 21 hopper, which had special cast steel trucks under 
it. One truck was designed to obtain the direct vertical 
load, and the other to obtain the bolster thrust and the 
twist of the spring plank. 

The apparatus used to determine the maximum direct 
vertical load, one end of which is shown in Fig. i, con- 

sisted of two new sets of standard M. C. B. coil springs, 
which were calibrated. Two special spring caps were 
used. An arm extended inward from each spring cap 
carrying a ratchet which revolved a shaft that extended 
across the truck. These ratchets were so designed that 
as the spring cap moved up and down, the shaft would 
revolve in one direction. An arm, also extending out- 
ward, carrying a vertical link which was connected to a 
slide in which a horizontal pencil was held. The slide 
moved up and down in a small box that contained three 
vertical cylinders, which carried a scroll of paper. These 
three cylinders were so geared to the shaft running across 
the truck that the paper was unwound from No. i cyl- 
inder, wound up on No. 3 cylinder, and passed almost 
one- fourth the way around No. 2 cylinder. As the axis 
of the cylinders were all vertical, and the paper moved 
around the cylinder, the pencil would make a saw-tooth 
mark on the paper. In this way the exact movement of 
the spring cap up and down was obtained. Fig. 2 shows 
a typical record. It will be seen that the distance between 
any two saw-tooth was equal to about one-fourth the 
total movement up and down. In order that the record 
on the two sides of the truck could be connected, the No. 2 
cylinder on each side had a small point sticking up that 
pricked a hole in the paper every time the cylinders made 




A paper presented before the Eailway Club of Pittsburgh. 

Fig. 1. Apparatus for Determining Direct Vertical Load. 

Fig. 2. Vertical Record for Determining Direct Vertical Load 

on Side Frame. 

one revolution. As the gearing was so constructed that 
the No. 2 cylinder on each side made the same number 
of revolutions, it only remained to make a reference mark 
at the beginning of each scroll of paper to connect the 
record on each side. 

The apparatus used in getting the thrust of the bolster 
consisted of a specially constructed bolster, shown in 
Fig. 3, which had a solid web cast across it at A, on each 
side of which was a calibrated spring which was placed 
under an initial compression of about one-half its capacity 
by tightening the bolt running through what might be 
called the spring heads C and G. Connected firmly to 
the spring head were two rods, shown in Fig. 3, at D 
and D, and extending to each end of the bolster.. These 
rods, D and D, were threaded and passed through two 
striking blocks, E and E. The striking blocks served as 
the lugs on the ordinary bolster, but in this case they 
were only on the inside of the frame. These striking 
blocks were held from moving across the bolster by the 
end of rods D and D passing through a bushing in the 
end of the bolster, and any movement of these blocks 
endwise of the bolster would be resisted by the springs. 
That is, any movement of the right hand block inward 
would compress the right hand spring and release the 
left hand spring, and any movement of the left hand block 

March, 1915 




' l H M ■■■■■■-. 


3 s list 

— s K \ i V 

— I — f J. 

Fig. 3. Special Bolster and Recording Mechanism. 

inward would have the opposite effect on the spring. In 
this way the force exerted on either block for any given 
movement would be equal to twice the calibration of one 
spring for this movement. So by knowing the initial 
pressure on each spring (which must be equal with no 
force on either block) and the calibration of each spring 
and the movement due to any force on the block, the 
exact force was obtained from the calibration curves of 
the springs. It so happened that the two springs were 
identical. The movement of the spring head with regard 
to the bolster was obtained by recording the movement 
of the arm H, which was fastened to one spring head and 
extended out through a slot in the side of the bolster. 
This movement was recorded on the copper drum G, by 
means of a bell-crank F, which moved a steel point up and 
down the drum. The drum was caused to revolve by 
means of a ratchet connected to the base of the drum and 
the arm H. In this way any force on the blocks would 
cause arm H to move with respect to the bolster, and as 
the drum G was mounted on the bolster, the steel point 
would move up and down, and the ratchet would revolve 
the drum, thus making a saw-tooth record on the drum, 
and from this record the maximum force was obtained. 

The apparatus shown in Fig. 4 was used to obtain the 
force on the side frame due to the twist of the spring 
plank. It consisted of a spring plank made up of two 
similar shaped castings, A and B, which were fastened to 

Fig. 4. Apparatus for Determining Twisting Force of Spring Plank. 

the side frames by eight (8) machine taper bolts. These 
two castings were held together by a bolt C, that extended 
through holes in the casting and held two springs, one be- 
tween the two parts, A and B, and one on the outside 
of B. This bolt had an initial tension of approximately 
one-half the capacity of the springs. In order to space 
the two side frames the correct distance apart so that the 
bolt in the center would not bind, the angle F was bolted 
to the two pieces. 

The recording arrangement was very similar to that 
just described for the bolster. It consists of the drum M, 
the bell-crank N, and the ratchet O. 


After the car was equipped, as already described, it 
was first tested light, by putting it next to a switch engine 
in the Allegheny yards of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
This was done in order that minor adjustment of the ap- 
paratus might be made and the whole thing tried out, after 
which the car was put in a local freight train and repeated 
round trips from Pittsburgh to Alliance were made. The 
test with the car in the local freight train was conducted 
with the car running light (48,700 pounds) and with a 
66,000-pound load, 91,000-pound load and 119,150-pound 
load, making the total loads as tested 48,700, 114,700, 
139,700 and 167,850 pounds. After this the car was put 
in fast freight service between Pittsburgh and Alliance 
with a load of 91,000 pounds in the car, a total of 139,700 
pounds. All of the tests were conducted between the 
Allegheny shops and Alliance, except the one round trip 
which was made with 91,000 pounds in the car between 
Pittsburgh and Altoona in fast freight service to obtain 
the force due the twisting action of the spring plank. 


Table No. 1 gives the results obtained with regard to 
the maximum direct vertical force on the side frame. 

The first three columns are self-explanatory. Column 
No. IV gives load in pounds on the side frame with the 
car standing still. These values were obtained by sub- 
tracting the weight of the wheels, axles, side frames and 
journal boxes from the total weight of the car, and divid- 
ing the remainder by four. Column No. V gives the 
maximum pressure obtained on the direct vertical load. 
This was obtained from the record made of the maximum 
compressing of the springs as recorded on the paper in 
the boxes at each end of the spring plank. 

The first four values in this column were obtained while 



March, 1915 



Load on 


Load in 

Kind al 

Truck Side 

on Side- 

Per Cent. 


Service I 

.Mad on Car 

Frame Normal 

Frame Lbs. 

































Through Freight 

















Table I. Results of Tests to Determine Maximum Vertical Pressure. 

the car was equipped with M. C. B. standard 100,000 
pounds capacity springs, each of which has a capacity of 
64,000 pounds before going solid, while the last three 
values were obtained with special springs, each having a 
capacity of 104,000 pounds before going solid. 

Column No. VI gives the total load in percent of the 
normal, and was obtained by dividing the values in column 
No. V bv those in column No. IV. 

Load on Truck 


rt Throat in Lb* 

Bolder Throat in 

Pel Cent o- 

Kind or Load 

Side Fume 

..n Side 

Normal Load oi 

l Side Frame 








11 111 







Local N'onc 


















15 4 

25 4 







24 2 







17 2 







16 S 

7 Th 

rough Fail Freight 91000 




15 8 

24 2 







23 6 

.Each Test Represents a Round Trip, Pittsburgh to Alliance. 

Table II. Results of Tests to Determine Maximum Bolster Thrust. 

Table No. II gives the results obtained with regard to 
the maximum pressure set up between the bolster and 
side frame, due to the end thrust of the bolster against the 
columns of the frame. The first four columns of the table 
are the same as those of table No. I. Column No. V 
gives the maximum pressure between the right side frame 
and the right striking block ; column No. VI gives the 
maximum pressure between the left side frame and the 
left striking block; column VII and VIII gives the maxi- 
mum pressure in percent of the normal load obtained by 
dividing columns V and VI (respectively) by column 
No. IV. 



of Spring 

Load in 

Plank in Lbs. 

Per Cent 

Load on Truck 

at Center 

of Normal 


Load in 

Side Frame 

of Truck 

Load on 





l\f aximum 

Side Frame 






































Fast Freight 











First six tests represent trips from Pittsburgh to Alliance and return. 
No. 7 test represents trip from Pittsburgh to Altoona and return. 

Table III. Results of Tests to Determine Maximum Twisting Force. 

Table III gives the results obtained with regard to the 
maximum force due to the twisting action of the spring 
plank on the frame. The first four columns are the same 
as those in the two former tables ; column V shows the 
maximum force due to the twisting action of the spring 
plank on the frame obtained at a leverage of half the 
width of the truck ; column VI gives the twisting load in 
percent of the normal load on the frame as obtained by 
dividing column V by column IV. 


From a survey of the results obtained in Table No. I, 
it w r ill be seen that the maximum direct vertical pressure 
will vary from 182 per cent to 246 per cent of the normal 
load on the frame. The results, however, show that only 
in one case does the maximum load exceed 216 per cent of 

the normal load, so that for the design of a freight car 
truck probably a conservative figure would be 220 per 
cent of the normal load on the frame. 

We found, however, during three round trip tests be- 
tween Pittsburgh and Alliance, in which the standard 
M. C. B. springs were under the car and the total weight 
of the car was 139,700 pounds, that the springs went 
solid several times during each trip of eighty miles. This 
would indicate that a force of over 64,000 pounds, which 
was the capacity of the springs, came upon the springs. 

After it became evident that these springs were going 
solid, the car was equipped with four new sets of springs, 
each having a capacity of 104,000 pounds, and three round 
trips were made, the results of which are given as the last 
three lines in column V of Table No. 1. These results 
would indicate very clearly that the standard M. C. B. 
springs do not have high enough capacity, that forces of 
over 70,000 pounds were not unusual with a normal load 
of 30,925 pounds on the frame. Now, if we consider for 
the average 100,000 pound car, weighing 40,000 pounds 
and loaded to 110,000 pound capacity, making a total 
weight of 150,000 pounds, that the wheels, axles, side 
frames and journal boxes are not carried by the springs, 
the normal load carried J)y each spring would approxi- 
mate 33,000 pounds. If sve consider that 220 per cent of 
this load — the maximum force for design would be 72,600 
pounds for each frame. This is somewhat higher than 
most companies have used in their design — 68,500 pounds 
being a common figure. Then in view of the fact that the 
springs are going solid, it is almost impossible to predict 
what maximum force might be obtained due to the impact 
after the springs go solid. This fact may account for a 
great many of our failures in arch bar and cast steel 
side frames. 

From a study of Table No. II, it will be seen that the 
force obtained due to the end thrust of the bolster 
against the columns of the frame, referred to hereafter as 
the transverse load on the frame, varied considerably — but 
the maximum with the total weight of the car — 167,850 
pounds — was 9.500 pounds, or 25.4 per cent of the normal 
load on the side frame. This 25.4 per cent of the average 
load on a side frame on a hundred thousand pound 
capacity car would be about 8,500 pounds, and probably 
for safe figuring, 9,000 pounds would be the maximum 
force for test purposes. 

From Table No. Ill it will be seen that the twisting 
force reached a maximum in the trip from Pittsburgh to 
Altoona, and as this force is dependent upon the degrees 
of curvature, this is readily explained, as this track has 
one or two curves of eight degrees curvature, and the 
track between Pittsburgh and Alliance has no curve of 
over five degrees. The maximum force obtained was 
6,100 pounds, from which we may assume that 6,000 
pounds would probably be a safe figure for test. 


The last part of this paper, which deals with the actual 
stress in the side frame, is taken from the results obtained 
from the tests of some forty different designs of side 
frames, using three forces acting on frame as described 
above. The exact amounts of the three forces were not 
the same as those found in actual service, due to the fact 
that the tests conducted to determine the stress set up in 
the side frame were made before the tests to determine 
the actual maximum force were carried out. And for the 
purpose of this paper only the complete results from two 
different designs of frame will be included. 

As has been previously given in the report the three 
forces, namely, direct vertical, transverse and twisting, 
were found to have maximum values for a hundred 
thousand pound car of 72.000 pounds, 9,000 pounds and 

March, 1915 



■6,ooo pounds, respectively. The actual forces used in 
the testing hereafter described were 68,500 pounds direct 
vertical — -6,000 pounds transverse and 5,000 pounds twist- 
ing. However, in the tables hereafter described, the 
results due to the transverse load have been increased 
50 per cent and represent the stress due to a transverse 
load of 9,000 pounds. There might be some question in 
this procedure, if it had not already been found in actual 
test that for all practical purposes the stress at any point 
in the frame was directly proportioned to the loads as 
long as the elastic limit of the metal was not reached. 


For the purpose of determining the stress throughout 
the frame under the three different loads, namely, direct 
vertical, transverse and twisting, the Berry strain gauge 
was used. These gauges are so constructed that the 
elongation in two-inch gauge length can be determined 
to .0002 of an inch! This gauge is shown in Fig. 5. 

Fig. 5. Berry Strain Gauge. 

It will be seen that the dial of the instrument is 
divided into 100 parts. The movement of the hand over 
each of these divisions, which is approximately one-six- 
teenth of an inch, is equivalent for the cast steel used in 
these tests to 2,700 pounds per square inch stress. This 
2,700 value was arrived at by determining the modulus 
of elasticity of the steel which from several tests was 
found to be approximately 27,000,000. 

I will say that this instrument is a delicate machine 
and it requires some patience and skill to operate. A 
common day laborer could not obtain accurate results. 

In preparation for a test the frame was mounted as 
shown in Figs. VI and VII, on two heavy supporting 
castings on the bed plate of the testing machine. The 

Fig. 6. Method of Mounting Frame. 

Fig. 7. Method of Mounting Frame. 

machine used was a 300,000 pound Richie testing ma- 
chine, located at the Granite City plant of the American 
Steel Foundries. The distance between the support was 
equal to the wheel base of the truck. Double knife edge 
bearings over the supports were used. Cap castings over 
the support and filler blocks were also used to obtain the 
correct height for the spring seat and to support the knife 
edges. Any irregularities on the bearing surfaces of the 
frames were taken up by the use of half-inch soft wooden 
blocks between the top filler blocks and the frames. The 
direct vertical load was applied through the casting A 
(which was bolted to the head of the testing machine as 
shown in the figures) to a i-inch by ^-inch by 10-inch 
strip lying over the center line of the spring seat. It 
was then transmitted through a i-inch by 3-inch by 8-inch 
filler block to the circular ball bearing B, which rested on 
the steel casting C, used to take the place of the spring 
plank in the tests. Wooden blocks were used above and 
below the ball bearings to take up any irregularities on 
the surface of the casting or in loading. A special 
spring plank casting was placed on the spring seat and a 
load was transmitted through it to the spring test. The 
thickness of this special spring plank underneath the ball 
bearing was one-half inch. The twisting load was applied 
through this special designed spring plank casting C, 
which was bolted to the side frame by eight j^-inch 
bolts. The load was applied to the calibrated spring D, 
and was transmitted through the lever casting E to the 
spring plank casting. After the vertical load was applied, 
any desired twisting load could be applied without dan- 
ger of moving the side frame upon its support. The 
transverse load was obtained by applying a load to the 
calibrated springs F, which were anchored to the frame 
by means of bolts G, castings H, which hooked under 
the edge of the journal box seat, through the casting I, 
and column casting J, to the columns. After the frame 
had been selected for the test, the points of reading were 
located, and small holes were drilled with a No. 56 drill 
into the casting about one-eighth inch deep, exactly two 



March, 1915 



\o o o o/^ 



>'U*» "««-» »~ 3ACK 

«■« --,1 ."• "■"" >>**.r>i 

J >*>,/> FRAME "A" 

Fig. 8. 

inches apart, and these holes were then reamed to get a 
good firm surface for the points of the instruments to 
rest in. The frame was then mounted in the testing 
machine, as already described. As we had several in- 
struments they were clamped at different positions around 
the frame where the readings were desired, and 5,000 
pounds vertical load was applied to the frame. A zero 
reading of all instruments was then taken, after which 
the direct vertical load was increased to 73,500 pounds 
and the instruments were all read again. A twisting 
load equivalent to 5,000 pounds was applied to the center 
of the spring plank and another reading of each instru- 
ment was taken, after which a 6,000-pound transverse 
load was applied to the calibrated spring F, and a fourth 
reading of the instruments was taken. From these four 
readings taken, the stresses equivalent to each of the 
loads at any point was determined by repeating the above 
tests until all points where readings were desired had 
been covered. 


The two frames which will be discussed in this paper 
were from two general types of design, designated accord- 
ing to the cross section of the different members in the 
frames, namely, the "L" section and the "I" section. 
The "L" section type is as shown in Fig. 8 and will for 






~ ' u 


•x H*S «tj • >* B*C*. 


Fig. 9. 

this paper be referred to hereafter as frame A. This 
design of frame has been discarded by the manufac- 

The "I" section type, as shown in Fig. 9, is a later 
type of design and will hereafter be referred to as 
frame B. 

Several changes in the B type of frame were made 
as the tests progressed. For instance it was soon found 
that a B type of frame with the ordinary bead around the 
inside of the triangular opening was apparently weak at 
points ti and 25, so that frames of this type having dif- 
ferent width beads from points 4 around to 15 were made. 
Also it was found that the width of the bottom flange 
had a considerable effect upon the stress derived, due to 
the twisting force of the spring plank, so that frames 
having different widths of bottom members were tested. 


Table IV gives the results obtained from the tests 
made on the A frames under the three loads as described 
above. The weight of the frame as tested was 402 
pounds. Column Xo. 1 gives the position of reading on 
the frame and the numbers in the table correspond to 
the number in Fig. 8. It will be seen that some numbers 
are omitted, which is due to the fact that only points of 
maximum stress or especial significance are considered 
in this paper. 

Column II gives the stress under vertical load of 68,500 
pounds. The negative signs in the table represent com- 

Column III gives the. stress for a 5,000-pound twisting 
force applied from the side frame at a distance equal to 
half the width of the truck. 

Column IY gives the stress corresponding to a trans- 
verse load of 9,000 pounds. 

Column Y gives the maximum calculated stress at the 
different positions on the frame under the direct vertical, 
twisting, and transverse loads. 

In determining this column of maximum stress due to 
the direct vertical, twisting and transverse loads the fol- 
lowing assumptions were made : 

( 1 ) That a full direct vertical load as used was always 

(2) That the stresses due to twisting and transverse 
loads would add to or subtract from the stresses due to 
the vertical. 

(3) That either one, or both, the transverse or twist- 
ing loads might be acting or dormant. 

Table V gives the results obtained from the tests 
on frame B. This frame weighed 435 pounds. It will 
be seen that this frame weighed 33 pounds more than 
frame A. This, however, would not be true if the frames 
had similar design of ends, as they would weigh within 
1 per cent of each other if they had the same ends. 

57 *£?* T TZT* * J £^ *■ T**? ^r-£ *?™« * * *-^- 






. m 






— I9B8 



: * > 

— I40P 

— soo 



- 1 •' 


-: ■?> 



-89 ■ 








.2 •: 



- •' ■ 

— uoo 





II 100 


. 500 













— 1900 




— 29 ■ 


— sB I 



— I2C0 



— 4000 




— m 




— 3700 










H ,r 





—I SB 

- m 


—II 100 




II 100 



■ '.' 
5 ■■>' 

:• ... 
;■ ■ 











— 10000 










f ■ v 








-*': V 


-II 100 


- _->. 










— 140S 




_ ; > v 







■ VI 

■- I 



— : _ • 



- : :-- 












— nop. 


_ n 



— I170P 

Table V. Stresses in 
Steel Frame B. 


Table IV. 

Stresses in 
Frame- A« 


March, 1915 



The column in the table represents the same items as 
those of Table IV. 


Whenever the subject of a design of a truck side frame 
has been discussed, the question usually has been, "What 
factor of safety shall we allow ?" It is a well known fact 
that an arch bar type of side frame has a calculated factor 
of safety of from 12 to 16. This seemingly large factor 
of safety was not originally used but was arrived at by 
substituting larger and larger sections in an attempt to 
overcome breakage, and yet a great many arch bars break, 
and we usually say that the metal was not of the correct 
material. The same thing is true of the cast steel side 
frame. When we find a cast steel side frame broken or 
cracked, we lay it to the metal, while it may have been 
due to the design. In fact it appears that the average 
designing engineer has been using 25 per cent mechanical 
knowledge and 75 per cent judgment in the design of the 
different members that go to make up a freight car truck. 
A careful study of the results of the tests here included 
will, I think, show some very important factors in the 
design of cast steel side frames. It shows clearly that 
we have not been able to figure accurately the stress 
occurring in the different members of the frame. For 
instance, let us look at the stresses obtained in the tension 
member of the A frame at reading No. 46X and 69. 
Reading 46X is on the web side of the L, and reading 
No. 69 was taken on the top of the lower leg of the L 
at the front or away from the web. Now it will be seen 
that the stress at the reading 46X for the direct vertical 
load is 1,600 pounds per square inch in compression, and 
at the reading No. 69 is 17,600 pounds in tension. Also 
at the reading 8 and 8x, which were taken at the top of 
the L section, the 8x reading being on the back of the web 
and the 8 on the front, it will be seen that the 8x reading 
was 5,400 pounds tension, and the 8 reading 16,500 
pounds, showing very plainly that the tension member 
is attempting to bend in such a way that the two legs come 
nearer to the center of gravity of the member. 

Another place where the stress does not follow what we 
expect, is at the center and bottom of the frame at read- 
ing 29 and 29X. It will be seen that the stress at 29 is 
2,700 pounds compression, and 29X is 27,000 pounds ten- 
sion. If we stop to consider we can see why this is true, 
for the outer edge at point 29 can bend up and relieve 
itself, thus leaving most of the load for the web side. 
Now if we look at the results obtained at the same points 
on the tension member of the B frame where the web 
is in the center, we will find some variation in results, 
but nothing like this wide variation. For instance if we 
take the reading at the bottom of the B frame at 38 and 
38X, we will see that the stress is 14,000 and 12,200 
pounds per square inch, respectively. The average of the 
two would be then 13,100 pounds. Now if we should 
average the two stresses at points 29 and 29X on frame 
A, we would obtain 12,150 pounds in tension. So it will 
be seen that the average stress for all practical purposes 
is the same. It is also true that if we should figure the 
moment of inertia for the cross section of these two 
frames at this point, we would find them almost exactly 
the same. 

The same comparison can be made at the lower end 
of the tension member. That is, the average stress for 
the direct vertical load on the A frame at points 46X, 69, 
8 and 8x, is 9,200, and for the same relative point on 
the B frame, that is points 34, 34X, 11 and nx, is 8,600, 
which is for all practical purposes the same. That is for 
the comparison at the bottom of the frames, the maxi- 
mum stress on the A frame is 27,000 pounds per square 
inch, and 14,000 pounds per square inch on the B frame, 

and at the bottom of the tension member the maximum 
on the A frame is 17,600 pounds and 11,600 on the B 
frame. That is the maximum stress in the B frame under 
the vertical load is 50 per cent less in the bottom member, 
due to its symmetry of section, and 30 per cent at the 
bottom of the tension member in the B frame. This 
same saving is true in any comparison of the stresses 
due to the three loads, that is, the twisting, transverse and 
direct vertical loads. As it will be seen that the maximum 
indicated stress on the A frame is 38,100 pounds at 72, 
and a maximum of only 19,400 at point 41 x on the B 

By studying column No. V in each of these tables you 
will see that there are a great many places where the 
stresses are over 20,000 in the A frame, but none where 
it is that high in the B frame. In fact there are only 
five points on the B frame where the stress is over 16,000 
pounds with the three forces applied, and there are 
twenty-four points that show over 16,000 pounds stress 
on the A frame, and there are seven points on the A 
frame that show over 25,000 pounds stress. This would 
clearly indicate that the metal in the B frame was dis- 
tributed in a manner that each pound of metal was doing 
a more uniform share of the work than is true of each 
pound of metal in the A frame. 

The value of a small amount of metal at the correct 
point is well shown in Fig. 10. Here are shown two 
curves, one of the curves is plotted from the result ob- 
tained under the direct vertical load on frame B at the 
points 1 to 2 inclusive. These values are represented by 
circles. The other value plotted as crosses on the same 
ordinate are results obtained from a frame made from 
the same pattern as frame B, but four pounds lighter. 
This metal was placed as a narrow flange on the B 
frame, as shown at the top of section A-B, Fig. 7. This 
flange started gradually at point 3 and continued to point 
13 where it disappeared into a small head on each side 
of the web. It will be seen that the maximum stress at 
point 11 on the B frame, was only 50 per cent that ob- 
tained on the frame without this flange which weighed 
four pounds less. 

Another place where a small amount of metal can 
materially reduce the stress is at the bottom flange. The 
results from four frames tested of similar design except 
as to width of the bottom flange is given in Table VI. 

The maximum stress indicated in this table was ob- 
tained by averaging the stresses at the positions on the 
different frames represented on the B frame at points 



























\ > 

i2 S3 

uj 5: 



"> V. 


I 2 3 4 J 6 7 

6 9 10 II It 13 11 iy lb n 

ia is £0 2i 

Fig. 10. Showing a Comparison of Stresses at the Different Points 
on Frame B and Similar Frame with 4 Pounds Less Metal. 



March, 1915 

41 and 4ix, which are the weakest points on frame B 
under all loads. 

The transverse load was not taken into consideration 
because of the fact that it had very little effect at this 
point; due to its distance from the point of application 
of the transverse load. The assumption was also made 
that the twisting force acts in both directions and the 
stress due to the twisting would at times be positive on 
both sides of the frame. It will be noted from this table 
that the maximum average stress will be almost inversely 
proportioned to the square of the widths of the bottom 

From a survey of the results here given it may be 
seen that the stress is somewhat higher than some of 
us expected. I am sure we would be very much sur- 
prised if we should test an arch bar truck under these 
methods. The fact is certain that where we have been 
assuming that we had a low stress, and that stress of 
8,000 to 10,000 pounds has been breaking frames, we 
will have to change our assumption and say that it 
will take over 20,000 pound stress to cause cast steel 
to fail. And I feel that cast steel will stand up under 
occasional stresses up to 20,000 pounds for many years. 

If we stop to consider the cast steel bolster we will 
find that they are getting loads that produce stress of 
20,000 pounds, and they are standing up. For instance 
a bolster which can be figured more accurately than a 
side frame that has a stress of 10,000 pounds under a 
load of 68,500 pounds, which is the load used for figuring 
by some companies, will often get double that load as 
shown from the tests recorded in the first part of the 
paper, and thus, you will see that 20,000 pounds stress 
will be produced in the bolster. 

This B frame is not a heavy frame. Its weight is 
435 pounds, and as the M. C. B. committee last year 
recommended to the Association a frame of 500 pounds 
for 100,000 pound cars, this B frame could be increased 
65 pounds, and if the metal was well placed, the maxi- 
mum stress under the three loads would not be above 
15,000 pounds stress at any point. I am confident that 
if a cast steel frame was never subjected to a stress of 
over 15,000 pounds, the life would be considerably more 
than the life of the car. 

From the results which I have obtained in the test of 
some forty different designs by the use of the Berry 
strain gage, I am confident that a cast steel side frame 
can be designed for any service and for any desired 
stress, it only remains to decide the maximum stress de- 
sired, and then place the correct amount of metal at 
the right place. 

The use of the Berry strain gage, while very new, I 
am sure will become a great factor in the design of cast 
steel members for freight cars and other service. 

I wish to acknowledge the assistance rendered by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad through D. F. Crawford and T. 
R. Cook and others of that road in furnishing a car and 
moving it over the lines of the Pennsylvania Railroad in 
order to obtain the first part of this paper. I wish also 
to express my appreciation to the American Steel Foun- 
dries for furnishing me all the casting and apparatus 
necessary in carrying on this work. 

The Mechanical Department and the Public 

Operating Expenses, N. & W. Ry. 
The Norfolk & Western has managed to reduce its 
ratio of operating expenses to gross to 65.78 per cent dur- 
ing the six months ended December 31 last, compared 
with 67.30 per cent in the same period of 1913. Net 
income was $340,916, or 6 per cent less than in the 
previous year. Actual loss in operating revenues was 
greater than the saving in expenses. 

An Address Before the Rotary Club of Shreveport, La., Which 
Gave Its Members a Clearer Understanding of Railroading 

By W. H. Sagstetter, M. M., Kansas City Southern Ry. 

Much has been said and written in the past relative to- 
the various departments of railroads, but very seldom 
does the railroad man have an opportunity to express 
himself upon this subject to a body of men composed of 
almost ever)' field of endeavor. It has always been his 
lot to speak or write to men of his respective class. 

I firmly believe I am safe in assuming that not one 
business man out of every hundred reads those interest- 
ing and fascinating articles that are published regarding 
railroads and railroad operation in unbiased magazines,, 
but they will devour with lustful eye the criticizing arti- 
cles written in the daily press, weekly or monthly maga- 
zines by various writers who deal with railroads from the 
surveying of the very ground before they begin, to the 
maintenance and operation of the fastest and safest mode 
of travel now in existence. These same writers deal on 
many other subjects on which they are no better informed 
than on railroads. Many of these writers have never 
labored a day at any kind of work on a railroad in any 
department, yet their view of railroading as explained 
by the flourishing stroke of the pen seems to be the ideal 
for which the public clamor, and which we, as railroad 
men, know is next to impossible. 

I will endeavor to explain in a small way some of the 
magnanimous expenses and operation of one branch of 
the railroad business. I will try to compare it with other 
industries and with our government, and see if they are 
not also subject to practically the same conditions that 
exist on the railroads of this country today, excepting 
legislation. I will endeavor to compare them and see if 
they, as a whole, are better managed, less extravagant and 
generally more efficient. 

A railroad has two principal sources of income or 
revenue ; first, from the compensation it receives from 
transportation of the public from one point to another;, 
the second, revenue obtained from transportation of vari- 
ous commodities from one point to another, be it mail r 
express or freight. 

In order to transport the public and commodities, it 
must possess various classes of equipment in which the 
public and freight may be placed and must have a source 
of power that will handle this equipment and do it in a 
safe and expeditious manner, in order that the public,, 
who is its master, will be pleased. 

To maintain this equipment is a large item — to maintain 
it properly is a larger one. There are approximately 
65,000 locomotives in the United States, 2,300,000 freight 
cars and 50,000 passenger cars. All of these are subject 
to damage through ordinary traffic, deterioration and acci- 

The following shows the cost of operating a six-car 
passenger train for the distance of 1,000 miles : 

Cost of locomotive repairs and inspection $111.60 

Cost of handling locomotives at shops or termi- 
nals, before being delivered to engine crew .... 19.60 

Cost of fuel 101.30 

Cost of water for locomotives 5.50 

Cost of lubricating locomotive and tender 2.20 

Cost of miscellaneous supplies 2.90 

Other expenses, chargeable to cover superintend- 
ence, wear and tear on machines, stationery, etc. 11.00 

Cost of passenger car inspection and repair 63.50 

Cost of cleaning passenger cars 19.90 


Cost of heating and lighting i5-8o sion ruling for safety appliances on cars and locomotives. 

Cost of lubricating .90 While these were both good laws and would, no doubt, 

Other expenses in handling of passenger cars by have been put in effect by the majority of the railroads 

shop employes 7.60 without legislation, nevertheless, they have thrown an 

Ice and water 3.75 extra burden of expense upon the railroads who are corn- 
Wages of engineer and fireman 74-3° pelled to comply with them, or at least a part of them, 

Wages of train crew JS.SS from the date of their passage. 

Cost of switching cars, building train, etc 58.00 One railroad in this section of the country has pre- 

pared a list in which it shows the necessary expenses in- 
Total cost $65335 volved in complying with the boiler inspection rules for 

This does not take into consideration supervision given one year. This railroad has 394 engines and has shown 

by the transportation department, cost of dispatching a cost of $90.47 per engine per annum, or total cost of 

train, or any other expense incurred by any other depart- $35>°45.09. To comply with the Interstate Commerce 

ment of the railroad. Commission laws on inspection and repairs to freight and 

These expenses vary according to climatic conditions, passenger cars is as large or a larger item than the boiler 

prices of the various commodities necessary to perform inspection laws, but it is so interwoven with the other 

the above mentioned duties, the prices paid for labor, size duties ? 1 f . the me 1 n who perform this work that it is almost 

of the power, and the geographical conditions of the coun- impossible to obtain an actual statement as to its real 

try through which the train operates. However, it is a cost - 

fair estimate or average for this country. I do not wish to be misunderstood or have these state- 

The average period during which a locomotive is sup- ™ ents T construed so that anyone will gain the impression 

posed to be able to produce efficient results is about four- that : condemn the two particular laws mentioned, but 

teen months, but this varies a great deal according to the ™ ere could have been a great many changes made in 

class of engine and the service which it performs. When them that would ha y e g J 7f n ™ e railroads of this country 

an engine has been out of the repair shop this length of more ^. me to comply with them, without the enormous 

time she is again overhauled or repaired, and those parts expenditure at the time they were least prepared to 

that have been worn, broken or deteriorated are repaired make it. 

and replaced with new, and the locomotive goes forth There is probably no business or industry that is criti- 

again to do such duties for which it was originally de- cized so unjustly as the railroads of our country. Quite 

signed. The average cost of doing this class of repairs frequently, there is a delay to a train due to some defect 

varies from $2,000 to $4,000, according to the size of the in machinery or to some natural cause over which the 

locomotive, the parts that require repairs, facilities for railroad company has no control, and the public is incon- 

doing them, and wages paid to the various classes of venienced for a few hours. One can usually hear on occa- 

mechanics. sions of this kind remarks passed about what should be 

"The building, inspecting and maintenance of freight done , *° the , railroad and railroad officials, and if executed, 

cars is equally as large, if not a larger factor in the would make the Hades as shown in Dante s Inferno 

present day railroading than the locomotive. seem llke a midsummer night s dream. 

The cars of a few years past were built completely of There is approximately one delay for every ten thou- 
wood, except the trucks and necessary iron to brace them, sand miles that an engine makes and sometimes they make 
These cars," it was found, would not stand the stress and as much as fifty thousand. This includes freight and pas- 
strain which they receive in ordinary handling for anv senger service. The average delay to a passenger train is 
great period, and as necessity has always been the mother about one train out of every one hundred delayed, an 
of invention, steel underframe cars have rapidly super- average of two hours and ten minutes. Compare this with 
seded the old type and very few railroads of today are the delays that you have on your automobile, even when it 
building wooden underframe cars. It is predicted that it is under the supervision of an expert mechanic and kept 
will only be a few years until cars with wooden sills will in the best of garages. Make one hundred trips of one 
not be accepted with interstate freight. hundred miles each and I will venture to say you will 

The repairs to these millions of cars throughout the have a delay. If not, then make five hundred trips of 

United States is a great item and the various roads have one hundred miles each and I will guarantee it. 

a system of rules by which every company that handles It is only fair to assume that the American people are 

cars is compelled to take care of the car that belongs becoming more thoroughly acquainted with the railroad 

to the other line in just as an efficient manner as he does and its operation. In 1838 a club of young students in 

his own. Ohio arranged to debate the question of railroads — at 

The average life of a wooden freight car has been that time just coming into notice. When they asked for 
estimated as sixteen years ; during this time it is neces- the use of the schoolhouse they received the following 
sary to have the car rebuilt for general repairs, approxi- reply from the school board of the city : 
mately, three different times, at an average cost of $150. "You are welcome to the schoolhouse to debate any 
The life of a steel car is longer and the maintenance less, proper question, but such things as railroads and tele- 
due to it being more strongly constructed ; however, the graphs are impossibilities and infidelity. There is nothing 
average cost of repairs per car mile for both wooden and in the Word of God about them. If God had designed 
steel cars is approximately five and a half mills per mile, travel at the frightful speed of fifteen miles an hour by 
or for a train of sixty cars, the sum of $330 for one thou- steam He would clearly have foretold it through His 
sand miles. holy prophets — it is a device of Satan to lead immoral 

There has been a great deal of legislation passed within souls down to hell." 

the past few years, some of which was nation-wide and While I do not desire to compare this to the public 

affected all railroads, other which was only statewide and opinion today of the railroads, yet there has sprung up 

affected the railroads that operated through that state, the past several years a general criticism of the manage- 

The two principal ones were the Interstate Commerce ment of railroads, some just and a great number unjust. 

Commission rules for inspection and maintenance of Also a great amount of legislation against the railroads, 

locomotive boilers and the Interstate Commerce Commis- some of which is also just and some unjust. Some of 



March, 1915 

those who have posed before the public as possessing at 
least one of the attributes of the Almighty — that of all- 
wise — have been heralded as the most gallant critics of the 
age. They have made statements that could not be sub- 
stantiated or repudiated without the expenditure of enor- 
mous sums, and as this expenditure was not forthcoming 
their statements were accepted as true. One gentleman 
made the remark that the railroad companies of this 
country were losing one million dollars per day, due to 
inefficiency, yet he did not state what amount of money 
must be expended in order to make things so efficient that 
this million could be saved. He quoted F. W. Taylor in 
this statement, yet he did not state that the government 
was losing $600,000,000 per year on account of ineffi- 
ciency in the fire department alone. He did not state that 
the railroads of this country were 100 to 500 per cent 
more efficient than the government operation. Yet he 
could have found this same information with just as little 
trouble. Mr. Harrington Emerson's essays on federal 
government work, printed in his book, "Efficiency," com- 
ments on the fact that in making assays of work on one 
of the largest government operations he found the effi- 
ciency to be 11.86 per cent. If the railroad operations 
were no more efficient than this, for every million dollars 
spent in operation, they would obtain $118,600 worth of 
work. The remainder, $881,400, would be wasted. 

No one has ever stated that 
the nearest any industry or 
manufacturing establishment in 
the United States was to per- 
fection was about 80 per cent. 
This, according to the experts, 
is the highest efficiency yet ob- 
tained and prevailed in one of 
the large harvesting machine 
manufacturing plants. The 
great steel industries of this 
country, that are know 
throughout the world by their 
enormous output and quality of 
goods, are considered by these 
same experts to be only 49 per 
cent efficient. These same ex- 
perts tell us that our govern- 
ment has lost $180,000,000 in 
building the Panama canal by 
not being efficient. Is it, then, 

to be wondered that an institution that pays the 
best of salaries, supposed to have the most thorough 
and intelligent men in every line, can produce but 
12 per cent efficiency, how we can expect the railroad 
companies of this country, to be perfect. They can not 
be expected to be as efficient as a manufacturing plant. 
A large railroad has a number of shops or repair points 
scattered over the distance of thousands of miles to take 
care of their equipment as it is worn out in the different 
parts of the country. In order to expend the least possi- 
ble sum on these repairs and to show the highest grade of 
efficiency it would be necessary to have these various 
repair points equipped with the most modern tools, and 
to expend sums that would be entirely inconsistent with 
the amount of revenue that the railroads now obtain. 
Whenever the expenditure necessary to increase efficiency 
is so large that the interest on it will be greater than the 
saving made in being efficient, it is not policy to make 
that expenditure. 

There is a total railroad mileage in the United States 
of 356,418 miles, 240,339 of which is main line and 116,- 
179 siding. If put in a straight line they would go more 
than fourteen times around the earth or forty-four times 

through it. They employ directly about 2,000,000 men 
and women, and support, through the wages paid, no less 
than one-twelfth of our entire population. 

It is conceded by all large financial interests that the 
railroads are the barometers that indicate the business 
conditions of this country. Unless they are given an 
opportunity to make a legitimate living the entire country 
feels the effect. 

Therefore, let me suggest that we all be reasonable and 
conservative, and give this, the greatest of all public 
service corporations, an opportunity to exist. While they, 
like all others, have made mistakes in the past, let us 
take the optimistic view and drive the gathering clouds 
of pessimistic legislation from the horizon of their future. 
They only ask that you show them the same consideration 
as shown other industries. 

They are doing everything in their power to treat 
their employes and the public square ; they are doing 
everything to eliminate danger and preserve life and limb. 
Let us stop the agitation and see if we cannot get the 
honest investor to again return to the railroad fields and 
you will all profit by it. By the extension of the steel 
ribbons into undeveloped territory, a better service, more 
comfortable equipment, less dangers, more magnificent 
buildings that will add beauty to your cities, and last, but 
not least, a mutual and friendly feeling." 

Electrode Holders. 


By Al Sherwood. 

The illustration shows a number of burnt-out electrode 
holders and also new electrode holders which were de- 
vised at the Burnham shops of the Denver & Rio Grande 
by Charles Barber, chief electrician. 

The three holders at the left illustrate the condition of 
holders arriving at terminals at times, generally caused by 
too much speed on the machines. The fourth object from 
the left shows the bottom half of a Pyle electrode holder 
which has been cut off and tapped to screw onto the 
holder on its right. The object on the extreme right 
shows the electrode holder assembled complete. It is not 
necessary to throw away an old electrode holder on ac- 
count of the thumb screws being burned, as rings are 
made separate and can be applied at any time. In the 
event of the holder burning, only one-half need be thrown 
away, the upper half being replaced by the section de- 
vised by Mr. Barber. Approximately 80 per cent saving 
on maintenance of electrode holders is thus obtained, 
something worth while when we consider the number of 
these holders that are burned through overspeed. — Scenic 
Lines Employes Magazine. 

March, 1915 



Square Brake Shaft Design and Drop Handle Arrangement 

A Brake Shaft Design Whereby All Smith Work Is Avoided, 
and a Drop Handle. Both in Use on the B. R. & P. Ry. 

Before the safety appliance law went into effect it 
was the practice of many railroads when manufacturing 
brake shafts to weld the enlarged chain drum end to the 
shaft proper, and for repairs, especially at points remote 
from the manufacturing centers of the companies, weld- 
ing was almost universally followed. A few railroads 
which had an ample equipment of forging and upsetting 
.machines had practiced forming the shafts by upsetting 
in place of welding, and in consequence their cars more 
nearly meet the law in this particular. Such roads find 
less difficulty in complying with this order than do roads 
not so fortunately equipped. 

The manufacture of solid forged brake shafts for 
thousands of cars, in connection with the demand for 
numberless handholds, ladder rounds, etc., has fairly 
swamped the railroad blacksmith shops and delayed the 
equipping of cars to meet the safety appliance standards. 

The usual design of round brake shaft and the common 
method of securing the ratchet wheel to the shaft by a 
key have been criticized for a number of years. The 
method of attaching the hand wheel by forging a taper 
square seat for the wheel and a threaded end stem with 
a nut and cotter to secure the wheel may also be improved 
and simplified. 

The efforts of the designer and car builder, and the 
Commission's order, have done much to improve the 


note:- These Surfaces 
."pus! be Smooth S- True. 

SECT/ori f-f 
Metal Brake Step Used with Square Brake Shaft. 

details of the hand brake, the mounting of the shaft and 
the attachments. Largely, however, the design has 
remained fixed and the improvements are the result of 
more costly and rugged construction, not to a betterment 
or simplification of the design. 

When the Interstate Commerce rules were promul- 
gated, the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh was one of 
the many roads which found that a large number of 
its cars had welded brake shafts. The complement 
of forging machines which had been sufficient for ordi- 
nary conditions was found insufficient to turn out the 
requisite number of hand holds and brake shafts, and it 
therefore became necessary to either invest in inexpensive 
forging machines and furnaces or to find a design of 
brake shaft which dispensed with the upsetting process. 
It was found that such an arrangement was available, 
but after some study it was decided that this did not go 
far enough and that what was wanted was an arrange- 
ment by which all smith work would be avoided. 

The illustrations show the design which was evolved 
and which dispenses with the upsetting process. It does 





-8$ -r. 




/Yo/e.- These', h^^ 
Surfaces fo be Smoo+hi-clg ^* 
and True. 

4 $ Cored Hole" 

° >-fbb sal Hole 


■j. ' 1-r 

Square Brake Shaft Applied to Car. 

Brake Shaft Drum, B. R. & P. Ry. 



March, 1915 

yN^JNivi^n^ ^^Kr^ 

noil. Iron 

f no te Ratchet V. 
Plate Keyfx I^'xC'OhS. 
I Required. 

note-- These 
Surfaces to be 
Smooth and 


note- For 
For Cars 
Which tleet 
United Stat, 

]S/ot for 



+ f 4* 





T To Be Bent Up After ■ T 
re ng Placed in Position 

Brake Ratchet Wheel. 

away with the forging down at the end of the shaft below 
the drum, renders unnecessary forging a taper square and 
the round end (and threading the end for the brake 
wheel), dispenses with the key-way and troublesome Key 
to secure the ratchet wheel and in fact eliminates an 
heating, forging and skilled labor. It provides a design 
of greater strength and simplicity, one which is so elastic 
that the work of equipping cars may go forward at any 
point on the line of the road where forging machines 
are not located, and indeed where there are no black- 

The brake is applied to box cars, to steel hopper cars 
and to gondola cars. In the first two mentioned, cast 
metal brake steps are used, and with these, independent 
metal pawl plates are unnecessary. For the gondola cars, 
wooden brake steps are used, in which case a special 
metal pawl plate is required. 

The brake shaft is a plain square bar of iron or or 

Wooden Brake: 

steel, without forge manipulation of any character, two 
bolt holes only being required, one near each end. The 
one at the lower end of the shaft serves to engage the 
brake shaft drum. The same bolt also answers to secure 
the brake chain. The bolt near the upper end of the 
shaft engages the brake wheel. 

The brake drum is made in two diameters, the upper 
and larger portion serving as a quick take-up for the 
slack of the brake chain, and when actual tightening of 
the brake takes place the chain is on the smaller diameter 
so that the efficiency of the brake is not impaired. 

The hand wheel has a special long hub. The lower 
part of the perforation for the brake shaft is square, with 
parallel sides to serve when it is used with the plain 
square shaft. The upper part of the perforation is also 
square but tapered and is suitable to engage brake shafts 
having the regulation tapered end. By the use of this 
combination wheel, one pattern answers for either the 
plain square shaft or the regular tapered end shaft. 

The ratchet wheel is formed with an extended bearing 
or trunnion below the toothed disc. The trunnion fits 
into and through the opening provided in the brake step 

Pulling Face of Coupler with 
Horn rfgainst Striking Plate 

^ Top of Pai/y. 

Pawl Plate Used on Wooden Brake Steps. 

Square Brake Shaft Applied to 100,000 lbs. Capacity Hopper Car, 

or brake pawl plate and a key is inserted in the groovr 
cast in the trunnion to prevent removal of the ratche: 
wheel when once placed in position. On account of the 
square section of the shaft and corresponding form of 
aperture in the ratchet wheel, any movement of the 
brake shaft is communicated to the ratchet wheel, but 
the ratchet wheel is not directly fixed to the shaft. There- 
fore the ratchet wheel and brake step may be assembled 
and placed in position upon the car independently of the 
brake shaft. This is also true of the intermediate bear- 
ing and support used on the end of the box car. The 

March, 1915 



shaft slides freely through the bearing, the ratchet and 
key and into the drum. Applying or removing the one 
bolt through the brake drum secures or permits the re- 
moval of the brake shaft. 

The illustrations show the ratchet wheel with the 
engaging teeth on the lower face of the disc, the pawl 
being of the gravity type. If it is desired the teeth may 
be made on the periphery of the disc instead. 

The castings require no machining and are ready for 
assembling as received from the foundry. Experienced 
and skilled labor is not required to assemble and equip 
the cars. 

This hand brake has been applied to a large number 
of cars and has proven very satisfactory. The arrange- 
ment has been patented by F. J. Harrison, superintendent 
of motive power, and William J. Knox, mechanical engi- 
neer, of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh. 


A brake ratchet with a drop handle for use on drop 
end gondola cars, cabooses, etc., where a hand wheel is 
objectionable, and for cars of extreme carrying capacity 
where it is desirable to have greater leverage than is 
afforded by the ordinary brake wheel, has also been de- 
signed and patented by Messrs. Harrison and Knox. 

The device is shown as applied to a drop end gondola 
car and the details of construction are fully disclosed in 
the illustrations. 

The ratchet is formed with a socket below the toothed 
disc and with a spindle above the disc. The socket fits 
"the end of the brake shaft, a horizontal bolt serving to 
securely hold the casting to the shaft. The spindle above 
the disc serves as a support and bearing for the housing. 
The housing may be freely revolved but is locked against 
vertical movement by the riveted pin. The pawl strad- 
dles the spindle and is pivoted upon a pin. The pawl 
has a tongue which is encompassed and guided in the 
jaw formed as a part of the housing. This jaw also 
serves to receive the drop lever. When the lever is in 
the horizontal or working position the pawl assumes 
the position shown by the full lines and the teeth 
formed upon the under side of the pawl engage the teeth 

fiote.-fCo/d Foiled Stee/ Pin 
Cast in Place 

•■1 /c:, - u . •_ Vrrr 1 - 8 lurn 
m j _ 'i 

Turned Bolt 

-j-. — :■ 

' g Cotter Pin 

fiote-f Rivet with End 

Well Riveted Over 

p* — „ 
Release Position 

Drop Handle Brake Ratchet. 

of the ratchet wheel. When the lever moves from work- 
ing to release position it contacts with the tongue on the 
pawl, causing the pawl to rotate upward with the pin 
for an axis and the teeth are disengaged. The cam end 
of the lever and the tongue are so formed that when the 
lever is swung about half way from the vertical to the 
horizontal line contact between pawl and lever cease and 
the teeth then fully engage. This is considered impor- 
tant, for should power be exerted to set the brake before 
the lever reaches the horizontal position the teeth, as 
explained, are in full mesh. Forming the lever with a 
loop for the hand safeguards the operator in case his 
grip should slip, and is an improvement over the usual 
straight handle. 

There are but four simple castings, having a total 
weight of about 15 pounds. The design is exceedingly 
simple and in service is proving efficient and reliable. 

>4 Ring 

2 Bolt 

§ Exact 

Showing Application of Drop Handle Brake Shaft. 

Tunneling Record Broken 
American tunneling records were broken in January on 
the headings for the Rogers Pass tunnel of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, for which Foley Brothers, Welch & 
Stewart are the contractors. The following is the foot- 
age made in the month of January: East and center 
heading, 443 feet in chist and quartzite ; east end pioneer 
heading, 594 feet in chist and quartzite ; west end center 
heading, 701 feet in slate and quartzite ; west end pioneer 
heading, 932 feet in slate. The latter is 122 feet greater 
than the previous American record established in the 
Mount Royal tunnel of the Canadian Northern Railway, 
and will probably stand for some time. R. C. Dennis 
is superintendent for the contractors. 

Swinging on Trains 
"Swinging on" trains after they have been set in motion 
is discouraged by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in a 
circular which has been issued to trainmen, urging them 
to get aboard promptly and before starting at terminals, 
in order to minimize the danger of personal injury as 
well as to facilitate operation and overcome delays. It 
is held by the company's officials that boarding trains 
promptly makes it possible to attain the maximum speed 
provided by the schedule with more quickness, while it 
also obviates the necessity of the engineer dividing his 
attention in order not to leave other members of the crew. 
This latest effort in the interest of quick transportation 
applies chiefly to freight service. 



March, 1915 

The Value of a Locomotive in Service 

The Earning Capacity of a Locomotive and How the 
Time Spent in Doing Useful Work Can Be Increased 

By G. S. Goodwin, M. E., C R. I. & P. Ry. 

Consideration of the potential value of locomotives, ex- 
pressed even roughly in terms of average daily earning 
capacity, suggests several important possibilities for im- 
provement of general practice, which it is the purpose 
of this paper to discuss. For the fiscal year ending June 
3°> ^t-Z* the total operating revenue from 251,277 miles 
of railroad was $3,181,177,898, divided as follows: 

Freight $2,203,860,284 69.28% 

Passenger 716,174,021 22.51% 

Other transportation revenue . . 224,939,393 

Total revenue from trans- 
portation $3,144,973,698 

Non-transportation revenue 36,204,200 



Total operating revenue. . .$3,181,177,898 100.00% 
This revenue was produced by the use of 63,198 loco- 
motives having an average tractive power slightly over 
30,000 lbs. Assuming that 11% of these locomotives are 
in the shop receiving repairs, this leaves 56,246 as earn- 
ing the above revenue. Dividing the total revenue from 
transportation, namely, $3,145,000,000 in round figures, 
by the number of engines gives nearly $56,000 per year, 
or $ x 53 P er day as the gross earnings of an engine. 
Applying to this figure the operating ratio, 71.33, we have 
$44 per day as the net earning power of the locomotives 
of the United States. This money was earned after the 
locomotive had paid for repairing the track, paid for 
repairing the cars, and paid for repairing itself. 

The most notable thing about these figures is that 
nearly 99% of the total operating revenue of the railways 
is received from the operation of trains and for the suc- 
cessful operation of which three essentials are necessary, 
namely : 

1st. Locomotives to move the trains, which is the 
subject of this paper. 

2nd. Equipment to carry the tonnage. 

3rd. Track to move the trains on. 

No two essentials are of any benefit without the third, 
and the importance of all three is shown by the fact that 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, $544,000,000 
was spent for maintenance of equipment and $538,000,000 
was spent for maintenance of way. 

In order to bring out the monetary value of a locomo- 
tive a little clearer, statistics are quoted from a number 
of the larger roads of the Middle and Western states for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913. This table shows 
mileage, total number of engines, and these subdivided 
to show engines in freight and mixed service, passenger 
service, and switching and transfer service ; total operat- 
ing revenue from transportation, freight revenue, gross 
earnings of a locomotive per day, and average rate per 
ton mile in mills. 

The separation of the engines under freight, passenger 
and switching heads is based upon replies received in 
answer to an inquiry made to the different roads. The 
gross earnings of locomotives per day is the quotient of 
earnings by the number of locomotives reduced to a per 
diem basis. The net earnings are obtained by the use of 

•A paper presented before the Western Railway Club. 

the operating ratio. These earnings are shown under four 
captions, it being assumed where noted that 11% of the 
locomotives are always in the shop undergoing repairs, 
and where switching engines are involved that 90% only 
are handling freight. 

These figures bring out that the net average earning 
power of a locomotive varies from $30 to $125 per day, 
and that for all the roads of the United States these 
figures are $44 as representing the value of a locomotive. 
The average rate per net ton mile is introduced to show 
one reason why the value of a locomotive fluctuates — a 
locomotive capable of earning $75 per day on one road 
may be able to earn only $40 per day on some other road, 
and this is further affected by the size of the engine, 
amount of work for it to do, etc. 

The value placed on a locomotive when rented of course 
varies on different roads, both as to amount and basis 
of computing. (Invariably running repairs are taken care 
of by the borrower, and general repairs by the lender.) 
Some use the size of cylinder, others weight on drivers or 
total tractive power. The general minimum charge is 
$10 per day, increasing to from $25 to $40 for the modern 
engine. Two roads base the rental on a fixed charge per 
1,000 lbs. tractive effort. These on a basis of 50c per 
1,000 lbs. would be as follows for engines 10,000 to 50,000 
lbs. tractive effort : 



Tractive Power. Rental per Day. 

10,000 lbs $ 5.00 

20,000 lbs 10.00 

30,000 lbs 1500 

40,000 lbs 20.00 

50,000 lbs 25.00 

Five roads based their rental charges on the result of 
figuring interest and depreciation on the value of the loco- 
motive in question. To this is added charges for general 
repair, taxes, insurance, and profit on transaction. An 
example of this with the profit omitted will show what 
might be termed "out-of-pocket" value of a locomotive. 

The following table shows approximately what this 
would amount to for different original costs between $10,- 
000 and $30,000 with assumed charges for interest, de- 
preciation, taxes, etc., and repairs. In a case of repairs, 
these are based on the assumption that one hundred 
miles represent a day's work for a locomotive. 



Taxes & Repairs 

Insurance Basis 

Original Interest Depreciation @ $1.09 100 Miles 

Cost @ 5% @ 5% per $100 per Day Total 

$10,000 $i-37 $i-37 $0.30 $ 7.00 $10.04 
15,000 2.06 2.06 .45 8.00 12.57 

20,000 2.74 2.74 .60 9.00 15.08 

25,000 3.43 3.43 .75 10.00 17.61 

30,000 4.1 1 4. 1 1 .90 11.00 20.12 

Of the four methods, namely, size of cylinder, weight 
on drivers, rate per 1,000 lbs. tractive force and interest 
and depreciation method, used, the last two are more 
accurate, and the third is more attractive from the stand- 
point of simplicity. One must admit, however, that the 

March, 1915 



last discriminates between the modern, highly efficient en- 
gine and the older engine which is less efficient. The modern 
engine with the latest devices to give more economical 
performance certainly is worth more than the same size 
engine built ten or even five years ago. 

We have thus developed three measures of the value of 
a locomotive: 

ist. What it can actually earn. 

2nd. What it is worth from an investment standpoint, 
or what might be termed the "out-of-pocket" value. 

3rd. What it is usually rented for. 

We have also shown that 99% of the total operating 
revenue is produced by these locomotives while moving 
trains. This brings us to another phase of the problem. 

An engine only earns money while it is moving freight, 
and is unproductive when not working. In order to bring 
out forcibly the actual miles an engine makes per day, 
I have taken from the reports of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission for a few roads data as to freight revenue 
miles and ascertained the miles per day an engine makes. 
These are of course approximate, but since all are taken 
the same way, the results are fair to all. To say the 
feast the results are startling and were it not that the 
sources of information are unquestionable it would sound 
very reasonable to argue that an average of 57 miles per 
day or 4 hours at 14 miles per hour was ridiculous. 

data is prepared, and unless the information is developed 

from a similar record as described above, its accuracy 
may be open to serious question.) 


Hours Minutes 

Roundhouse 6 49 28.40% 

Running repairs 2 41 11.18% 

Classified repairs 3 27 14.38% 

Total Mechl. Dept 12 57 53-96% 


Hours Minutes 

Regular schedule 2 55 

Stock, fruit, vegetables o 7 

Superior trains o 3 

Insufficient tonnage o 20 

Main line obst 

Rest for crews o 7 

Miscellaneous o 14 

Time between call and de- 
parture o 16 

Revenue Freight 

Net Revenue 




Loco. Miles 

Tons per Train 


per Day 





















































































































24 roads.252,965,470 



Total term'l detention ... 4 2 


Hours Minutes 

Actual running time 4 16 

Meeting trains o 53 

Station work 1 20 

Track conditions o I 

Sixteen hour law o 1 

Accidents, etc o I 

Block signals o 2 

Engine failures o 2 

Car failures o 3 

Weather conditions 

Miscellaneous o 22 


(Miles per 
' day 68) 



Total time between terminals 
Total time accounted for. . 

This brings out clearly the following points : 

Hours Minutes 


57 53-97^ 

47 28.3% 

16 217.8% 

On the road with which I am connected a study has 
been made of just how a freight locomotive day is spent 
and a form of report has been developed under the di- 
rection of N. D. Ballentine, assistant to the 2nd vice pres- 
ident, which accounts for every movement of the loco- 
motive during the day. Reports are made independently 
by the round house foreman, yardmaster and train con- 
ductor and these are combined with the information re- 
garding engines in the shop into a single report which 
is summarized for the month something as below. This 
report was described in an address made by Mr. Ballen- 
tine before the Rock Island Railway Club and later printed 
in the July number of the Rock Island Employes Maga- 
zine. (In comparing this data with other lines great 
care should be taken to know on just what basis their 

An engine is in the hands of the 
mechanical department being 
made ready to move tonnage. 12 

An engine is in the hands of the 
transportation department 
ready to move tonnage 6 

An engine is actually moving 
tonnage and therefore earn- 
ing money, only 4 

This brings us to the third division of this paper, viz., 
What can be done to make the engine more available for 
handling tonnage? This same thought is very aptly 
stated by George R. Henderson quoted in Baldwin Rec- 
ord of Recent Construction, No. 60. Mr. Henderson 
stated as follows : 

"The author believes in wearing out locomotives as 
fast as possible. By this he does not mean wearing them 
out by improper treatment or careless maintenance, but 
by the legitimate work of hauling trains. The faster they 
can be worn out the sooner they will be replaced with 
modern machines, and the strides made in the power and 
type of locomotives in the last few years have been such 
that an engine only 10 years old is of comparatively little 
use, except for branch service. It is very much better 
if it be possible so to operate the road to have, say, 50 
engines which must be replaced in 10 years, than have 100 



March, 1915 

stay in service for 20 years. This is what is meant by 
wearing them out as fast as possible, so as to reap the 
benefits of new and improved forms." 

In discussing this problem I do not wish to be under- 
stood as taking the position that this feature has been 
neglected in the past. When one considers that the size 
of engines has practically doubled in the last 20 or 25 
years, while the improvement in shop and roundhouse 
facilities has by no means kept pace, the performance is a 
tribute to the mechanical officers. 

In the example of distribution of a locomotive day, 
the roundhouse is charged with 6 hours and 49 minutes 
or 28.4% of the day. This time is taken up in knocking 
out fire, putting in the house inspection and repairs, wash- 
ing boiler, wiping, building fire, etc., and either as the en- 
gine comes in or goes out it is coaled and washed. There 
are several items in connection with this work which sug- 
gest themselves as opportunities to reduce the time, for 
instance, we have changed the dump grates in a number 
of engines so that the clinkers could be gotten out easier. 
Poor ash pan design may easily become a vital factor in 
cleaning the fire. Then there is the turn-table, is it up to 
date or when cold weather comes on does it get out of 
commission and require every laborer around the plant 
to help turn it, and then only at a snail's pace. 

When the engine is in the house a big factor in increas- 
ing the availability of an engine to handle tonnage is the 
hot water wash out system. This is universally recog- 
nized by all and some of us have quite complete records 
as to just what saving the hot water washout system 
effects in boiler maintenance. It is the feature of boiler 
maintenance or rather the lack of boiler failures on the 
road that we are particularly concerned about in this con- 

Good inspection is another item which if watched close- 
ly is bound to save failures on the road. Some lines have 
what is termed an inspection pit where an engine receives 
a thorough inspection. Sometimes the inspectors carry 
a supply of nuts and cotters so as to at once replace any 
of those missing. This pit is particularly handy where 
an engine is being given a quick turn and not time to 
put it on a roundhouse pit. 

Other features which might be mentioned are : Enough 
men in the roundhouse to do the work when needed. 
The old adage: "A stitch in time saves nine," is just 
as true in the roundhouse as in the tailor shop. Good 
facilities for doing the work, which should include a 
small machine shop adjacent to the roundhouse, equipped 
with drill press, shaper, lathe, bolt cutter and emery 
wheel, also a small, well-equipped tool room. This ma- 
chine shop saves a lot of time running back and forth 
from the big shop. There ought also to be good air 
and steam pressure. 

Running repairs is charged with 2 hours, 41 minutes, 
or 11.2% of the day. Running repairs no doubt vary 
closely with the time an engine has been out of shop, 
and Avith the thought in mind of reducing the running 
repairs the road with which I am connected have re- 
duced the mileage between shoppings. There have also 
been put into effect some changes in detail design, which 
in many cases eliminate entirely the running repairs. For 
instance, we cast a brass nub liner on the face of driving 
box. The result is that it is unnecessary to drop wheels 
between general repairs, and there is saved the cost ot 
this work, which conservatively is $25.00 for labor and 
material, and engine out of service 3 days at $44.00 per 
day, or $132.00. A lesser saving as regards running 
repairs is made by the use of brass shoe and w r edge liners 
on the driving box. The good effect of these comes out 
plainest during general repairs. We find them with the 

tool marks hardly worn out and it is therefore unneces- 
sary to line up and place the shoe and wedge. 

Another source of trouble is pounding of main driving 
boxes with its attending trouble in the rod brasses. This 
means dropping of wheels to repair brasses. It would 
seem that this work could be greatly minimized by the 
use of some form of removable brass, although we have 
no experience with these devices ; we have, however, 
used the so-called long driving box with the result that 
the trouble was entirely eliminated, together with the 
advantages of the lesser bearing pressure and reduced 
wear on axle. The cost to drop a pair of wheels and to 
crown the brass is approximately as follows : $23.00 
labor and engine out of service 3 days. 

To minimize stay bolt trouble the practice of using 
same form of flexible stay throughout the breaking zone 
is a great aid. One of our boiler foremen estimated this 
alone to save one or two days every 60-day period. 

With the advent of the gas and electric welding out- 
fits it has been possible to make many repairs that here- 
tofore would not have been possible. For instance, to 
cite an actual case on our line, we had a Mikado engine 
with all driving wheels having flat spots two to five 
inches long and one-eighth to one-fourth inches deep. 
To have dropped the wheels would* have cost not less 
than $150.00, which includes the loss in tire material. 
To this must be added the value of the engine while out 
of service three or four days. We welded the flat spots 
with an electric torch, wheels being in place under the 
engine in five hours at a cost of $2.05 for labor and 
$5.00 for material and current. Both the gas and electric 
torch have been used successfully in this work. This 
is only a single example of what this device offers in 
the way of getting an engine into service promptly and 
at the same time, at a greatly reduced cost of repairs. 
It should be an easy matter on the above showing alone 
for any railroad to justify the purchase of these outfits. 
Forty-four dollars saved for an engine day is interest 
at 5% on $880.00 per annum, or save 20 engines one 
day you save $880.00. 

All roads have some form of report showing failure of 
engine parts. On our line this is tabulated under the differ- 
ent detail parts in a monthly report which shows the 
nature of the failure and the numbers of the engines 
making the failure. This is watched closely and when 
any particular class of engine shows repeated weakness 
in any particular detail, we go into that with a view to 
correct the design and overcome the trouble. Another 
thing insisted on by our general mechanical superin- 
tendent and which puts the man actively in touch with 
all phases of maintenance, is that the mechanical engi- 
neer spend at least one week of each month on the road. 

After the engine has made its mileage it, of course, 
gets a general overhauling, and whenever possible we 
make our engine candidates for shop pull a train to the 
point of shopping. If it be assumed that an engine 
receives general repairs every 18 months and that 60 days 
is the average time from out of service to in service, 
that means that 11% of the engines are always in the 
shop. Sixty days multiplied by $44.00 equals $2,640.00, 
the loss while engine is at the shop. Every one knows 
there are ups and downs in traffic movement and during 
slack business when locomotives are not needed to move 
trains, it is obvious that we should put them through 
the shop to the extent that they are ready for the shop 
and that the shop can take care of them. 

While it is desirable to have a few engines in the bone 
yard, so that "lights" and "heavies" can be properly 
sandwiched in. there can be a saving made by not having 
too many engines standing around idle waiting to get 

March, 1915 



into the shop, but rather schedule their movement to the 
shop so that they are available with the least waste 
of engine time. An ideal condition would be more nearly 
realized when the condition of the engines slated to go 
to shop were such that one or two months in service, if 
necessary to suit the convenience of the shop, would 
not mean a series of failures. 

When an engine is about to go to shop, many roads 
(ours among them) make a practice of sending advance 
notice to the shop of just what material will be needed. 
On firebox work 30 days advance notice is desirable, so 
that box will be ready to put in as soon as the old box 
can be cut out. To make the most of this plan of ad- 
vance notice, the information must be accurate and be 
acted upon promptly, without waiting to get the engine 
in the yard to see if the material is really needed. 

After the engine reaches the shop what improvements 
can be made there with a view to cutting down the 
time in the shop? The first thought is modern shop 
facilities, and, considering that an engine is worth $44.00 
per day, it ought not to be difficult for any one to show 
substantial savings by the use of more modern shops. 
Assume a shop turning out 30 engines a month, or 360 
per year, and that by making certain changes an engine 
could be turned out four days sooner. Assume further 
that for 3 months of the year there is sufficient business 
to provide work for these engines just as soon as they 
are turned out. The saving then will be 90 engines multi- 
plied by 4 days, or 360 engine days, which at $44.00 
per day equals $15,840.00. Now, if we have taken this 
$16,000.00 and purchased an engine with it, we would 
have had the same amount of available power, since by 
changing the shop we saved 360 engine days ; but the 
more modern shop will enable repairs to be made more 
cheaply, and, further, the capacity of the shop is in- 
creased 6.7%. Hence, it would be considerably more 
economical to modernize the shop. Of course, if this 
improvement can be made at less than the above the 
saving is increased proportionately. 

Another item which I understand some roads have to 
contend with is material. An engine is delayed for want 
of proper repair material, and this delay in some cases 
runs into months. It must not be understood that this 
is entirely the fault of the store department, as many 
times the material was not ordered as promptly as it 
might have been. On the other hand, the shop man has 
a perfect right to assume that certain kinds of material 
are kept in stock continuously by the stores. 

When one considers that the average engine is worth 
$44.00 per day, it is a simple problem to figure out 
what lack of material means in engine delays. A great 
deal of this material for which engines are delayed is 
very moderate priced, so that no great valuation is in- 
volved, and, further, practically all material is common 
to several engines, particularly where there are a number 
of engines in a class, and this reduces the amount of 
stock necessary to carry in order to adequately protect 
the engine against delay. Too often the fact seems to 
be lost sight of that an engine is worth money, and the 
fact only is seen that there is so much money invested in 
stock, without regard to whether the equipment can be 
repaired promptly. This policy cannot be too strongly 
condemned, since both the mechanical and stores de- 
partments are working to the same end, i. e., to keep 
the engines in condition to earn revenue for the railroad. 
The question of suitable stock is a big one, and should 
be gone into carefully on each item by the store and 
mechanical departments jointly, since the mechanical 
departments are better able to say what is the probable 
need for the different items of stock. 

While this paper has dealt particularly with what 
improvements the mechanical department can make in 
the engine performance, the study of the locomotive 
shows a remarkable opportunity for all concerned to 
aid in this work by co-operation. This includes all 
departments having anything to do with the movement 
of trains or the equipment necessary for the movement 
of trains. 

In conclusion, I have shown that the net earning ca- 
pacity of a locomotive, taking the entire country over, 
is about $44.00 per day, and I have presented figures 
based on 24 representative roads, east and west, showing 
that the average freight mileage made per day is only 
57.0, and that the rest of the day the engine is not earn- 
ing any revenue. I have followed this up by a few sug- 
gestions as to how this time standing idle might be 
reduced, and it is this latter phase of the question which 
is now before you for discussion. If it be decided that 
these or other suggestions which will be brought out 
are effective in making the engine more efficient, then 
we will, having put these suggestions into force, be 
doing our share in making a little more perfect the 
performance of that grandest of machines — the loco- 

Executive Committee Meeting 

The C. J. C. I. & C. F. Association Favors the Establishment 

of an Inspection Bureau. No Changes in the 

M. C. B. Rules Recommended 

A meeting of the executive committee of the Chief 
Joint Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association was 
held at the Hotel La Salle, Chicago, 111., on February 
24, 1915. The following officers of the association and 
members of the executive committee were present : F. H. 
Hanson, A. M. C. B., New York Central R. R., Cleveland, 
O. ; S. Skidmore, Fmn. Car Dept, C, C, C. & St. L. 
Ry., Cincinnati, O. ; F. C. Schultz, Chief Interchange 
Inspector, Chicago ; W. J. Stoll, Chief Interchange In- 
spector, Toledo, O. ; J. P. Carney, Gen'l Car Ins., M. C. 
R. R., Detroit, Mich. ; W. R. McMunn, Gen'l Car Ins., 
N. Y. C. R. R., Albany, N. Y. ; C. J. Stroke, A. G. F., 
N. Y. C. R. R., Buffalo, N. Y. ; J. J. Devanney, F. C. D., 
T. R. R. A., St. Louis, Mo. 

The following representative members of the car de- 
partments of various roads, together with a number of 
visitors, were present : 

Bert J. Abbott, 
John Allwardt, 
H. Boutet, 
Valantine Baltz, 
W. F. Borck, 
J. E. Benton, 
W. H. Bettcher, 
George Briden, 
M. E. Bundy, 
Otto Bender, 

A. L. Ciliske, 
J. O. Callahan, 
H. E. Creer, 
C. H. Carey, 
W. K. Carr, 

J. P. Carney, 

E. E. Campbell, 
T. W. Damarest, 
J. T. Downs, 

J. H. Douglas, 
J. Dyer, 

B. L. Doores, 
J. J. Devanney, 
A. C. Ebert, 

H. H. Estrup, 
H. L. Ebert, 

F. A. Eyman, 

G. W. Isaac, 

R. R. Jones, 

H. Krush, 

P. M. Kilroy, 

C. W. Knoerzer, 

George Lynch, 

A. LaMar, 

A. R. McMunn, 

J. R. Mitchell, 

S. Mann, 

F. W. Moses, 

C. Nordquist, 

N. Nightingale, 

R. J. Nieskeus, 

R. H. Niehauz, 

J. S. Naery, 

T. J. O'Donnell, 

C. E. Oliver, 

H. L. Osman, 

C. W. Owsley, 

A. K. Plummer, 

H. G. Powell, 

E. Pendleton, 

A. F. Petenon, 

H. W. Paul, 

L. H. Retan, 

J. G. Raushenberger, 



March, 1915 

W. F. Frier, 
F. L. Fox, 
J. Funk, 

M. E. Fitzgerald, 
J. J. Gainev, 
W. M. Govert, 
N. H. Graul, 
J. Godfrey, 
J. L. Howell, 

E. H. Hall, 

F. H. Hanson, 
K. E. Hawk, 
M. W. Halbert, 
H. Holze, 

A. M. Hilborn, 
H. Halvorson, 
A. Herbster, 

C. V. Batcliff, 

S. E. Eobinson, 

S. Skidmore, 

A. E. Schultz, 

F. C. Schultz, 

C. J. Stroke. 

W. J. Schlaeks, 

O. Swanson, 

A. Singleton, 

W. J. Stoll, 

F. W. Trapnell. 

E. H. Wirtsckoreek, 

C. J. Wymer, 

W. G. Wallace, 

L. S. Wright, 

Wm. Westall, 

C. Zorn, 

A. Ziebold. 

W. Hogarth, 

The meeting was called to order by Chairman Schultz 
at 10:30 a. m., and was followed by a very lengthy dis- 
cussion on the advisability of recommending changes in 
the M. C. B. Rules, which continued until adjournment 
for luncheon was taken. During the session William T. 
Dabney, representing the chamber of commerce of the 
City of Richmond, Va., extended an invitation on behalf 
of that city to the association to hold the 191 5 convention 
in that city. The question was referred by the chairman 
to the executive committee for their consideration. 

The afternoon session was called to order at 2:15. 
The executive committee reported they had decided to 
accept the invitation of the city of Richmond to hold the 
next convention there on September 14th, 15th and 16th, 
of this year. 

The president appointed a committee to prepare a reso- 
lution on the death of Sam C. Howe, who passed away 
very suddenly on February 2, igiS ; this memorial to 
be incorporated in the records of the meeting, a copy sent 
to the Railway Master Mechanic, and also to the be- 
reaved family. George Lynch, C. J. Stroke and J. P. 
Carney were appointed members of the committee. 

A long discussion followed relative to changes to be 
proposed in the M. C. B. Rules, at which time T. W. 
Damarest, superintendent of motive power, Pennsylvania 
Lines, was called on for remarks, and very kindly re- 
sponded with information that was of great benefit to 
those present. After considerable discussion, the ques- 
tion as to whether or not this association should recom- 
mend any changes in the M. C. B. Rules, was proposed, 
and it was decided that inasmuch as the rules have only 
been in effect about six months, and it being felt that 
as a whole they were working out very satisfactorily, it 
was recommended and referred to the executive commit- 
tee, that they vote that no changes be recommended at 
this time. The executive committee voted unanimously 
in not recommending any changes. 

Mr. Schultz then surrendered the chair to President 
Hanson and during the ensuing discussion of A. R. A. 
Rule 15, the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved : That if repairs to a car under load cannot 
be made in 24 hours (as per MCB Rule No. 107, transfer 
order to be allowed — absence of material to be no excuse. 

The following amendment was proposed and carried : 

Resolved : That if repair to a car under load cannot 
be made in 24 hours (as per MCB Rule Xo. 107) transfer 
order to be allowed — absence of material to be no excuse 
and on cars containing so-called "non transferable" com- 
modities no transfer order should be given if it is possible 
to make repairs under load. 

Both motions were put to vote of the association and 
were carried. 

The president called the attention of the members to 
the fact he felt that there was not sufficient interest being 
taken in regard to increasing the membership, after which 
the following motion was made and carried : 

Resolved : That the secretary be instructed to get in 
touch with each member and request that they try to get 
at least one new member for the association during the 
coming year. 

The president made some remarks in regard to living 
strictly up to M. C. B. Rules, as there seemed to be a 
tendency at some points to deviate from the rules due 
to local conditions and he felt there were no reasons why 
these rules could not be carried out at all points. 

The following resolution was offered and call made 
for a rising vote, which was carried unanimously : 

Resolved : That on our return home we take up with 
all concerned and make every effort possible to have 
the M. C. B. rules strictly enforced, it being felt by so 
doing at all points, if there is any reason why any of 
the rules cannot be carried out on account of local con- 
dition, they would be given a thorough trial, and we 
would be prepared at our next convention to make an 
intelligent report on this matter. 

A great deal of discussion was had on the various 
rules in effect throughout the country where interchange 
bureaus were in operation ; also, in regard to repairs 
made to foreign cars and bills rendered against the car 
owner for such repairs and it was the sense of the com- 
mittee that such conditions should not exist and were 
inexcusable. The following resolution was offered and 
unanimously carried : 

Resolved: In order that all interchange bureaus be 
operated uniformly, the M. C. B. rules of interchange, 
the A. R. A. rules and other operating rules be uniformly 
enforced, repairs to cars and bills for such repairs prop- 
erly and uniformly made, that an inspection bureau be 
inaugurated along the lines of the United States Safety 
Appliance Inspection Bureau. This bureau to be under the 
jurisdiction of the arbitration committee of the M. C. B. 
Association and have authority to pass upon the rules to 
be put into effect, to see that they are uniformly en- 
forced, and to receive complaints of irregular practices, 
and to have power to investigate and adjust complaints 
coming to their notice, and make such other investiga- 
tions and inspections as they may see fit. 

It was then regularly moved and seconded that the 
meeting adjourn. 


Drake's Telephone Handbook. By D. P. Moreton, 
Assoc. Prof, of Elect. Engr., Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology. Cloth, 4 r / 2 in. by 6}i in., 280 pages, illustrated. 
Published by Frederick J. Drake & Co., 1325 So. Michi- 
gan Ave., Chicago. Price, $1. 00. 

This book is intended primarily as a handbook to 
familiarize the practical telephone man with the intrica- 
cies of the telephone business to an extent which will 
enable him to intelligently apply the knowledge gained 
to the solution of problems which come up in his every- 
day work. In the space which the author has allowed 
himself he appears to have accomplished this result to a 
remarkable degree and to the man who will devote the 
necessary time to a careful study of the matter, the book 
should prove of considerable value. 

The author is associate professor of electrical engineer- 
ing in the Armour Institute of Technology, and it may 
be considered that he speaks with authority regarding 
the points which he discusses. 

The book should have a definite field in that it covers 
the subject which it presents in a concise manner, and is 
of such a size that it may be readily carried around and 
made a volume of real ready reference. 

It is well illustrated throughout in the matter of dia- 
grams and circuits and illustrations of equipment. 


A Locomotive With a Water Tube Firebox 

An Experimental Locomotive Having a Firebox Equipped with Two 
Nests of Water Tubes Providing a Definite Water Circulation 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western received on 
December 17, 1914, an experimental engine No. 1171, 
•one of a lot of fourteen built by the Lima Locomotive 
Corporation. This differs from its mates in that it re- 
ceived a boiler equipped with a special form firebox, 
patented by S. S. Riegel, mechanical engineer of the road. 

By referring to the illustrations it will be noted the 
"boiler consists of a combination of the standard type of 
firebox and shell, with a water tube construction, which 
introduces a definite water circulation system. This com- 
prehends the installation of two nests of water tubes of 
sixty-six tubes each, placed right and left in the firebox 
•over the grates, thus taking advantage of the water tube 
method of circulation, with the object of providing defi- 
nite cycles of circulation of water through the zones of 

greatest heat intensity and locating the heating surfaces 
in the best possible manner. 

The total heating surface of the boiler is 494 sq. ft. 
greater than other locomotives of the same class, the ex- 
perimental boiler having 3,960 sq. ft., while the other 
locomotives of this class have 3,466 sq. ft., not including 
the superheater heating surface. The heating surface of 
the firebox and combustion chamber of the experimental 
engine is 288 sq. ft., while that of the other engines is 
267 sq. ft. 

The engine has been performing very satisfactorily 
with both bituminous and anthracite coal through prac- 
tically its entire period of service since delivery to the 
company, and it is believed that the device will prove an 
entire success. Arrangements are being made to give it 

Lackawanna Locomotive Fitted with Special Boiler. 

ID- Rom button head 
J8 Rows expans- 
' ion stay 5. 

/*" Bottom '%% 
Bell to 5/ze equal *«**•* 
to diameter of hole g. 
one thickness of bodu 
of tube. 

Sections and Details, Lackawanna Water Tube Firebox Construction. 



March, 1915 


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ol I • 

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B ° 1 1 

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March, 1915 



Showing Water Tube Construction of D., L. & W. Boiler. 

a more thorough try-out in service performance in con- 
nection with the dynamometer car. 

The sister engines, 1158 to 11 70 class, were previously 
illustrated on page 479 of the October, 1914, issue of the 
Railway Master Mechanic. 

The engine in question has the following special char- 

The engine in question has the following special character- 

Class 4-6-2 

Gauge 4'-8 V 2 " 

Diameter of driving wheels 69" 

Tractive Power 43,200 lbs. 

Cylinders 25x28" 

"Weight on trucks in working order 50,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers in working order 189,600 lbs. 

Weight on trailer truck in working order 58,000 lbs. 

Total weight of engine in working order 297,600 lbs. 

Coal capacity of tender 

Water capacity of tender 

Total weight of tender loaded 

Total weight of engine and tender 

Boiler pressure 

Grate area 

Diameter of boiler 


Factor of adhesion 

Heating surface, firebox and combustion 


Heating capacity, water tubes 

Heating capacity, fire tubes 

Heating capacity, arch tubes 

Total heating surface of firebox 

Total heating surface 

Superheater heating surface 

Kigid wheel base 

Wheel base of engine 

Wheel base of engine and tender 

10 tons 
9,000 gals. 
165,500 lbs. 
463^000 lbs. 
200 lbs. 
69 sq. 
89x111 sq. 

288 sq. 

471 sq. 

3,177 sq. 

24 sq. 

783 sq. 
3,960 sq. 

740 sq. 
13 ft. 





M. C. B. Inspectors for Checking Repairs to Foreign Cars 

Suggesting a Force of Traveling M. C. B. Inspectors to Check 
Up Repair Cards, Records, and the Manner of Making Repairs 

By H. H. Harvey, Genl. Car Fmn, C. B. & Q. Ry. 

By way of introduction it might be well to call attention 
to the magnitude of foreign car repair work. 

While I am unable to give exact figures, these quoted 
are, I think, approximately correct, as they are based on 
the actual bills paid by one of our large trunk lines and 
worked out by comparing the number of cars owned by 
that line with the total number of freight cars represented 
in the M. C. B. Association. 

On that basis, there are during the course of a year 
nine million repair cards issued to cover repairs to foreign 
cars, and the money value represented by these cards is 
about forty-three million dollars. 

Bills on authority of these repair cards are presented 
to car owners, who after checking for wrong car num- 
bers, errors in arithmetic and apparent improper charges, 
vouchers them, with what, at best, is a very poor check 
as to whether he has gotten value received for the money. 

In making the statement as to poor checking of M. C. B. 
bills, please do not misunderstand me and think I am 
saying bill clerks make no effort to get a good check, 
for such is not my intent. The facts are that it is simply 
impossible to check one of these bills and be absolutely 
certain that it does not contain charges for repairs that 
were never made. 

In the very nature of things, it is not possible for the 
car owner to inspect each individual car to find what 

• A paper delivered before the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. 

repairs it has received, and he has to depend almost en- 
tirely on the honesty of the roads over which cars travel 
as to whether or not improper charges are made for 

There is probably no other part of railroad accounting 
where so much money is paid out on such a poor check, 
and it is also probably true that no other single matter in 
connection with the interchange of freight cars has been 
given more serious consideration by the Arbitration com- 
mittee and other members of the M. C. B. Association. 

As yet, nobody has been able to suggest a better 
scheme for M. C. B. billing, and so far as I know there is 
nothing better in sight. Such being the case, it follows 
that all car owners must be absolutely honest in their 
M. C. B. bill work, if we are to avoid the charge occa- 
sionally made as to dishonesty in repair bills. 

For many years there has been more or less complaint 
about dishonest practices, and the M. C. B. Asssociation 
has made strenuous efforts to overcome such practices, if 
they actually exist. 

To what extent they have succeeded, the writer is 
unable to say, but personally I believe that the great 
majority of roads are entirely honest and want to include 
in their bills only items that are legitimate charges against 
car owners. 

Without question, all roads at times make improper 



March, 1915 

charges, but in most cases these are simply errors and not 
made with deliberate intent to defraud. However, it is 
quite possible that some few car owners deliberately 
charge for repairs not made, possibly not with the con- 
sent of their higher officials, but through the zealousy of 
some of their minor officials, who are endeavoring to 
make a record for low cost of maintenance. These few, 
if there be such, are the ones who are to blame for the 
charge of dishonesty in repair bills, and under which 
stigma all must suffer, the innocent as well as the guilty. 

As you know, it was for many years the practice to 
apply repair cards to cars, the idea being that this would 
enable owner to check repairs when car reached home. 
This was good in theory but poor in practice, as the dis- 
honest party could easily get around it by omitting to 
apply repair cards. For this reason, and the further fact 
that repair cards applied to cars really served no very 
good purpose, the practice was discontinued a year or so 

In my opinion, the time is now ripe for some action to 
save car owners the financial loss due to improper bills, 
and to rid honest car men of the charge of crooked work. 

The suggestion has been made that the M. C. B. Asso- 
ciation employ a force of inspectors, whose sole duties 
would be to inspect foreign repairs and the billing in con- 
nection with them. The writer heartily endorses this 
suggestion, and would invite the serious consideration of 
the matter with a view of making some recommendations 
along these lines to the M. C. B. Association. 

My idea would be to have a small force of inspectors, 
not to exceed five or six, at most, something like the Inter- 
state Commerce inspectors, who would travel from point 
to point, check over repair cards, repair records, manner 
of making repairs, amount of material carried, etc., and to 
satisfy themselves that each road or private line is honest 
in all respects in their foreign repair work and billing. 

These inspectors should be carefully selected, with a 
view of getting good, practical, level-headed men, who 
would distinguish between errors and actual dishonest 
practices. They should work directly under the super- 
vision of the M. C. B. arbitration committee, and the 
expense prorated among car owners on the basis of cars 
represented in the association. Possibly it would be 
necessary to have them carried on the pay roll of the 
American Railway Association, but this detail could no 
doubt be worked out if it was decided to go into a scheme 
of this kind. 

The benefits would be twofold : 

First — In locating improper practices. 

Second — The moral effect of such men being in the 
field would make everybody very careful to avoid any- 
thing that would cause criticism, in case inspectors should 
check them up. 

The subject is one well worthy of serious consideration, 
and while this plan may not be the ideal one, I am sure 
the benefits obtained would more than offset the expense. 


The removal of pieces of shrapnel, steel-jacketed bul- 
lets, etc., by the use of powerful electro-magnets in hospi- 
tals abroad has been acclaimed by many newspapers as 
the very latest application of science to surgery. It is 
interesting to note that the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. 
Co. has installed in the relief department of its East 
Pittsburgh works a magnet for removing metal embedded 
in the flesh, which is one of the most powerful in the 

The magnet is mounted on a box containing the resistor 
which is used to regulate the amount of current flowing 
through the coils. It requires 4,000 watts for its opera- 

Magnet for Removing Metallic Particles .from the Hands, Eyes, etc. 

tion, or enough power to supply 100 32-candle power 
Mazda lamps. It is designed for operation on 70 volts, 
and as the circuit from which it draws current is used for 
testing purposes in the works and ranges from 70 to 120 
volts, a resistor is necessary. 

It is not an infrequent occurrence for steel and iron 
workers to get bits of metal in their eyes or hands. Pre- 
vious to the installation of a magnet the only means of 
removal was by probing, a method which is as uncertain 
as it is painful. Since this machine was put in operation 
it is a very simple proceeding to extract such particles. 
The portion of the body in which the foreign particle is 
embedded is placed near the pole tip of the magnet, switch 
closed, and magnet does the rest. The pole is removable, 
a number of different shapes being supplied for various 
classes of work. 

It is very common for flying bits of metal to lodge in 
the eye. Should they strike with force enough to become 
embedded, the removal, without the aid of a powerful 
magnet, is apt to be difficult as well as painful. The pro- 
tecting coating of the eye must be cut, and there is danger 
that instead of removing the particle, it may be pushed 
further into the eye. When the foreign body is once 
within the eyeball it is properly a case for the specialist. 

Steel workers frequently have their hands punctured 
with minute pieces of metal, which become embedded 
under the calloused skin. If these bits are allowed to re- 
main, the wound is likely to become infected. The use of 
a powerful magnet insures the removal of all traces of 
iron from wounds in the hands or any other part of the 
body. Some remarkably small pieces have been extracted 
in this way, one recently recovered being not a twelfth of 
the thickness of a delicate needle. 

Dr. C. A. Lauffer, medical director of the Westing- 
house Electric & Mfg. Co., relates a number of instances 
in which the magnet has proved invaluable. Among these 
is the rather amusing case of a workman who attempted 
to drill one of his own teeth. The drill broke off about 
half an inch from the end and remained in the cavity, and 
it seemed as if the only way to remove the drill would be 
to pull the tooth. However, a special extension was made 
and fitted to the magnet pole. As soon as the extension 
was brought in contact with the drill and the current 
switched on, the drill was immediately drawn out. 

March, 1915 



The Car Surplus 

The American Railway Association reports the total 
car surplus on February 15 at 227,473, which compares 
with 21 1,960 on the same date last year, and 172,325 Nov. 
1, 1914. The reports of February 15 have been received 
from 159 roads, operating 1,854,150 cars, while figures 
for Nov. 1. 1914, were furnished by 192 roads, operating 
2,203,414 cars. The total shortage Feb. 1, 1915, was 832, 
which compares with 2,282 a year ago, and 2,229 Nov. I, 


W. H. Kushera succeeds L. Showell as general foreman of the 
Atchison. Topeka 4~ Santa Fe at Deming, N. M. 

T. G. Evans succeeds J. H. Suhl as foreman of the Atchison, 
Topeka 4- Santa Fe at Las Vegas, N. M. 

A. M. Baird, assistant superintendent of shops of the Atchison, 
Topeka 4- Santa Fe at Topeka, Kan., has resigned to engage in 
other business. 

J. D. Osborn succeeds Thomas Purcell as boiler foreman of the 
Atchison, Topeka 4- Santa Fe at Richmond, Cal. 

C. M. NEWMAN has been appointed superintendent of shops of 
the Baltimore 4' Ohio Southwestern at "Washington, Ind. 

C. A. Loudin succeeds J. "W. Eubank as road foreman of engines 
of the Chesapeake 4- Ohio at Huntington, W. Va. 

V. J. Lamb has been promoted to general car foreman of the 
Cliarlestown 4- Western Carolina at Augusta, Ga., succeeding W. F. 

Otto J. Protz has been appointed shop foreman of the Chicago 
4- Northwestern at Wyeville, Wis. 

E. H. Morey has been appointed foreman of the new erecting 
and machine shop of the Chicago 4~ North Western at Chicago. 

E. Bloom has been appointed shop demonstrator and chief ap- 
prentice instructor at the Chicago shops of the Chicago 4~ North 
Western, succeeding E. H. Morey. 

R. W. Stevens succeeds the late J. M. Warner as general super- 
intendent of Chicago 4~ Western Indiana, with headquarters at 
Chicago. He will have charge of operating maintenance and 
mechanical matters. 

A. YOUNG succeeds "Walter Alexander as master mechanic of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee 4- St. Paul at Milwaukee, Wis. 

C. Lunberg succeeds A. Young as general locomotive foreman 
of the Chicago, Mihvaukee 4' St. Paul at Chicago, HI. 

R. J. McQuade has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Kansas City terminal division of the Chicago Eock Island 4" 
Pacific vice O. C. Breisch, resigned. His headquarters are at 
Armourdale, Kan. 

A. E. Caseey has been appointed road foreman of equipment 
of the Chicago, Sock Island 4' Pacific at Valley Junction, la. 

E. B. Van Akin has been appointed road foreman of equip- 
ment of the Chicago, Eock Island 4' Pacific at Manly, la. 

J. W. Sullivan succeeds W. R. Elmore as general foreman of 
the Denver 4- Eio Grande, with office at Salt Lake City, Utah. 

0. X. Ballard succeeds F. Kinze as general foreman of the 
Detroit, Toledo 4' Ironton, with office at Delray. Mich. 

J. H. Conlet has been appointed purchasing agent of the 
Georgia 4' Florida, with office at Augusta, Ga. 

W. R. Wood has been appointed mechanical valuation engineer 
of the Great Northern, with headquarters at St. Paul. He will 
report to the general manager. 

A. M. Phelan has been appointed locomotive foreman of the 
Great Nortliern at New Rockford, X. D. He succeeds J. J. Stahl. 
E. G. Bryant succeeds W. G. Hall as master mechanic of the 
International 4' Great Northern at Mart, Tex. 

H. L. McLow, general foreman of the Missouri, Kansas 4" Texas 
at Greenville, Texas, has resigned to become superintendent of 
the Greenville municipal plants. 

J. A. Long has been appointed acting general foreman of the 

Missouri, Kansas 4' Texas at Greenville, Texas, succeeding H. L. 

M. S. Ransom has been appointed general foreman of the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga 4' St. Louis, with office at Atlanta, Ga. 

J. W. Hager has been appointed locomotive and fuel inspector 
of the Nashville, Chattanooga 4' St. Louis, with headquarters at 
Xashville, Tenn. 

A. R. Ayers has been appointed principal assistant engineer of 
the equipment department of the New York Central, with head- 
quarters at Xew York. His general duties will be in connection 
with car design and construction. 

R. M. Brown has been appointed assistant engineer of the- 
equipment department of the New York Central, with headquar- 
ters at Cleveland, O. His duties will cover engineering and draft- 
ing at locomotive and car shops. 

P. P. Mirtz has been appointed assistant engineer of the equip- 
ment department of the New York Central, with headquarters at 
Xew York. His duties will cover locomotive design and specifica- 

H. E. Smith has been appointed chemist and engineer of tests 
of the New York Central, with headquarters at Collinwood, O. He 
will have supervision of laboratories and material inspection. 

W. B. Geiser has been appointed assistant chemist and engineer 
of tests of the New York Central, with headquarters at West 
Albany, X. Y. 

Joseph Chidley, assistant superintendent of motive power of 
the New York Central at Cleveland, O., has had his jurisdiction 
extended over the Illinois division. 

George Thomson, master car builder of the New York Central 
at Englewood (Chicago), 111., has had his jurisdiction extended 
over the Hlinois division. 

A. Berg has been appointed general foreman, car department,, 
of the New York Central at Wesleyville, Pa., vice 0. Blodd. 

R. A. Fitz, general foreman of the New York Central, has been- 
transferred from Sandusky, O., to Nottingham, O. 

W. H. Kropp has been appointed roundhouse foreman of the- 
Oregon-Washington E. E. 4" Navigation Co. at Seattle, Wash., 
succeeding O. K. Rummell. 

F. B. Farrington has been appointed general foreman of the- 
Pennsylvania at Louisville, Ky., succeeding C. W. Kinnear. 

Leeds C. White succeeds A. White as general car foreman of 
the Pere Marquette at St. Thomas, Ont. 

W. F. Weigman has been appointed general foreman car depart- 
ment of the Seaboard Air Line at Portsmouth, Va. 

J. M. Guild has been appointed general safety agent of the- 
Union Pacific at Omaha, Xeb. Mr. Guild was formerly assistant 
general safety agent. 

J. R. Van Cleve has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Western Pacific at Elko, Xev., succeeding E. R. Kries. 


John W. Addis, formerly superintendent of motive power of 
the Texas 4' Pacific, died at Marshall, Texas, on February 25. Mr. 
Addis retired in June, 1911, after serving 19 years as head of the 
mechanical department of the Texas & Pacific. 

Samuel C. Howe, division accountant of the New York Central, 
died suddenly at his home, 12 Colby street. Albany, Xew York, 
February 2nd, at the age of 46 years. Mr. Howe was born in 
Huddersfield, England, and came to this country when he was- 
23 years old. He obtained employment in the Xew York Cen- 
tral shop at East Buffalo and afterward changed to the office 
and entered the accounting department. There he gained many 
advances and in 1904 was given charge of the accounting depart- 
ment in the western division. In 1910 he was advanced to the- 
Hudson and Mohawk divisions, and moved to Albany with his 
family the same year. He is survived by his wife, sou and two 
daughters. Mr. Howe had been for many years a member of 



March, 1915 

the Chief Interchange Car Inspector's and Car Foremen's Asso- 
ciation, and while not directly connected with car interchange 
work, he was so closely associated with men having charge of 
this work that he took a deep interest in all of the association's 
work and was a regular attendant at the meetings. He took 
an active part in the discussions and his sudden taking off will 
be felt very keenly by the membership in general. Mrs. Howe 
always attended the conventions with her husband and the 
sympathy of the membership is extended to Mrs. Howe and 
her family. 


A radial drill which is distinctly new in principle and 
design has been placed on the market by the Willmarth 
Tool Works, 15 id E. 32nd St., Cleveland, O. 

Its most prominent feature is the manner of moving 
the head and arm for locating holes. The head rotates 
about a large circular bearing on the arm, and the arm 
rotates about the column as in the usual type. This pro- 
duces a double swiveling motion, so that any hole within 
the capacity of the machine may be readily located. (A 
self-locking spiral gear and rack are provided for moving 
the head.) 

The bearing of the head on the arm is 17" in diameter, 
and is provided with an annular ring inside for holding it 
central, and a heavy pivot bolt for holding the two to- 
gether. A powerful eccentric clamp locks the head solidly 
to the arm, making substantially one piece. 

The column is of the post and sleeve type. The post 
has a large and heavy lower portion, and extends up to 
the top member, which is securely bolted to it, making a 
braced construction and adding materially to the stiffness. 
The column sleeve telescopes the post, and has bearings 
at both top and bottom, also a large ball thrust bearing 
at the bottom end, thereby rendering easy the swinging 

of the arm. The sleeve has a powerful binding clamp at 
its lower end, which when tightened, produces the effect 
of a solid column. 

The arm is very rigid, of cylindrical box section, and 
heavily ribbed on the inside. It is elevated or lowered 
by means of gearing at the top through a coarse pitch 
screw, hung on ball bearings. 

There are eight changes of speed, from 35 to 375 
R. P. M., arranged in geometrical progression. Four 
changes are obtained by the cone pulleys and four more 
by the back gearing, which is provided in the spindle 
driving gears. 

The tapping mechanism is obtained by a jack shaft in 
the head, running at high speed, and drives through pow- 
erful ring clutches, which are self adjusting, and which 
are operating by means of a lever in front of the machine, 
enabling the workman to easily start, stop or reverse the 

The spindle is of special steel, is accurately ground 
and is provided with an ample ball thrust bearing. It has 
a No. 5 Morse taper hole, is $%" in diameter at its large 
end and 1^" at its smallest section. 

The feeding mechanism is composed of a selective gear 
box and its gearing, which drives a worm and worm gear, 
which in turn drives the feeding pinion. Six changes of 
feed are provided, ranging from .0C6" to .027" per revo- 
lution of the spindle. These are instantly available by 
operating the dial on the front of the feed box. A quick 
return hand wheel is attached to the feed pinion shaft, 
and the engagement of the worm to it is made by means 
of a friction ring controlled by a nut in front of the hand 
wheel. Both depth gauge and automatic trip are incorpo- 
rated in the feed mechanism. 

The bearings throughout are bushed with high grade 
special bearing bronze, and the gears are of steel, bronze 
or a specially high grade semi-steel. 

Wllmarth Radial Drill. 


A great deal of energy and inventive genius have been 
expended on the bent or curved tap principle in an effort 
to develop a continuous, non-reversing nut tapper. The 
quest or effort to utilize the bent tap has gone on unin- 
terruptedly, as the partial successes attained in previous 
designs indicated that the bent tap held much promise, 
and that in theory at least, it offered the way for a full 
automatic nut tapper without any reversing action to 
wear out taps and cause trouble, and in which various 
movements were attainable without the employment of 
intricate or delicate mechanism. 

These possibilities have been realized in a new auto- 
matic nut tapper now being offered by the National Ma- 
chinery Company, Tiffin, Ohio, and on lines simpler than 
those embodied in the theories of the early experimenters. 
This tapper is being built in sizes of Y^, }i, Y> and 24 
inch capacity The hopper or container for the blanks, 
while apparently on accepted lines, embodies some orig- 
inal ideas and is made unusually large. On the smaller 
size machines it accommodates about 80 lbs. of blanks, 
thus giving the operator considerable time between fill- 
ings and enabling him to easily attend a battery of from 
6 to 10 machines. 

A vane type feed progresses the nuts from the hopper 
to the feed chute, and gravity brings the blanks down and 
into position against the plunger or starter. There are 
four of these feed vanes, and they are so enclosed that 
the pressure or weight of the blanks cannot interfere with 
their successful operation. These vanes are rotated by a 
ratchet and pawl off the driving shaft, and this ratchet 
is held between friction flanges so that in case scrap or 
thin nut blanks tend to wedge in the nut groove and 

March, 1915 



interfere with the vanes, the ratchet merely slips, and 
damage is prevented. 

The tap spindle and injector or starter is inclined at an 
angle, and the blanks come out of the feed chute at a 
like angle, causing each blank to lay against the starter 
as it is advanced onto the tap. The angle of the starter is 
such that the lubricant keeps the face free of chips, and 
the blanks lay or bear flush against the starter, and are 
thus tapped square with the bearing face. 

The tap spindle has a slight lateral travel, and is coun- 
terbalanced, giving the spindle a "floating" movement in 
a sense, and after the starter has fed the blank part way 
onto the tap, the spindle descends during the completion 
of the tapping, thus keeping the blank stationary while 
it is being tapped, in place of pulling it through the nut 
holder or guides and incurring a chance of binding, with 
attendant excessive wear on the nut guides and tap. 

The course of the nut after being tapped, i. e., its travel 
up the shank and off the end of the tap, is made clear in 
illustration No. 4. The hood or cover over the head 
serves to direct the nuts ejected from the tap into a 
chute that conveys them out of the machine into boxes 
or kegs. 

It follows, of course, that the better the quality of blank 
being tapped, i. e., freedom from burr, holes of correct 
size, stock free cutting and blanks of correct dimensions 
— the higher the machine's efficiency, and all blanks before 
being dumped into the hoppers are sorted for scrap-slugs, 
etc., but should any scrap accidentally enter and be passed 
through the feed chute and fed against the tap, an auto- 
matic relief shifts the belt and stops the machine. 

The design is intended primarily for tapping square 
nuts, but hexagon nuts of good quality can be handled ; 
and each size tapper can be tooled for handling both 
styles of nuts, as well as for several sizes. Also by mak- 
ing a simple gear change, the rate of feeding — number of 

\ fl 


ftk. W^ 

|R r J^' 

ft ■ 


t w. * 


Head or Tap Holder Opened Showing How Nuts Pass Over the Tap. 

nuts tapped per minute — -can be regulated to suit the kind 
of nuts being tapped. As an example, in the }i inch 
size machine, 40 nuts of shop size can be tapped per 
minute if the stock is free cutting, holes are full size, 
etc., whereas U. S. S. nuts being thicker require more 
turns of the tap to a nut, hence 30 nuts per minute are 
recommended. This also applies when nuts are of tough 
stock or the holes run smaller than standard. 

No special type or grade of tap is necessary, and any 
standard tap that has been successfully employed in a 
shop in the straight shank will be found equally satis- 
factory in the bent form for this automatic tapper. 


The chaser grinder illustrated herewith has recently 
been perfected by the Landis Machine Company, Waynes- 
boro, Pa., to meet the demands and requirements of the 
many users of thread cutting dies and more especially the 
Landis die. 

The machine is of a duplex nature, in that it is fitted 
with an attachment for handling all sizes of Landis 
chasers and a device to sharpen the disc cutters of roller 

Landis Chaser Grinder. 

pipe cutting machines. It may also be used to grind lathe, 
planer, shaper tools, etc. 

The chaser grinder attachment has adjustment in both 
horizontal and vertical planes, with suitable graduations 
for controlling the lead and rake angles, on Landis dies. 
Both the transverse and longitudinal feeds are in hori- 
zontal planes, a feature which insures very accurate 
grinding. The table is gibbed at both slides and finished 
with an overhang to protect the guides from emery dust. 

The disc cutter grinding attachment is also adjustable 
vertically and horizontally and is operated by hand. An 
adjustable rest is likewise provided to facilitate the han- 
dling of miscellaneous tools. 

The rigid construction, guarded wheels and the ease 
with which the machine may be operated are features 
which should not be overlooked and which, together with 
the universal adaptability of the machine, should make it 
a most desirable equipment for the tool room. 


The Globe Ventilator Co., Troy, N. Y., has issued a 
booklet calling attention to the particular uses of Globe 
ventilators in railway work. 

•|£ *|» 3fi 

"Type E Stoker" is the title of a catalog of the Com- 
bustion Engineering Co., 1 1 Broadway, New York. This 
stoker is of the underfeed type, burning coking or non- 
coking coal ranging from 10 to 40 per cent volatile matter 
and 5 to 30 per cent ash, under stationary boilers. 

The Blaisdell Machinery Co., Bradford, Pa., is sending 
out copies of a well arranged catalog of its smaller air 
compressing machines. The booklet is more than a mere 
catalog, as it contains many tables and other valuable 



March, 1915 


The Safety First Federation of America, which recently held 
its first convention in New York City attended by delegates from 
14 states, selected Detroit as the next place of meeting next au- 
tumn. The federation is designed to promote the public safety 
movement and to co-ordinate the work of many public safety 

The Elyria Iron & Steel Co., Elyria, O., has placed the struc- 
tural steel contract for its proposed tube mill to be built at Cleve- 
land with the Fort Pitt Bridge Works, of Pittsburgh. About 215 
tons of steel are involved. 

The Bader-Giebel Machine Co. has been incorporated at Cin- 
cinnati with $15,000 capital stock. The incorporators are William 
C. Bader, George J. Giebel, Mildred Bader, Mamie Giebel, Dennis 
J. Byan. 

The Stark Bolltng Mill Co., of Canton, Ohio, announce the 
appointment of The Dearborn Steel & Iron Co, as their selling 
agents in Chicago, northern Illinois and Wisconsin. The Dear- 
born Steel & Iron Co. is a new company, composed of H. C. Per- 
rine and E. L. Lyon. Both were formerly connected with Jos. T. 
Ryerson & Son, and Mr. Perrine more recently was associated 
with The Fred Gardner Co. Offices have been opened in the 
Peoples Gas building, Chicago. 

The Stowell Mfg. & Foundry Co., South Milwaukee, Wis., 
reopened its foundry, machine and shipping departments on March 
5 after being closed since December 1. 

The General Hallway Signal Co. reports for the year ended 
December 31, 1914, earnings of $526,167, balance after interest, 
$54,570; surplus, $1,842, and profit and loss surplus of $1,215,831. 

L. S. Starrett Co., manufacturer of machinists' tools, will in- 
crease its capital stock $1,500,000. 

The Brooks plant of the American Locomotive Co. at Dunkirk, 
N. T., is showing more signs of active resumption in part by the 
employment of hammersmiths and blacksmiths on some recently 
booked orders. 

The Laceawanna Steel Co., at its annual meeting, elected 
directors for the term of three years, expiring March, 1918, as 
follows: J. J. Albright, C. Ledyard Blair, Warren Delano, J. G. 
McCullough, Moses Taylor and Henry Walters. James Speyer 
having declined re-election, was succeeded by Beekman Winthrop, 
of New York City. 

The old plant of the American Asphalt & Rubber Co., at Law- 
renceville, Dad., will be reopened by a reorganization of the 
American company, known as the Canadian Mineral Rubber Co. 
The plant will be rebuilt and re-equipped and a new office build- 
ing probably will be erected. W. B. Puller, former chief chemist 
of the American company, is general manager of the new con- 

Directors of the Union Switch & Signal Co., Pittsburgh, organ- 
ized with the election of the following officers: President, W. D. 
Uptegraff; vice-president, T. W. Siemon; vice-president and treas- 
urer, T. S. Brubbs; secretary and assistant treasurer, George F. 

Harry G. Uphouse, formerly Johnstown sales manager of the 
Cambria Steel Co., has succeeded to the title of assistant to the 
general manager of sales, a position held until March 1 by Merrill 
G. Baker. Mr. Uphouse has been with the Cambria company for 
a number of years, obtaining his initial experience in the operat- 
ing department. Mr. Uphouse will be connected with the Phila- 
delphia office of the company. 

J. W. Fogg, formerly master mechanic of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Chicago Term i nal, has become associated with the Boss Nut Co., 

T. S. Leake, general contractor, has moved his offices from the 
Ellsworth building, Chicago, to the Transportation building. 

James Hartness, former president of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers and president of the Jones & Lamson Ma- 

chine Co., Springfield, Vt., delivered a lecture on March 9 before 
the Engineering Society of Stevens Institute of Technology, Ho- 
boken, N. J. His address was devoted to "Modern Practice in 
Tool Design." 

E. L. Leeds, since 1907 the manager of the railroad equipment 
department of the Niles-Bement-Pond Co., Ill Broadway, New 
York, has been appointed general manager of sales of that com- 
pany and of the Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. Mr. Leeds 
succeeds W. L. Clark, formerly vice-president in charge of sales of 
Niles-Bement-Pond, and B. M. W. Hansen, vice-president of the 
Pratt & Whitney Co., who previously had been in charge of the 
Pratt & Whitney sales. The change became effective March 1. 

Wellington B. Lee, formerly with the Ramapo Iron Works, 
Ramapo, N. Y., has been elected vice-president of the Track Spe- 
cialties Co., Lac, New York City. Mr. Lee severs his connection 
of 24 years with the Ramapo Iron Works. 

George T. Merwin has been appointed general sales manager of 
the Canadian Car & Foundry Company, Montreal, Que. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, re-elected the old 
officers and directors at the annual meeting held recently. 

George G. Barret, formerly general manager of the Cleveland 
Drop Forge Company, and at one time connected with the Amer- 
ican Locomotive Company, died at his home in Commack, L. I., on 
February 18. 

The Chicago Bridge & LtON Works has opened a city sales 
office in the McCormick building, Chicago. 

The Empire Railway Appliance Co., 30 Church street, New 
York, has increased its capital stock from $500,000 to $600,000. 

Thomas A. Edison, Inc., will erect a benzol recovery plant, 

at Johnstown, Pa., as a result of negotiations closed with Cambria 

Steel Co. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, Inc., New York City, are mak- 
ing preparations to operate their new plant in Fitchburg, Mass. 
H. F. Brandeis, general manager of the Fitchburg plant, speaks 
cheerfully of the outlook in the machine tool trade. 

A. D. McAdam, western sales agent of the Ralston Steel Car 
Co., Columbus, O., has been named manager of sales of that com- 
pany with headquarters at Columbus. 

The Fairmont Machine Co. has changed its name and increased 
the authorized capital stock to $1,000,000 to meet demands of 
increasing business. The name will hereafter be the Fairmont Gas 
Engine & Railway Motor Car Co. 

The General Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., Chicago, will open 
a branch in Memphis, Tenn., under the name of the Memphis 
Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., says a Memphis dispatch. 

The Magnus Company, Chicago, has been incorporated with a 
capital stock of $5,000 to manufacture railway supplies of iron 
and steel, by W. H. Clark, 140 South Dearborn street, P. R. Wein- 
gardner and W. F. Kennedy. 

The Pyle National Electric Headlight Co., of Chicago, has 
acquired the patents and business of the W. T. Van Dorn Co. for 
the manufacture of steel ends for box cars. The Van Dorn patents 
include single piece and sectional ends ; and among them are some 
covering recent improvements. 

The Railway Appliances Co. has been sold to C. F. Quincy, 
president of the Q. & C. Company. The business of the Railway 
Appliances Co. will in future be operated by and in the name of 
Q. & C. Company. 

The Alma Standard Foundry Mfg. Co., Alma, Mich., will increase 
the size of its plant as the result of contract with the Ann Arbor 
railroad to furnish all castings for the railroad for 1915. 


Jed O. Gould, general superintendent of the Gould Coupler Com- 
pany, at Depew, N. Y., died on February 19, at Buffalo, N. Y. 

William F. Gurley, of the firm of W. & L. E. Gurley, Troy, 
N. Y., died at Atlantic City on Wednesday, February 17. 

April, 1915 



Master Mechanic 

Bruce V. Crandall, Publisher 


Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 5784 

Eastern Office: SO Church Street, New York 
Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, cars, equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to Bruce V. Crandall. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 




Railway Master Mechanic is published monthly at 431 South 
Dearborn St., Chicago, HI. 

The officers are as follows: 

Editor— Owen W. Middleton, 431 South Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Business Managers — Bruce V. Crandall, 431 South Dearborn St. 
Chicago; C. C. Zimmerman, 431 South Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Publisher — Bruce V. Crandall, 431 South Deaiborn St.. Chicago. 

Owner — Bruce V. Crandall, 431 South Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Known bondholders, mortgages, and other security holders, hold- 
ing 1 per cent or more of total amount of stock — None. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 31st day of March, 1913. 

(Signed) Robert R. Grieg, 
(My commission expires Oct. 26, 1915.) Notary Public. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 


Chicago, April, 1915 

No. 4 


Editorial — 

The Old-Time Finish 113 

Successful Smoke Washing 113 

Car Men's Associations 114 

Advantages of Good Lockers 114 

Reorganize the Commission 115 

Letters to the Editor 115 

The Railroads Today 116 

Exchange of Tools 116 

Mikado Locomotives for the Georgia R. R 117 

A Good Record on the Grand Trunk 119 

Preventing Accidents with Hand Tools 119 

Steam Railway Electrifications 120 

Increased Roundhouse Expenses 121 

Results of the Boiler Inspection Law 122 

Factors in Successful Piece Work 124 

The Boiler Code Completed 125 

Grinding in Nigger Head Rings 125 

Interchange of Ideas 126 

Dies for Drawing Out Stock 126 

Factors in the Heat Treatment of Steel 127 

The British Thermal Unit 129 

Changing Conditions of Train Operation 129 

Hand Firing Soft Coal 131 

Electric Locomotive Exhibit 132 

Rack for Railway Storerooms 132 

The Advance of Electrification on Heavy Traction Roads 133 

Superheater Tube Sheet Borer 134 

Files and Filing 135 

The Trailing Truck 137 

Safety Work, B. & O. R. R 138 

Drill Press for University Test Work 138 

Some Interesting Old-Time Locomotives 139 

Co-operation 141 

Don'ts for Brakemen 142 

An Extensive Electric Exhibit 142 

Removing Controlling: Valve Chambers 142 

"Wrench for Westinghouse Feed Valve 142 

The Extent of Electrification 142 

A Cheap and Strong Ladder 143 

Brake Beam Adjusting Device 143 

Fuel Value of "Wood 143 

Causes of Honeycomb on Flue Sheets 143 

Reviews of Recent Books 143 

Reorganization of the U-S-L-Co 144 

Personals 144 

Obituary 144 

Triplex Hydraulic Pump 145 

The Selling Side 146 

The Old-Time Finish 

During recent years there has been a tendency towards 
extreme simplicity in design and finish of locomotives and 
cars. In the earlier days of railroading, however, rolling 
stock was finished with quite elaborate striping and more 
or less brass, and some of the earlier locomotives had 
an individuality which made their drivers very proud of 
them. Reference to an article covering some of these 
old-time locomotives which is published on another page 
indicates their handsome appearance and illustrates how 
a little striping or gold leaf can improve an engine's 

In our zeal over efficiency we sometimes lose sight of 
the human factor and there are indications that the pen- 
dulum is swinging back again toward the old-time finish. 
A number of roads, for instance, are giving individuality 
to some of their locomotives by placing thereon the names 
of their drivers. There are those of the opinion possibly 
that the addition of striping and gold leaf is costly and 
unwarranted, but it should be borne in mind that the cost 
is practically insignificant compared with the total and 
that the effect in making the men proud of their road's 
engines will offset the cost several times. 

More of the old-time finish could also be advantage- 
ously applied to the passenger cars of today, especially 
with the increase in steel construction. The steel car at 
best is very plain and uninviting. More gold lettering 
and other touches of brightness would greatly relieve its 
monotonous appearance, and the road providing the more 
attractive cars will attract additional passengers. The 
public undoubtedly appreciates the strength and safety 
of the steel car, but at the same time the average passen- 
ger wants to travel in an attractive looking conveyance. 

The cost of brightening up the appearance of our roll- 
ing stock is comparatively insignificant. It will give a 
road an individuality, will create a spirit of pride and 
loyalty among employes and will attract passengers. 
There is a tendency towards more of the old-time finish. 

Successful Smoke Washing 

The problem of doing away with the smoke from a 
roundhouse is one of increasing importance in large cities, 
especially if the house is located near or in a residential 
section. In the past some attempts have been made, with 
more or less indifferent results, to wash the smoke in 
cases of this sort and at present a number of installations 
of this character are being tried out. The Pennsylvania, 
for instance, has been working on smoke elimination at 
its Allegheny engine house for some time. 

One of the most interesting installations along this line 
is that at the Englewood roundhouse, at Sixty-third street, 
Chicago, on what is now known as the New York Cen- 
tral. This installation, which has been previously de- 
scribed, has now been in operation for over a year and is 
proving very satisfactory. When first installed, consid- 
erable difficulty was experienced by corrosion of metal 
parts, especially those which came in contact with moist- 
ure. These have been replaced with wood, which works 



April, 1915 

very satisfactorily. Even the stack for carrying away 
the steam has been made of wood. The smoke is forced 
through six or eight inches of water held in a concrete 
tank and the corrosive action was found to be such that 
even the concrete commenced to disintegrate. Accord- 
ingly the tank was lined with wood, which it appears is 
well adapted for this work. 

The black soap-like scum is skimmed off the water 
twice a day, and is dried to a powder in a box containing 
steam coils. It is then placed in paper sacks and the 
mechanical department now expects to find a market for 
it as lamp-black. The astonishing feature is that five 
barrels of this dried and powdered smoke are collected 
every day. the roundhouse being only a little over a 

Xow when it is considered what five barrels of this 
black powder would do to a neighborhood if scattered 
around every day of the year, it must be conceded that 
this smoke washing plant is a success. A man who lived 
in the vicinity came to the roundhouse a short time ago 
and asked the foreman what they were doing, saying that 
things had been exceptionally clean around his home in 
the past year and he had not seen any smoke. The fore- 
man then showed him the smoke washing apparatus and 
the work it did, whereupon the visitor said, "Well, I 
never would have believed it : I'll never say anything 
against the Lake Shore as long as I live." 

There are, of course, comparatively few localities where 
a smoke washing plant is needed or required, but where 
this is the case it is usually badly needed. It has been 
demonstrated that such work can be done successfully 
and it now appears that even smoke can be converted 
into money. And when the people who live nearby begin 
to feel as did the visitor to the Englewood roundhouse, 
the railway in question has gained friends, which is some- 
thing every road can afford to cultivate. 

the medium of a general association should prove a great 
help to the Master Car Builders' Association. Further- 
more, the spirit of co-operation induced by the monthly 
meeting of the local association tends to cause all to work 
together in greater harmony. 

The working out of the suggestion referred to would 
not be a difficult task, as the general groundwork is readv 
for it. There is already a general association which would 
exactly fit into the plan, namely, the Chief Interchange Car 
Foremen's and Car Inspectors' Association. This asso- 
ciation has been doing admirable work and its recom- 
mendations to the Master Car Builders' Association have 
in many cases been adopted. The formation of local 
branch clubs would still further strengthen this organ- 

There are already strong local associations at Chicago, 
St. Louis. Buffalo, Cincinnati. Toledo and possibly at other 
points. Nearly all members of these associations belong 
to the national association and the working out of the 
suggested plan would simply mean bringing all these into 
closer harmony and getting a working basis for making 
recommendations for changes in tbe rules. 

This plan would strengthen all the bodies involved and 
would greatly simplify the work of the arbitration com- 
mittee by eliminating a large number of recommendations, 
many of which are often nearly identical. Last but not 
least it would bring all the car men of the country into 
closer working harmony, which could only result in a 
better and fairer interpretation of the rules. 

Car Men's Associations 

There has been a marked increase of interest on the 
part of car foremen, inspectors and repair men, in getting 
together and discussing topics of mutual interest of late. 
Two or three car men's associations have been formed at 
leading centers and others are contemplated. One of our 
readers suggested in last month's issue that such asso- 
ciations be formed in all cities where interchange of 
cars take place and that these in turn be members of a 
general association, mentioning among the advantages 
that such a plan would eliminate a large number of rec- 
ommendations as to changes in rules which now come to 
the Master Car Builders' Association from many indi- 
vidual organizations. 

In general this suggestion contains considerable merit. 
In the past, car men in different sections of the country 
have placed varying interpretations on some sections of 
the rules and this plan would serve to bring them even 
closer together than they are at present. The car fore- 
men, inspectors and repairmen are actually on tbe job 
every day and therefore they are in a position to make 
valuable suggestions which when boiled down through 

Advantages of Good Lockers 

Practically all shops of modern construction are 
equipped with sanitary lockers and improved toilet facil- 
ities for the workmen, as it is recognized that they art- 
essentials of good organization. The employee who is 
made to feel that his surroundings are being made more 
healthy and agreeable is going to go about his work 
cheerfully, and as a consequence will be a better work- 

Good clean steel or wood lockers tend to make em- 
ployees take better care of their shop clothing and of 
themselves. In a shop where no locker provisions are 
made, often old grease-soaked overalls will be stored 
away under benches or in drawers, thus increasing the 
fire hazard, in addition to the general effect on the men. 
Very frequently, also, shop tools will be found in the 
pockets of these discarded garments or wrapped up in 
them. In a shop with no locker system, each workman 
gets a box, a cupboard or a drawer for keeping his 
things, and these places usually contain a varied assort- 
ment of junk. With a locker system, these things can 
be done away with and the building given a general 
housecleaning. Furthermore, considerable time will be 
saved during working hours, for with individual lockers 
set apart from the shop, there will not be the tendency 
for workmen to find occasion to visit them. Xo lockers 
means dirty and torn shop garments, which undoubtedly 
increase the chances for injury. 

April, 1915 




Daniel Willard, president of the Baltimore & Ohio, 
made the following suggestion in a recent address before 
the students of Dartmouth College : 

"The Interstate Commerce Commission should be en- 
larged and reorganized and its powers so broadened that 
it may be able to deal promptly and effectively with the 
various matters under its jurisdiction. It is not able to 
do so at the present time. The Interstate Commerce law 
as it is today reflects the influence in the past of a nation- 
wide demand upon Congress to enact a law or laws which 
should primarily be sufficient to protect the public from 
the assumed greed of the railroads, and to that end the 
commission has been given the power among other things 
to order rate reductions and to prevent rate advances. 
It is right that the people should be protected from the 
selfishness of the railroads, but it is equally important 
that the railroads be protected from the unreasoning de- 
mands of the public. The commission should be given 
the power to fix the minimum as well as the maximum 
rate which the railroads may charge. It should be kept 
in mind that the demands of the growing commerce in 
this country make necessary an annual expenditure by 
the railroads for additions and betterments of not less 
than $750,000,000. If those having money to invest lose 
confidence in the stability of railroad securities, that fact 
is immediately reflected in reduced railroad expenditures 
for additions, betterments and equipment. Such ex- 
penditures at the present time I believe are at the lowest 
point reached in the last fifteen years, and much below 
the amount necessary to maintain the existing standards 
of facilities and service, and while the European war has 
had some effect, the situation was very serious before 
the war broke out and reflected in no small degree the 
results of our general policy of railroad regulation, par- 
ticularly during the last ten years." 

down the line ; the trackman will not put off until tomor- 
row the small job on that piece of track to bring it up 
to the required standard ; the shop man will not take 
the chance of causing an engine failure by throwing his 
work together hurriedly; the car repairer will not pass 
by that missing box bolt nut, thereby laying the car liable 
to derailment and resultant delay. Each and every em- 
ployee will be on the alert for an opportunity to further 
the company's interest, increase its revenue and cut down 
the cost of operation, because he has ceased to be a cog 
of a wheel within a wheel and feels that he has a busi- 
ness of his own. 

When general managers are trying every means pos- 
sible to promote efficiency, why not adopt this plan and 
efficiency will then promote itself. The foregoing did 
not originate in the mind of the writer by any means but 
it is the goal toward which the minds of all practical 
railroad employees are now centered. Chief Clerk. 


Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

The writer has been in railway service on one of the 
large trunk lines of this country for the past nine years 
in the mechanical and transportation departments, per- 
forming the work of a sub-official in both departments 
in capacity of chief clerk. After careful study and de- 
liberation of the situation it is my opinion that the lack 
of co-operation on the part of the railway employees 
can be directly chargeable to the railways themselves for 
not making the employee a co-partner in the business. 

Quite recently the largest telephone company in this 
country published the fact that its stock would be sold 
to its own employees, allowing them to pay for same 
in monthly installments from their earnings, charging in- 
terest on the unpaid balance and at the same time paying 
the employee a dividend on the amount of stock held by 
him. Does it not stand to reason that such an employee 
would feel that he was a personal unit in this company's 
business and would he not put forth greater effort to 
further the interest of his company, knowing at the same 
time that he is building up his own business? Most 

Then why would the same plan not work with the rail- 
ways ? Instead of selling their stock to outside and for- 
eign capital, sell it to the employee, make him a partner 
in the business, thereby cementing the organization to- 
gether as one unit. 

It is nothing more than natural that any man will work 
to his own interests at all times. "With the train dis- 
patcher a stockholder he. will use every effort to avoid 
holding his trains on sidings for hours in order to ac- 
complish a "meet" that could have been executed further 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

Regarding the criticism of Mr. F. von Bergen in your 
March issue relative to my article which appeared in the 
January issue on a "Substitute for Files in Air Brake 
Work." I am inclined to believe that Mr. von Bergen 
missed the point, like the boy that went to a lecture on 
tuberculosis and on returning home was asked by his 
mother what the subject of the lecture .was, replied: 
"Why it was something about two-bugs-and-a-locust." I 
think Mr. von Bergen made his test with emery cloth 
(if he made any) with a prejudiced mind. Emery cloth, 
if used in place of a file as described in my article, will 
not cause any trouble on account of particles of emery 
becoming imbedded in the brass, as this does not occur. 
In fact the action of the emery is the same as if a file was 
used. It is well known that pure emery is a remarkably 
tough abrasive, yet has an excellent fracture and is of 
sufficient hardness to give a fine finish. 

As brass is a much softer material than the hard and 
sharp crystals of emery, a nice neat cut is obtained by 
using emery for filing, such as could only be secured by 
the use of a new special square file of very fine cut teeth. 

However, such fine cut files do not hold their cutting 
efficiency very long and have to be cleaned after every 
stroke or two. Years of experience has taught us that 
the life of such a file is gone after filing the slide valve 
seats of about 30 triple valves. If coarser files are used 
the grinding in of a slide valve requires too much time. 
I cannot understand how anybody can use the same file 
for years, as my critic states. 

For the last four years we have been doing all our 
grinding in of slide valves with a machine of our own 
design. We had remarkable success with this, cutting 
down the time of labor 95 per cent. But since November 
of last year we have been facing or filing slide valve seats 
also by machines, using emery cloth in place of files. I 
will submit a description of this grinding and filing or 
facing machine in the near future. 

The chief advantages of an emery cloth file over special 
square files are : First, the repairman has at all times 
the equivalent of a new file with which to do the work, 
one little strip of emery cloth being used to file the seats 
of about four slide valves, except the "L" type of triples, 
which require more filing ; second, the work can be done 
quicker and the emery cloth can easily be cleaned by 
blowing a jet of air against it; third, a saving in both 
labor and materials is effected. 

My critic asserts that in some shops he visited, a heavy 
grease was being used to stop the slide valve from leak- 
ing. Any air brake man should know that the seat and 
face of the slide valve should only be lubricated with 



April, 1915 

high grade of very fine dry graphite, as this material 
was found on extensive tests to give the best service. 

It appears from Mr. Von Bergen's remarks that some 
roads do not follow up the recommended practice of 
the Air Brake Association, which reads that "Triples in 
which packing rings are to be renewed, slide valves or 
graduating valves renewed or faced, if the latter are of 
the slide valve type, should be sent to a central point or 
general repair station for repairs." 

The road with which I am connected does not allow 
inexperienced men to do triple valve repair work. Air 
brake work, and more particularly, the triple valve re- 
pair work, is kept up to an efficiency equaled only by 
the best roads in the country. Our management has 
never spared neither time nor money to provide every 
means to do this important work systematically, effi- 
ciently and economically. We have specialized every 
branch of it. 

As to undesired quick action, the Central of New 
Jersey is running 365 passenger trains out of Jersey City 
terminal every 24 hours, having some 700 passenger cars 
in service. All trains are equipped with the high speed 
brake, carrying no lbs. train line pressure. Yet on 
all these cars we remove an average of only four triple 
valves a month on account of undesired emergency appli- 

I wish to invite my worthy critic to visit our shops 
and investigate our method at first hand. If he will 
accept the invitation we will yet convert him to use 
emery cloth as a substitute for files. 

Frank J. Borer, 
Foreman Air Brake Dept., C. E. E. of N. J. 


One of the great American railway systems, the Penn- 
sylvania, has published a "record," which among other 
interesting facts reports that its shareholders number 
92,225. Nearly half, 44,469 to be explicit, are women. 
More than half are residents of Pennsylvania and other 
states directly served by the system. 

In public discussion we talk freely of "the railroads" 
having in mind either soulless legal entities or more or 
less ruthless and malevolent groups of rich men. We 
very seldom think of the railroads as properties into 
which our neighbors, if not ourselves, have put money 
as an investment just as we may have put money into a 
house and lot or an insurance policy. 

This is natural, for when we think of bad service we 
direct our thought to the managers while the public 
evils developed in the history of American railroad stock 
manipulation have focused attention upon the piracy of 
would-be overmen of finance. 

When to divert this attention and evade punitive meas- 
ures malefactors have begged us to think of the stock- 
holder, the legitimate investor, of the widow and the 
orphan, the response has been, naturally again, a con- 
temptuous laugh. 

All the same the rights and interests of the stockholder 
should not be forgotten now or at any other time any 
more than those of the man or woman who has put money 
honestly in a business, a piece of land, or any other legit- 
imate enterprise. In the 443 operating roads of the 
United States the Railway News estimates there are 
456,231 shareholders, and probably the total including 
shareholders in leased roads would come to more than 
half a million. These are the owners of the railroads. 
In addition there are investors in railroad bonds who 
must number several hundred thousands. 

The Pennsylvania "record" gives the average holding 
of woman stockholders at 63 shares. As railroad shares 

are important investments of estates and insurance com- 
panies, the livelihood of widows and orphans is therefore 
in literal truth involved in these securities. 

For the wrongs done by high finance shareholders are 
as a class hardly more responsible than the general pub- 
lic. They have been betrayed by the unscrupulous 
manipulator, and sometimes their interests have been fur- 
thered without their knowledge by methods they would 
not have countenanced. But now we are passing out of 
the period of exploitation. The fight for public regula- 
tion resulted not only in the creation of agencies to pro- 
tect the interest of the public, or at least of the shipper, 
but it also educated railroad men in a policy respecting 
their responsibilities as quasi-public functionaries which 
is clearing away most of the evils of the public-be- 
damned era. 

Among the omissions of the late congress was legisla- 
tion to extend regulation over security issues. Yet rail- 
road financing and financial control are more scrupulous 
than they have been in some notorious instances in the 
past, and what is needed now is less talk of evils of the 
past and more fair consideration of the difficulties of the 
present. We have to take into account the interests of 
the shareholder, the employe, the shipper, and the general 
public. In the narrower sense these interests often clash. ' 
Underlying them all, however, is a substantial enduring 
community of interest in what we call "a square deal." 
To sacrifice the shareholder's interest means to smother 
investment in railroad enterprise and slowly paralyze our 
system of transportation to the inevitable injury not 
merely of the shareholder but of the whole country and 
every one in it. To mistreat the employe, to extort from 
the shipper, each exacts a penalty we all must pay. 

At this time the whole country is suffering with and 
from the condition of the railroads. It is a time for 
broad views and the burial of animosities, for fair play, 
and a constructive policy. — The Chicago Tribune. 

Exchange of Tools 

A recent visitor to a storehouse raised the question 
of the exchange of tools with the storekeeper, and it was 
found that the general storekeeper was called on each 
month by the car department for an unusually large 
quantity of Maydole hammers, that hammer being the 
standard for car repairing use. 

The question was raised as to what practice was fol- 
lowed in procuring the old hammer, or what was done 
to ascertain disposition of the new hammers issued. 

It was conceded that there was no way of checking up 
the issue of this particlar item, and it is thought to be a 
subject worthy of investigation, because it is a monthly 
expense which not only applies to this particular item of 
Maydole hammers, but many other articles. 

The storekeeper took the position that the name of the 
road was stamped on such hammers, as well as all other 
tools, and the loss through theft was practically un- 
thought of, yet there was no answer forthcoming as to 
the unusual consumption. The question of increased 
forces was gone into, but it did not account for the 
number required, and there seemed to be no means of 
knowing whether this particular tool lived out its use- 

Will some storekeeper tell us the actual practice in 
effect at this time, and explain to us so that we may 
show clearly for the benefit of others just how a check 
can be had on the issue of this particular tool from the 
time it is purchased until it finally reaches the destina- 
tion it should reach, namely, that of the scrap bin? — 
Railway Storekeeper. 

April, 1915 



Mikado Locomotives for the Georgia R. R. 

Engines with All Modern Appliances for Use in Through Freight 
Service Where Ten-Wheel Locomotives Were Previously Operated 

The Georgia Railroad has recently received from the 
Lima Locomotive Corporation three Mikado type loco- 
motives of heavy, modern design. These locomotives 
were designed and constructed by the locomotive com- 
pany from specifications prepared by F. O. Walsh, su- 
perintendent of motive power and equipment, and rep- 
resent the first engines of this type introduced on the 
Georgia R. R. 

The main line of the Georgia R. R. runs between 
Augusta and Atlanta, a distance of 171 miles. There 
are 146 curves, the maximum being three degrees, and 
the aggregate length of the curves is 57.20 miles. There 
is but seven miles of level grade. There are 131 ascend- 
ing grades with aggregate length of 96 miles, the total 
sum of ascents being 2,699 feet, and 113 descending 
grades with aggregate length of 68 miles, the total sum 
of descents being 1,786 feet. The maximum grade is 0.7 
per 100 ft. or 37 ft. per mile, uncompensated for curva- 
ture; that is the rate of 0.7 per mile is also over the 
curves, which would make the train resistance on 0.7 

be expected to aid greatly in the economic dispatch of 
the railway's usual business in cotton and fertilizers. 

A general plan of these locomotives is submitted to 
illustrate their peculiar features. It will be seen that 
they are strongly designed, with heavv frames well cross 
braced and with large piston valves to distribute the 
steam to the 2^" diameter cylinders. These valves are 
operated by the Southern valve gear, which is now quite 
well known in the district in which these engines will 
operate. This gear is neat in appearance and is re- 
ported to be quite effective. 

Chambers throttle valves have been applied with out- 
side connection and vertical lever. The auxiliary dome, 
just back of the main dome, is made in the shape of a 
manhole to admit of ready inspection of the boiler with- 
out taking down the throttle and other appliances. 

The Schmidt superheater is of the usual design with 
steam pipes and is made up of 36 elements. 

The frames are very heavily braced at the main 
pedestal and are equipped with Economy "Cole" patent 

Mikado Type Locomotive for the Georgia Railroad. 

grade on a 3 degree curve equivalent to an 0.82 grade on 
straight track. 

The design of these locomotives is entirely in accord- 
ance with modern ideas of a standard Mikado type loco- 
motive, which can usually be considered as one weigh- 
ing close to 220,000 lbs. on drivers, and having 63" 
diameter wheel. The railway company appreciated the 
necessity of modernizing this standard design, and there- 
fore included in its equipment superheaters, brick arches, 
pneumatic firedoors, power reverse gears, graphite cyl- 
inder lubrication, and other details. 

In addition to the other construction features, it may 
be noted that these locomotives are equipped with the 
"Economy" front engine truck and the "Austin" radial 
trailing truck, both of which represent the latest ideas 
in guiding and trailing devices for large locomotives. 
The tender is also carried on "Economy" tender trucks. 
which are the first introduced into this section of the 

The engines are so far in advance of anything yet in 
service on the Georgia Railroad that only the service 
results will give a good comparison as to their general 
economy in operation. The company previously oper- 
ated ten-wheel locomotives of quite modern size, having 
cylinders about 20" diameter. These engines will be 
used in through service over the company's lines and will 

box, the journal being 22" long, to overcome the pound 
that generally occurs at that point when a superheating 
device is used. 

The air brakes are served by two 1 1 in. Westinghouse 
pumps, discharging into reservoirs of 75.000 cu. in. 
capacity. Steel pilot beams are used at the front end 
and these are heavily reinforced by a cast steel filling 
piece which also acts as a guide for the engine truck 
center pin. 

All axles are of heat treated steel. 

The equipment includes electric headlight, with turbine 
located just in front of cab. 

The water supply is obtained by two Edna injectors 
discharging info a double top check manufactured by 
the same company. The strainers are of special design 
patented by the Lima Locomotive Corporation. 

The cab and running boards are of steel plate and 
the rear deck is of cast steel equipped with Economy 
radial buffer connection to the tender. 

The coal wetting device is supplied by the Edna Brass 
Manufacturing Company. The 9.000 gallon water tank 
is of water bottom construction and has a retreating 
collar of neat design. 

Designs for both engine and tender were prepared 
with the idea of producing an absolutely modern engine 
of neat and handsome lines, strongly constructed with 



April, 1915 









April, 1915 



a view to maximum service. The arrangement of trucks 
on both engine and tender should make these engines ex- 
ceptionally easy riders. 

A table of principal dimensions, proportions and ratios 
is submitted herewith. 


Gauge 4' 8y 2 " 

Service Freight 

Fuel Soft coal 

Tractive effort 53,200 lbs. 

Weight in working order 280,800 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 213,000 lbs. 

"Weight on leading truck 23,200 lbs. 

Weight on trailing truck 44,600 lbs. 

Weight of engine and tender in working order. . 454,800 lbs. 

Wheelbase — Driving 16' 6" 

Wheelbase— Total 35' 2" 

Wheelbase — Engine and tender 66' ll 1 /^" 


Kind Simple 

Diameter and stroke 27"x30" 


Kind Piston 

Diameter 16" 

Greatest travel 6" 

Steam lap 1" 

Exhaust clearance Line and line 

Lead 3/16" 

Valve gear, type Southern 


Driving, diameter over tires 63" 

Driving tires, thickness 3%" 

Driving journals, main, diameter and length. . Il"x22" 
Driving journals, others, diameter and length. . 10"xl2" 

Engine — Truck wheels, diameter 30" 

Engine — Truck journals 6"xl2" 

Trailing truck wheels, diameter 42" 

Trailing truck journals 8"xl4" 


Style Straight top, radial stayed 

Steam pressure 180 lbs. 

Outside diameter of first ring 82" 

Firebox, length and width 120%"x84" 

Firebox plates, thickness %"x 1 /£" 

Firebox water space 5" all around 

Tubes, material and thickness Steel No. 11 BW 7 G 

Tubes, number and outside diameter 275 2" 

Flues, material and thickness Steel No. 9 BWG 

Flues, number and outside diameter 36 5%" 

Tubes and flues, length 20' 6" 

Heating surface, tubes and flues 3,975 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox and arch tubes 262 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total evaporative 4,236 sq. ft. 

Superheating surface 865 sq. ft. 

Equivalent heating surface 5,533 sq. ft. 

Smoke stack, diameter 19" at choke 

Smoke stack, height above rail 15' 5" 


Frame, type Steel channels 

Wheels, diameter 33" 

Journals, diameter and length 6"xll" 

Water capacity 9.000 gals. 

Fuel capacity 13 tons 


Weight on drivers -5- tractive effort 4 

Total weight -=- tractive effort 5.28 

Tractive effort X diameter drivers -r- equivalent heating 

surface 600 

Evaporative heating surface -4- grate area 60 

Firebox heating surface -j- tubes and flue heating surface. . 6.6% 

Weight on drivers -f- equivalent heating surface 38.5 

Total weight -s- equivalent heating surface 52.7 

Volume both cylinders, cubic feet 19.86 

Equivalent heating surface -:- cylinder volume 268 

Grate area -j- cylinder volume 3.54 

Preventing Accidents With Hand Tools* 

A Good Record on the Grand Trunk 

During January and February, 191 5, there were 
twenty-nine cases of injury to employes on the Grand 
Trunk and Grand Trunk Pacific. Only four of these 
injuries were at all serious, and probably not all of these 
four will be permanent. This is indeed a good record — 
3,000 miles of railway operated for two winter months, 
when weather conditions were unfavorable — with only 
four employes seriously injured. 

Small Tools Are Not Regarded as Dangerous as Machinery 
but They Often Cause Distressing Accidents 

Personal caution is the greatest safeguard, whether 
observed in the general and apparently important affairs 
of industrial life or applied to specific and seemingly 
trivial details. A spill from a 20-ton ladle of molten 
metal may cause a serious burn, yet a chip struck from 
the battered head of a 20-cent chisel may result in blind- 
ness to an employee. A defective weld in a crane chain 
may allow a load to "let go'' with disastrous conse- 
quences, while the use of a weak, cross-grained or splint- 
ered sledge handle may let the sledge fly across the shop 
and injure workmen who may be in its path. Consider- 
able injury may also be traced to the use of loose-fitting 
wrenches, splintered or broken shovel handles and to 
other uncared-for hand tools. The care of tools of this 
class as regards safety is discussed in a recent safety 
bulletin issued by the National Founders Association. 

The largest contributors to injuries in the latter class 
are chisels, punches, wedges, blacksmith's tools, stone- 
cutter's tools and similar small hand tools which are 
subjected to frequent hammer-blows, in consequence of 
which their heads become readily "mushroomed." A 
mushroomed head presents a dangerous condition, for 
the next hammer-blow may break off one of the slivers 
of steel hanging to the body of the tool and send it fly- 
ing through the air, with great risk of injury to the man 
handling the tool, or to others nearby. The remedy is 
well known, simple and effective. When the head of 
such a tool is found to be chipped, cracked or much- 
roomed, it should be promptly laid aside and not used 
again until the head has been ground down or dressed to 
its proper shape. A good practice applicable to cold- 
chisels and other tools that must be sharpened fre- 
quently is to grind down their heads every time the tools 
are sharpened, thus preventing the development of a 
mushroomed condition, at the same time retaining the 
hammer-hardened ends which will not spread so rapidly 
in the future life of the tools ; this practice also avoids 
much waste of the steel which would otherwise have to 
be cut off if the heads of the tools were re-forged. As 
a further precautionary measure, all steel hand tools that 
are liable to be struck by hand hammers or sledges should 
have the upper part of the shanks shaped round and 
slightly tapered from the top downward before they are 
used at all ; care should also be taken to make such tools 
of the right grade of steel, else the battered, overhang- 
ing portions of the tools will readily break off. 

The heads of chisels used in pneumatic tools are 
usually hardened and will chip easily when struck with 
an ordinary hammer ; such chisels should never be used 
in this way. 

The character of hammer and sledge handles and their 
method of fastening is worthy of more than passing 
notice. If not straight-grained or if the wood used is 
"short" in texture, it must be expected that such handles 
will quickly splinter and break ; if attached in a slip-shod 
manner, or if insecurely fitted, or if wedged by nails 
instead of wedges, or if the handle is watersoaked so as 
to swell and become only temporarilv tight in the ham- 
mer head, it is obvious that these ill-fitted handles will 
become loose, and that the hammers or sledges will fly 
off when the nails loosen up or when the handle dries 
and shrinks. When, it is recognized that the peculiar 
function of hammers and sledges is to strike blows with 
considerable force, it becomes clear that there is no 
economy in cheap but weak handles, and that all handles 

* An article in the January issue of Industrial Engineei ing. 



April, 1915 

should be carefully purchased and properly fastened in 

The use of defective file or screw driver handles also 
contributes to the sum of injuries caused by hand tools. 
When such handles are split the handle end of the file 
or screw driver is apt to be forced through the handle 
and puncture the user's hands ; when these tools are used 
without handles similar injuries sometimes result. The 
use of only the best handles is a safe as well as an 
economical measure. 

When smooth-faced hammers or hatchets are used for 
driving nails, the nails frequently glance and strike per- 
sons who are working in the vicinity. This danger can 
be minimized by the use of hammers or hatchets with 
their faces roughened. 

Wrenches are wrongly used and abused, sometimes 
because the management is over-economical, but usually 
because the employee is too lazy or impatient to secure 
the right wrenches for the job in hand. Solid wrenches 
that are too large for the nut or bolt-head are soon worn 
into a rounded shape that allows them to slip and bruise 
the workmen's hands, also spoiling the shape of the nut 
or bolt-head, which in turn presents an added risk of 
the same kind. Wrenches of the right size but worn 
beyond the possibility of giving safe and effective service, 
cause similar injuries. Again the remedy is simple and 
even economical ; the wrenches should be ground or 
milled to suit larger size nuts, or if there is too little 
stock left, they should be scrapped. Monkey wrenches 
or Stillson wrenches with bent jaws or worn adjusting 
parts, are also apt to cause injury by slipping; such 
wrenches should be repaired or replaced. Wrenches are 
cheap ; when in good condition they are not only safest, 
but do more and better work than the faulty variety. 

Another tool in common use which has contributed a 
large quota of accidental injuries is the pinch bar used 
to pry heavy bodies short distances or to "pinch" cars 
to a new position on their tracks. These tools are bound 
to slip occasionally, when they are apt to bruise or crush 
the user's hands. A disc attached to a pinch bar would 
protect the workmen's hands from injury if the bar 
should slip. This safety device also lends confidence to 
the user and thus promotes more rapid work. 

The rapidly growing use of electricity for power and 
light requires that workmen should be instructed to use 
proper tools when making adjustments on electrically 
charged apparatus. Screw drivers, pliers and other tools 
used for this purpose must be insulated. When the volt- 
age is more than 1 10, insulated tongs made of hard fibre 
or other non-conducting material should be provided for 
safely removing or replacing fuses. 

Some effective system should be adopted and carefully 
followed in each shop to prevent the user of improper or 
defective handles or tools. Only such handles and tools 
should be purchased or put into service as are safest and 
best for the purpose. Even these may in time become 
unsafe by wear ; it therefore becomes imperative that 
they should be inspected regularly and their safe condi- 
tion maintained. In shops where such tools are turned 
into the tool-room or stock-room every night the store- 
keepers can be instructed to re-issue only such tools as 
are safely fit for service. Where such tools are kept out 
for longer periods, the foreman or a sub-foreman in 
small shops, or a regularly appointed inspector in large 
plants, should see to it that defective tools are turned 
in promptly for renewal or repairs. In some plants the 
foreman or inspector condemns such unsafe tools by 
wiring a red tag to them. 

Furthermore, the danger of using defective tools 
must be impressed upon the workmen from day to 
day, for the matter will not take care of itself. 


The Western Society of Engineers held an electrifi- 
cation meeting on March 16, and the large attendance 
was favored with four papers covering some of the most 
important electrification projects in the country, namely, 
those of the New York Central, the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 
the Norfolk & Western and the Philadelphia terminal of 
the Pennsylvania. 

The Norfolk & Western electrification project was de- 
scribed by George Gibbs, of the firm of Gibbs & Hill, 
consulting engineers. This project is for heavy freight 
service through the Allegheny mountain district, the pri- 
mary purpose being to increase the capacity by increas- 
ing the operating speed. The line is double track with 
frequent long passing sidings and 60 per cent of the 
division is on curves. The east-bound coal traffic fre- 
quently amounts to 60,000 tons per day and at present 
the number of these tonnage trains is about 12 per day. 
With electrical equipment provision has been made for 
handling 20 trains per day. With steam operation it was 
customary to make up a train to a maximum weight of 
3,250 tons behind the engine. This train was handled 
with a Mallet road engine and a Mallet helper, and in 
addition a Mallet pusher up 1V2 and 2 per cent grades. 
These engines were compounded and fitted with stokers 
and superheaters and the trains were handled normally 
at a speed of from 7 to 8 miles per hour on grades. In 
electrifying, the single phase, alternating current system 
was adopted and three-phase motors were adopted for 
the locomotives, the required current being produced by 
a "phase converter." The electrical installation com- 
prises 29 route miles of track or 97 track miles with an 
overhead trolley operating at a voltage of 11,000. Twelve 
locomotives have been provided, weighing 270 tons each. 
They have a drawbar pull varying from a maximum of 
11,400 pounds during acceleration at 14 m. p. h. to 86,000 
pounds when operating at this speed uniformly on a I 
per cent grade. The locomotives are divided into two 
halves and have a length over all of 105 ft. 8 in., with 
a rigid wheel base of 11 ft. The heavy grade portion 
of this electrification from North Fork to Flat Top yard 
has been in operation a number of weeks and the results 
forecast an entirely successful operation. 

Mr. Gibbs also gave a brief description of the subur- 
ban electrification work of the Pennsylvania at Phila- 
delphia. The growth of the company's business has 
been such that the capacity of Broad street station has 
been reached and after carefully considering many plans 
it was decided to electrify the suburban lines, which 
would be equivalent to reducing the total number of 
trains for the station as a whole by about 8 per cent. 
It is estimated that the relief will take care of normal 
growth for about four years. The single phase, alternat- 
ing current system with overhead contact wires was 
chosen. The fact that the New York terminal is oper- 
ated by the third rail, direct current system was not a 
serious objection as the mercury arc rectifier has been 
thoroughly developed to take care of this situation. The 
route miles electrified are 20.3 and the track miles, 86.1. 
The number of trains per day both ways are 84 and the 
schedule speed, including stops, is 24 m. p. h. The 
project will be completed late in May. Mr. Gibbs' re- 
marks were illustrated by lantern slides. 

The electrification of the western lines of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul were described in a comprehen- 
sive paper by C. A. Goodnow, assistant to the president, 
who has this work in charge. An extended description 
of this project was given on page 15 of the January, 
19 1 5, issue of the Railway Master Mechanic. 


Edwin B. Katie, chief engineer of electric traction, patchers and engine watchers, as engines have to stand 
New York Central R. R., presented a paper giving some outside and consequently burn more coal, 
general cost figures and other data on the electrified The Federal boiler law has also increased our expense 
lines of that road. A large number of records show the as the attention of a boilermaker is required almost con- 
average cost of steam locomotives for all classes of stantly and a machinist and helper part of the time. I 
service to be about 26 cents per mile. Costs for elec- figure this item alone costs us from $75 to $100 per 
trie locomotives in New York City are about 21 cents month, and on every third month or quarterly test, it 
per mile. Adding fixed charges, however, the cost be- will cost about $45 more. The electric headlights cost 
comes 30 cents per mile for steam locomotives and 60 us about $75 more per month (this is of course labor in 
cents per mile for electric locomotives. These figures are the roundhouse) for their maintenance, and this cost 
only approximate and indicate the tendency. The aver- will increase as the generators grow older, 
age cost for maintenance of electric locomotives, includ- While the locomotive superheater has wonderfully in- 
ing inspection, repairs, renewals, cleaning and painting creased the efficiency of the locomotive on the road, it has 
for the past eight years has been around 3^4 cents per caused more expense and work for the roundhouse, al- 
mile. Multiple unit trains are used, with two motor though this little increase in the roundhouse expense is 
cars to one trailer. The maintenance cost per car mile, nothing compared to what it has done toward the saving 
excluding only sweeping and window cleaning, has aver- of coal and water on the road. 

aged less than two cents. The cost of maintenance of The standard safety appliances are required by law to 

the special protected third rail used has averaged about be applied to each locomotive by a certain time, and 

$26 per mile per month on the main line and $40 for most of this work falls upon the roundhouse force. It 

yards and terminals. The average total cost of current has also been required by law that all road locomotives 

delivered to the shoes of the equipment is about 1% in Wisconsin and Dakota be equipped with the electric 

cents per kilowatt hour. headlight, and this was done by the roundhouse forces, 

W. S. Murray, consulting electrical engineer of the which helped to increase the expense at this point. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford, presented a paper The changing of our lubricators from the tubular to 

on "The Advance of Electrification," extracts of which the bulls-eye, and changing water glass cocks and shields, 

are published elsewhere in this issue. are also items, the greater share of which was done in 

Many well known engineers took part in the discus- the roundhouse. All these things and numerous others 

sion and the meeting was a success in every way. have increased our expense in spite of the numerous 

■ things we have done in scheming and getting up devices 

Increased Roundhouse Expenses to overcome this increase. 

Some of the things we are doing in this line are the use 

Recent Regulations and Improvements Which Have Placed f kerosene instead of gasoline ; also by the use of a 

Additional Burdens on the Roundhouse, Together double hoop in tire changing they can be heated just as 

with a Few Efficiency Suggestions quick, thus saving the difference in the price of the two 

By W. S. Whiteford, Gexl. Fmn, C. & N.-W. Ey., Milwaukee, articles. The Markel devices especially the solid back 

After the engine has been turned out of the back shop end main rod, have reduced our expense at least 50 per 
and broke in, it is turned over to the roundhouse and cent in repairs and 50 per cent saving on metal. The 
the foreman is expected to get the required mileage removable driving box brasses, flangeless shoe and wedge, 
before going to the back shop again. It means a great also the lateral motion plates, have certainly been a great 
deal to him to get the engine from the back shop well help to the roundhouse. The electric and acetylene weld- 
repaired. For example, when an engine goes to the ing processes are doing a wonderful part in helping us to 
back shop and comes out with the work slighted, such reduce our expense. 

as journals in poor shape, driving box brasses loose in The roundhouse foreman should know his men and 

the boxes or on the journals or numerous other things know just what each one is best fitted for, as one man 

that are likely to be slighted in the back shop by the fore- may be better on a machine than he would be on the 

man who is anxious to get his output. The roundhouse bench or floor. 

will have trouble from the start and it will continue The work should be specialized as much as possible, 

until the roundhouse foreman is forced to take the engine one man to look after wedges, another to follow up the 

in and place over drop pit and make the necessary re- engine inspector and do all the work that the inspector 

pairs, which should have been done in the back shop, may find, and I will guarantee he will be kept busy. 

These things also go toward increasing the roundhouse Regular men should be assigned to running repair work, 

expense and reducing efficiency. dead work or shop work, machine work, injectors and 

There have been a great many improvements applied lubricators, air brake work, etc. Work specialized in 

to the locomotive of late, which have had a tendency to this manner will mean a great deal toward efficiency, 

increase the work in the roundhouse, although they have There should be an outside labor foreman with suffi- 

increased the efficiency on the road and elsewhere. For cient number of men to do the necessary work, such as 

instance, the power is much larger and parts heavier unloading of sand, wood, material and to keep the yard 

and more awkward to handle, but of course this has been and house neat and clean. He should also load the scrap, 

overcome to a great extent by special devices and jigs, but should not do so without the foreman, his assistant 

and by standardizing the parts. Incidentally I believe or some competent man to look same over and see that 

that one of the biggest savings a company can effect is no usable material is allowed to be hauled away. A 

to standardize locomotive parts. The power has grown large amount can be saved by watching the scrap bins. 

beyond the capacity of most roundhouses, but modern 

houses are being built as fast as possible and they reduce The Georgia commission has passed an order ap- 

expenses considerably. The old saying is, "You can't proving the general plans for the new union depot 

get blood out of a turnip," and it is hard to get efficiency at Macon. Ga., and has instructed the Macon Terminal 

from a roundhouse with but twenty or twenty-five stalls Co.. which is to build the new station, to submit com- 

and perhaps only half of these stalls large enough to ac- plete specifications to the committee not later than 

commodate a Pacific type engine, when you have from September 15, of this year. The terminal is to be 

100 to no engines to turn daily. This takes more dis- completed in twelve months from that date. 



April, 1915 

Results of the Boiler Inspection Law 

A Review of the Federal Lomomotive Boiler Inspection Work 
Shows Gratifying Results in Promoting Its Purpose — Safety 

By Frank McManamy, 
Chief Inspector, Locomotive Boilers. Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington, I>. C. 


A resume of the work of the locomotive boiler inspec- 
tion service during the three years and eight months since 
the law became effective shows results for which we have 
not one word of apology to offer. The following table 
shows in concrete form the inspection work performed 
each year since the passage of the law ; and the decrease 
in the percentage of locomotives reported defective indi- 
cates in a measure the improvement in conditions : 

1914 1913 1912 

Number of locomotives inspected 92,716 90,346 74,234 

Number found defective 49,137 54,522 4S,768 

Percentage found defective 52.9 60.3 65.7 

Number ordered out of service 3,365 4,670 3,377 

It does not, however, fully show the improved condi- 
tions resulting from the operation of the law, because, 
as pointed out in our 1913 report, our attention was first 
concentrated on the more serious defects, so that the 
number of fatalities might be reduced ; therefore, the 
improvement is more accurately indicated by the reduc- 
tion in the number of casualties, as shown by the follow- 
ing table : 

1914 1913 1912 

Number of accidents 555 820 856 

Decrease from previous year per cent 32.3 4.2 

Decrease from 1912 per cent 35.1 ... ... 

Number killed 23 36 91 

Decrease from previous year per cent 36.1 60.4 ... 

Decrease from 1912 per cent 74.7 ... ... 

Number injured 614 911 1,005 

Decrease from previous year per cent 32.6 9.3 ... 

Decrease from 1912 per cent 38.9 ... ... 

The data shown above is taken from the records up to 
July 1, 1914. A check of the first six months of the pres- 
ent fiscal year, that is from July 1, 1914, to January 1, 
191 5, in comparison with the corresponding period in 
the preceding year shows that during the period ended 
January I, 1914, there was a total of 349 accidents which 
resulted in injury, with 15 killed and 385 injured thereby. 
During the period ended January 1, 1915, there was a 
total of 253 accidents which resulted in injury, with 6 
killed and 271 injured thereby, or a decrease of 27.5 per 
cent in the number of accidents, 60 per cent in the num- 
ber of killed, and 30 per cent in the number injured by 
the failure of locomotive boilers and their appurtenances. 

Going back further and making a comparison with the 
corresponding period for 1912, we find that during the 
six months' period ended January 1, 1913, there were 470 
accidents which resulted in injury, with 24 killed and 512 
injured thereby. In other words, the number killed by 
failure of locomotive boilers and their appurtenances 
during the first half of our fiscal year which began on 
July 1, 1912, was \2 J / 2 per cent greater than for the cor- 
responding periods in the two following fiscal years, with 
almost as great a decrease in the number injured and 
the number of accidents. Or, to state the whole matter 
briefly, in three years the number killed by failure of loco- 
motive boilers and their appurtenances has been reduced 
from about 100 per annum to less than one-fourth that 
number, and the number injured from more than 1,000 
per annum to less than one-half that number, with a cor- 
responding decrease in the number of accidents. 

These are the direct results of the operation of the 
locomotive boiler inspection law, and indicate the manner 

* A paper delivered before the Western Railway Club. 

in which it is fulfilling the purpose for which it was 
enacted: namely, to promote safety. The question will 
no doubt arise as to just what the law has done to pro- 
duce such results. The results are due to a number of 
reasons, among which are more careful inspection, more 
prompt repairs and attention to minor defects, investiga- 
tion and classification of every accident that resulted in 
injury, with a view to determining the cause and remedy- 
ing it, and giving publicity to the information collected. 

No railroad man with a trace of honesty and a knowl- 
edge of conditions and practices prior to the passage of 
the law can question the fact that, generally speaking, 
inspections are now made more carefully and more regu- 
larly, and repairs are more promptly made, and further 
that the question of repairs is less apt to be determined by 
the number of loads in the yard awaiting movement, al- 
though unfortunately that is still occasionally considered 
to be the deciding factor ; an illustration being a recent 
request by a master mechanic to operate a locomotive 
with 43 broken staybolts a distance of 312 miles, because 
they needed the power. It must be admitted, however, 
that such instances are becoming more rare, although we 
still occasionally find a superintendent or trainmaster 
who, in spite of the fact that he is at the other end of 
the division, considers himself a better judge of the con- 
dition of a locomotive than an inspector or foreman who 
is on the ground, and orders it into service regardless of 
its condition. 

The importance of giving attention to minor defects 
can be shown by a single illustration. During the last 
fiscal year 18 persons were injured due to studs blowing 
out of firebox or wrapper sheets. The practice of repair- 
ing leaky studs by caulking, or permitting them to con- 
tinue in service without repairs, should be discontinued. 

I have recently had occasion to read very carefully 
statements made before Congressional committees at the 
time the boiler inspection law was pending, to the effect 
that all boiler explosions were really crown sheet fail- 
ures due to low water ; therefore, were man failures. In 
order to correct this misapprehension, attention is di- 
rected to the records of such accidents since July 1, 191 1. 

During the year 1914, as compared with 1912, accidents 
which are usually termed boiler explosions which resulted 
in injury have decreased 44 per cent, or from 97 in 19 12 
to 54 in 1914, and the number of killed and injured has 
decreased 64 per cent, or from 290 to 104. During the 
same period crown sheet failures due to low water de- 
creased 48 per cent, or from 92 to 48. I am directing 
attention especially to this class of accidents, first to 
show that the class of accidents which were said to be 
unpreventable have been materially reduced, and also be- 
cause our investigations have shown that by proper ap- 
plication and maintenance of boiler appurtenances they 
can be still further reduced. 

Rule 42 provides that, "Every boiler shall be equipped 
with at least one water glass and three gauge cocks. The 
lowest gauge cock and the lowest reading of the water 
glass shall be not less than 3 in. above the highest point 
of the crown sheet." While it may be a compliance with 
the letter of the law to locate these appurtenances where 
they can be most easily applied, regardless of their con- 


venience to the enginemen, it is manifestly not a compli- method of application is at least as cheap as brazing, 

ance with the intent of the law, and is not conducive to and defective or improper workmanship can be discov- 

safety, as an improper or inconvenient location may seri- ered by inspection, which is impossible with the brazed 

ously interfere with their proper use. A certain type of connection. 

locomotive has the water glass located directly behind In view of the statements occasionally made relative 

the engineer and entirely out of sight of the fireman. In to the expense to the carriers of complying with the Lo- 

other instances glasses are found so obscured by other comotive Boiler Inspection Law, it may be pertinent to 

boiler appurtenances or by an improper shield that it is inquire if proper entries are always made on the credit 

difficult, and under certain conditions impossible, to see side of the ledger and a trial balance taken. I will con- 

the water level. A recent investigation of a crown sheet fess that we do not feel ourselves competent to place a 

failure showed that the cab arrangement was such that value on human life ; but an estimate based on the average 

the water glass and gauge cocks were 9 in. above the en- cost to the carriers of an accident resulting in the loss of 

gineer's head and that he regularly carried a small keg a life multiplied by the decrease in the number of such 

to climb upon to try the gauge cocks. Can it be seri- accidents during the past three years will be at least as 

ously questioned that such conditions cause accidents, nearly correct as the average estimate of the cost of the 

particularly when operating in a busy terminal ? Using law, and will give a substantial item to start with. As 

a shield that obstructs the view of the water glass is also injured employees usually receive pay from the company 

too common. The manner of application is also impor- or compensation from the relief department for the time 

tant, both as to water glasses and gauge cocks. lost, an estimate of the saving from this source based on 

We also find that the manner in which gauge cocks and the decrease in the number injured would be another im- 

gauge cock drippers are applied indicates that the purpose portant item. 

for which they were applied did not receive sufficient There are other results, more or less indirect, but of 
consideration. While the application of a dripper is im- substantial benefit to the carriers, among which are a re- 
portant to prevent the discharge from the gauge cocks duction in the number of engine failures, as we have 
from scalding anyone in the cab, it should not be located numerous records of locomotive performance which show 
so close to the gauge cocks that the nipples extend down an increase of from 200 to 800 per cent in the miles per 
into the dripper, preventing enginemen from seeing the failure since the law became effective, which it is ad- 
discharge, as dripper pipes occasionally become obstructed mitted is largely due to improved conditions resulting 
and fill with water, in which event the sound of water from the stimulating effect of the law. A saving in fuel 
and steam are identical. is another result of the improved conditions brought 

Failure of injector steam pipes continues to be one of about by compliance with the requirements, among which 

the most frequent causes of serious accidents, and is the are prohibiting the use of fire plugs and providing that 

only one which shows an increase during the present boilers must be more carefully washed, and must have 

fiscal year over the corresponding period for the previous all scale removed when in shop for repairs, and that 

year. To bring out clearly the cause of these failures, leaks both in and outside of firebox must be kept down 

the following is a complete list of all that have occurred to the minimum. 

since July 1, 1914, and which resulted in 1 killed and 15 In this connection it is not out of place to state that 

injured, showing the cause of each: few, if any, railroad men realized the extent to which 

Ixjector Steam Pipe Failures, July 1, 1914, to March 1, 1915. the use of flue plugs had been carried prior to the passage 

1. Collar broke on right injector steam pipe, due to old crack G f the law. It is true their use was admitted to be gen- 

m o C °afJl • ,,„., ,, ~ . ! -, . „ eral, and our records of the bearings prior to the ap- 

I. Steam pipe to left miector blew off where brazed to collar. ' r , , , . , j 

;;. Injector steam pipe blew off; union nut broke while being proval of the rules contains numerous statements made 

tightened under pressure, due to defective nut and use of im- by prominent mechanical officers that a rule prohibiting 

proper tools for making repairs. the use of flue plugs would cripple their road. 

4 Threads stripped in injector steam pipe union nut while being Failure to properly wash and scale boilers is another 

tightened under pressure; nut too hjjht and threads badlv worn. ., , . , , r r j . 

5. Injector steam pipe blew off; union nut broke while being evil which has grown to alarming proportions, due per- 
tightened under pressure. haps to the fact that washing or scaling a boiler is among 

6. Union to left injector steam pipe blew off, fatally scalding the most disagreeable tasks around a shop, and is too 
fireman who was attempting to tighten it under pressure; spanner ft performed by incompetent or indifferent labor not 
nut too large. \ . J . T v . ... . . c ,1 

7. Steam pipe to left injector pulled loose at turret connection properly supervised. _ In addition to being one of the 
due to defective brazing and injector not properly braced. chief causes of leaking crown and staybolts, tests have 

8. Left injector steam pipe collar broke at injector throttle con- shown that J A in. of scale on heating surfaces results in 

tTsto n teak C1 ' aCk iU flange ° f C '° llar and wrapped with asbestos a loss of approximately 15 per cent of the value of the 

° 9. Injector steam pipe collar broke; defective collar. f ud ; therefore, clean boilers mean in addition to in- 

10. Injector steam pipe spanner nut broke while being tightened creased efficiency a saving in COSt of fuel as well as in 

under pressure. the cost of repairs. 

II. Spanner nut on injector steam pipe broke while being tight- While it mn not be doubted that the remarkable de- 
ened under pressure. Nut had been badlv damaged previous to Willie It can not De dOUDtea mat tne remarkdDie ae 
accident by use of hammer and set. crease in the number of casualties and the improved con- 

12. Injector steam pipe pulled out of collar; improperly brazed, ditions noted, as well as many others, are a direct result 

13. Spanner nut on left injector steam pipe broke while being f fa e operation of the law, I do not wish to be Ullder- 
tightened under pressure; due to use of improper tools. . < i • • 4.1, *. j.u„„„ u~ ~-~ „j.-*,:.,: ,♦-«,.:.,,» +u^ 

14. Injector steam pip^ broke at brazing l f tood as claiming that those who are admmi.temg the 

15. Eight injector steam pipe collar broke; defective collar. law are entitled to all credit for the improvement shown. 

16. Injector steam pipe collar broke; defective collar. Such results could not have been accomplished without 
The nine failures, four of which were due to poor braz- the co-operation of the railroad officers, which we have 

ing and five to collar or sleeve breaking, can, I believe, in a great measure received. However, co-operation does 

be prevented by extending the pipe through the collar or not mean that we should ignore defective conditions and 

sleeve and flanging or beading it, thus reinforcing the permit locomotives to. remain in service in violation of 

collar and reducing the strain on it, as the end of the pipe the law, and that will not be done ; it does not mean that 

itself will be solidly held in the joint ; therefore, it will attempts should be made to conceal defects by making 

carry the load. If properly applied in this way, brazing improper inspections or by certifying to reports which 

is not necessary, although it can be done if desired. This do not represent actual conditions. 


FACTORS IN SUCCESSFUL PIECE WORK* earning capacity, and will readily see that piece work is 

By E. J. Thill, Piece Work Foreman, N. Y. C. R. R. of S reat benefit to him. These are the results obtained 

under a proper piece work system and are conditions that 

The greater part of my railroad career has been spent appeal strongly to the operator, 
in the handling and supervision of piece work, and need- Right here, I want to ask, did you gentlemen ever stop 

less to relate, I have had my troubles, which is quite to consider of what little importance you are alone? 

natural with the installation of a piece work system. This How little you would amount to if it- were not for the 

is due to the fact that men will be found in all shops association and co-operation of others. What would 

who are adverse to the system. the tools and machinery of an institution or shop amount 

While I have never heard the term "piece work" de- to if it were not for the men in the ranks who operate 

fined, in my opinion an excellent definition would be them? 

"greater output per operator, at less cost per article, and In this sense a piece work inspector should take the 
greater earning rate per hour of operation." operator into his confidence and give him the considera- 
With respect to the day work system, I believe we will tion of knowing something. Show him how his earning 
all have to acknowledge that its tendency is to bring the capacity can be increased and how both he and the rail- 
superior workman down to the level of the inferior. This roa d company can be benefited. Then you will derive 
is virtually placing a premium on inefficiency and there- f rom the workman the full benefits accruing from co- 
fore is opposed to the attainment of desired results. operation. 

On some of the Western railroads they have a system I have heard the statement made frequently with re- 
in operation known as the "bonus system," whereby a spe ct to certain individuals who have gained recognition ; 
workman receives a bonus in addition to his daily rate "He was a good man, but could not handle them." He 
of pay. This bonus I understand consists of a part of had climbed the ladder of success, step by step, until he 
the increase earned by the operator by reason of an in- reached the point where he was put in charge of men, 
creased output, due to increased efficiency and diligence a nd there he stopped. He failed to strengthen that point, 
on his part. While this system may give better results ■ which resulted in his downfall. Therefore in striving for 
and bring better returns to the men than the day work advancement the matter of executive ability should not 
system, it does not seem possible that it will provide maxi- be overlooked. It is something you cannot learn at col- 
mum output per operator, minimum cost per article, and lege or from books. In order to become proficient in han- 
maximum earning rate per hour, per operator, such as dling men you have got to be out among them and under- 
would be attained under a proper piece work system. sta nd their failings and weaknesses. 

As regards the advantages derived from an efficient a thorough piece work system would give the shop 
piece work system, I want to make it plain that there superintendent every detail necessary to enable him to 
are three potent factors in the successful handling of know where he was at, in any department of his shop, 
same These are, respectively : Efficient piece work As regards getting the best possible results from an op- 
inspectors, peace of mind on the part of the work- erator by reason of his knowing that his record is known 
men, and a schedule that can be readily understood by to the management, that is also covered, 
the men, who might be lacking a little in ordinary educa- Every man working in a shop under a proper piece 
tion. work system knows that it is wise to study at all times 
Peace of mind on the part of the workman is absolutely ways to get his work out quicker, as he realizes he will 
necessary for him to do his best under any system. This be benefited thereby. That is to say, he is aware that 
should be considered ' in the light of the fact that the the shop superintendent and his foreman are anxious to 
piece work operator is often justly suspicious of the co-operate with him along these lines, and that he will 
piece work inspector. If there is one thing that will put no t be penalized for using his brains in having the piece 
a piece work operator out of sorts, it is the slightest wor k price cut, because by his increased output he is de- 
doubt as to whether he has received proper reimburse- creasing the cost of production. 

ment for his labor. Therefore a great deal depends on j n mv estimation, piece work can never be handled 

the piece work inspector, as the average workman is no successfully if the management will allow the prices to 

mathematician, and generally has an innate suspicion of be cut as soon as they become remunerative to the work- 

the piece work inspector, in that he is not reasonably sure marij G r in shop parlance, "when he lets himself out a 
that he has received proper returns for the work per- little in response to a tempting rate." Nothing is more 
formed. For this reason the piece work schedule should discouraging to him than this price cutting for no other 
be one that can be easily interpreted and understood, and reason than increased efficiency on the part of the op- 
combination prices eliminated. erator. Therefore it behooves the piece work inspector 
The other two factors in an efficient piece work system when making prices to use the utmost care and caution 
rest with the management, and make it possible for the to note the conditions under which the man is working, 
success of the one just described. Where men are put on piece work, the shop equip- 
Extreme care should be exercised by piece work in- men t should be of such design and quality as will offer 
spectors to see that the men are fully compensated for best results and should be kept up at all times, because 
the work performed, and in the matter of piece work the placing of a poor tool in the hands of a good work- 
prices, to see that the workman is rightfully compensated man i s j us t as improper as giving a good tool to one who 
under the conditions he is working, and that the company i s not proficient, for in neither case are the desired results 
obtains the desired results. A piece work price should accomplished. 

not be installed where in the vernacular of the operator, t want to emphasize the fact that where a shop is work- 

"the piece work inspector cannot back it up." In other j n g under a thorough piece work system, there is no 
words, he should never set a price under given conditions question about its efficiency, as in my opinion, piece work 
unless he can produce men from the working force who j s a synonym for efficiency. 
can demonstrate that the price is right and good for an 
increase of about 50 per cent or more over the day rate. 

Then should a workman question the fairness. of a price, The Norfolk & Western has prepared plans for a 

he can be shown that the same is productive of increased roundhouse, engine shop, turntable and railroad yards 

•A paper delivered before the Niagara Frontier Car Men's' Association. at HagerStOWll, Aid., it IS said 

April, 1915 




A signal event for the boiler industry and one that 
means much to the field of power production in general, 
was the completion of the report of the committee of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers to formulate 
standard specifications for the construction of steam 
boilers, and its approval by the council of the society. 

The work involved in the final revision of the code was 
one of the most strenuous and trying committee under- 
takings ever carried out in the history of the society. 
The work of revision began on December 15, 1914, and 
was carried on continuously without interruption until 
February 3, 1915, covering a period of nearly eight weeks 
of the most exacting and painstaking work. A notable 
feature of the final revision was the amount of research 
work involved, several series of tests having been carried 
out by members of the committee to check and establish 
the authenticity of the rules and formulae embodied in 
the code. 

The work of the committee was confined to rules for 
construction of steam boilers only. The result of the 
work of revision of the construction rules was the divi- 
sion into two parts, one for new installations and the 
other for existing installations, and following this was 
provided an appendix in which were placed the rules, ex- 
amples, illustrations, references and data that were in 
nature supplementary to the rules. As now laid out, 
the rules for existing installations cover all details of 
construction of new steam boilers and the rules for allow- 
able working pressures upon them, the details being re- 
ferred to in the following order : Materials of construc- 
tion, including the material specifications, maximum al- 
lowable working pressures, boiler joints, braced and 
stayed surfaces, combustion chambers, tubes, riveting and 
calking, manholes and handholes, safety valves, water 
and steam gauges, and fittings and appliances. At the 
end of Part I is a section devoted to heating boilers, in 
which the above order of subjects is also adhered to. In 
Part II, which is devoted to existing installations, the 
same order of subjects is followed, although less com- 
plete and exacting in details. The rules of course do not 
apply to boilers which are subject to Federal inspection 
and control. 

The code is finding immediate application. The state 
of Indiana is considering the matter and it is very prob- 
able that an amendment will be passed by the legislature 
rendering the former Indiana boiler code optional, with 
the proviso that the A. S. M. E. code may be used for 
boiler construction in place of the present state code if 
desired. The Ohio State Boiler Board has the new code 
under consideration and it is possible that it will be 
adopted in place of the boiler code now in force in that 
state. In Wisconsin the code will probably take imme- 
diate effect as a result of an action of the Industrial Com- 
mission of Wisconsin taken last year looking forward 
to the A. S. M. E. code before it was completed ; while 
a preliminary set of boiler rules were put into effect in 
that state the first of this year, provision was made for 
their replacement by the A. S. M. E. code as soon as fin- 
ished. Copies of the code may be obtained from the 
secretary of the society, 29 West 39th street, New York, 
at 80 cents per single copy or 30 cents per copy in lots of 
1,000 to 2,000. 

The original members represent the exceptional wis- 
dom and foresight of the officials of the society in their 
concern that all the various branches of the industry 
should be represented. John A. Stevens, a consulting 
engineer of extended power plant experience, who was 
appointed chairman, offered the advantages of his expe- 
rience in formulating the Massachusetts code, the first 
state boiler code that wa.s put into effect in this country. 

R. C. Carpenter and E. F. Miller, professors of engineer- 
ing, came as representatives of the steam boiler users; 
E. D. Meier and Richard Hammond brought in the fund 
of experience that only long experience in boiler manu- 
facturing rendered possible; Chas. L. Huston was par- 
ticularly valuable to the committee as a manufacturer of 
steel boiler plate and an investigator in the scientific 
manufacture of iron and steel plate, and Wm. H. Boehm, 
an insurance engineer, brought to the committee valuable 
suggestions as a representative of the field of boiler in- 
spection and insurance. 


By Chas. Mabkel, Shop Pun., C. & N.-W. Ky., Clinton, Ia. 

A large number of shop and engine house repairs in- 
volve removing only the steam pipes, which leaves the 
nigger head in place at the front of the flue sheet. The 
illustrations show a very handy home-made jig that 
is considered a time and money saver at the Clinton 
shops and engine houses. Before this jig was made we 
had to grind in the two nigger head steam pipe joints 
by hand and because of the close quarters it was very 
slow and hard work. 

By the use of the device shown the two rings are 
ground at the same time by the operator, who sits down 
and pulls the lever back and forth. The two rings are 
held to the star-shaped piece by four setscrews, the 
"star" being squared through the center to fit loosely on 
a square arbor, which arbor is threaded at both ends 
to receive nuts. These nuts govern the tension on coil 


Jig for Grinding in Nigger Head Rings 

24' : 


'tt'-*i Jap %' 

1 1 
1 1 


Of/*** U/i- 


2- Thus 

I- Thus 

Details of Nigger Head Jig. 



April, 1915 

springs, which hold the rings tightly in the nigger head 
during the grinding operation. 

The lever is squared at both ends and is placed on 
one square end of the arbor, being sprung apart suffi- 
ciently to go over the other squared end. When once in 
place for grinding it is not removed until the job is com- 
pleted. All that is necessary is to apply the oil and 
emery, which is done by pulling the ring back by hand 
against the tension spring. 

Interchange of Ideas 

The railroad business has got to that stage where there 
should be very little if any drawbacks as to fitting com- 
parisons between different lines, as to various operations 
in their shops, storehouses, and any other practices having 
to do with materials. Many times at our conventions, the 
committees have complained of not being able to find out 
what the other fellow is doing. There should be no 
secrecy of this kind under present day railroading, be- 
cause no matter how crude our methods may be. there 
is always a reason for it, and such reasons are worthy 
of consideration, and they receive the consideration that 
they merit in nearly every instance. 

The thin-skinned method of railroading is a thing of the 
past, and personality is left out of such considerations. 
Why should not any competent railroad official be at 
liberty to tell a co-worker in a corresponding position of 
his methods and practices, with a view of betterment in 
either case? One may have a method of doing certain 
work that he may be proud of. but why should he not 
be liberal enough to let the other fellow start along the 
same lines, or at least give him an opportunitv to pick 
his method to pieces ? We are the stronger for such 
criticism, and no matter how clear an individual may feel 
he is on a certain subject, there may be others competent 
to see a little further ahead, or a slight improvement, 
which if pointed out would broaden the original, make 
him a better man and advance his practices. 

Let us be liberal in our giving out of information for 
comparison's sake, as it is thought that we withhold many 

times through fear of criticism by our superior officers. 
In many cases this is found to be anticipated, and no such 
criticism would be forthcoming. If we have any special 
reason for feeling there would be any criticism, then the 
thing to do would be to lay before such superior, the 
actual conditions, he will soon set at rest or decide for us, 
whether such information should be given out or not. 
Then the question is settled. 

A great many having things of this kind in mind have 
never run it down to see if they could give out this in- 
formation or not. Do and help others while doing it. — 
The Railway Storekeeper. 

By W. H. Wolfgang. 

In the illustration is shown dies made of steel casting 
for drawing out stock from large to smaller sizes on 
steam hammers. The dies were designed with the center 
line of faces at an angle of 45 degrees, so long bars 
could easily be forged especially in cases where a small 
space was behind the hammer and also gave a greater 
working area on the surface of the dies. 

One inch holes were drilled in the end of the dies as 
shown to facilitate in the placing or removing the dies 
from the hammer and a %-inch steel pin was inserted 
in the holes. A crane chain sling with either a hook or 
ring is placed over the pin and it is easily handled with 
a crane. Also no chain will be in the way so as to allow 
the dies readily to be placed in the ways and the keyed. 

New Service to Coast 

The first solid through train ever operated between 
St. Louis and the Pacific Coast his been placed in 
service and is composed entirely of all-steel cars. It 
runs over the Missouri Pacific from St. Louis to 
Pueblo, Colci.. from Pueblo to Salt Lake City, Utah, 
over the Denver and Rio Grande and from Salt Lake 
City to San Francisco over the Western Pacific. 

Finish to suit 

hammer head 

Lower Die 
I- Required 
Steel Costing 

Taper rip 

Finiih to suit 
Die Bolster 

I- Required 
bteel Casting 

Dies for Drawing Out Stock on Steam Hammer. 

April, 1915 



Factors in the Heat Treatment of Steel 

Practical Points in the Handling of Tool Steel, with 
an Example of Furnace Design at Beech Grove Shops 

By Paul H. Cain, C, C, C. & St. L. R. R., Beech Grove, Ind. 

Carbon is one of the most important of the elements. 
It occurs pure in the diamond, and nearly pure as graph- 
ite or plumbago. It is a constitutent of all animal and 
vegetables tissues and of coal, and it also enters into the 
composition of many minerals, such as chalk and dolo- 

Wood, charcoal, coke and animal charcoal are more or 
less impure. It is this form of carbon in combination 
with iron that makes steel. The greater the percentage of 
carbon the harder and the more brittle the material, such 
as cast iron, which contains about .350 of one per cent in 
a graphic state, while tool steel ranges from .50 to .150 
of one per cent combined carbon. The ordinary steel we 
are working contains .08 to .40 combined carbon. It is the 
carbon that causes the steel to burn so easily in the fire, 
and the carbon that causes the steel to harden when cooled 
in water above a certain temperature, which temperature 
depends upon the percentage of carbon. 

Wrought iron which contains very little or no carbon 
will not burn so easily and will not harden. It is some 
other element than that which gives iron hardening quali- 
ties. Why do we purchase raw bone animal carbon or 
carbonizing compounds in which to case harden links, 
pins, bushings, etc.? The various methods of carbonizing 
are similar to the older method of making carbon tool 
steel by piling a bar of iron in a furnace, with a layer of 
charcoal between each bar, sealing the material or furnace 
so as to prevent the carbon gases from escaping and heat- 
ing to a fairly high temperature for 36 to 48 hours. While 
in this heated state the charcoal gives off carbon gases 
which the heated iron absorbs slowly ; the iron and carbon 
by combining furnish a layer of steel on the bars, just as 
you are making a layer of steel on iron links, pins, bush- 
ings, etc., by case hardening or carbonizing. 

Our practical experience gives us confidence and pro- 
ficiency in our line of work. If we have kept in touch 
with the various improved materials, and appliances and 
use them to the best of our ability, then our experience 
can be considered of value, not alone to us, but to the 
railroad company we are connected with. 

At this period of our existence, we must keep in touch 
with the progressive methods and apply them and recom- 
mend that which is necessary to the increased efficiency of 
machinery and material. 

The temperature desired for forging carbon steel is 
from 1300 to 1500 Fahrenheit, as it makes the metal 
softer and easier to work. Forging below 1100 has a 
tendency to create hammer strains. The grain or struc- 
ture of the forging will depend upon the temperature 
when finished. The efficiency of the material depends 
largely upon the manner in which it is reduced. It is not 
an unusual custom for a blacksmith when forging square 
sections, octagons, and rounds, if by testing with the cali- 
pers he finds they are considerably too large to rotate 
them between flat dies until they are reduced in size. If a 
light blow is exercised, he draws the outer metal, drawing 
it away from the center portion, causing severe strains be- 
tween the outer and inner core. This I would term piping 
the metal. In order to get the efficiency of the material it 
should be forged uniformly and at the proper tempera- 
ture. When the tool is forged it should be annealed, not 
only to soften for the desired machine work, but to re- 

lieve the tool of all hammer strains, and all crystalliza- 
tions due to the high temperature which may have escaped 
the ripening process during forging. 


Distortion of tools by bending or warping can be at- 
tributed to several causes. Improper heating, that is, 
some portion of the tool being heated faster than other 
portions, causes distortion by upsetting of the part which 
received the most heat. A tool may be improperly sup- 
ported or suspended in the furnace or fire, causing the 
tool to lag, or bend when its critical temperature is 

Distortion can also be attributed to unequal cooling, 
for, if one side or edge of a tool is cooled faster than an- 
other, the side that is cold will upset the opposite side. 
Iron and steel will expand about l /%" to the foot if heated 
to a red heat. In cooling one-half of the cross-section it 
will return to its normal length, and while contracting the 
compression is so great it will upset the heated portion in 
proportion to the amount of compression over the resist- 
ance of the heated portion. This is a very simple reason 
for shear blades bending edgewise when you cool the cut- 
ting edge in the water to harden, leaving the back portion 
of the blade hot so you can draw the temper for the de- 
sired hardness for the cutting edge. 

Tools should be immersed all over in such a manner 
that the edges and sides will cool at the same time, dipping 
them perpendicularly with no agitation for the permanent 
set and then drawing the temper. This will reduce all 
unnecessary hardness and brittleness. The unequal heat- 
ing and cooling of reamers, drills, taps, causes them to 
distort at the shank. Soft spots in hardened tool steel do 
not concern the toolsmith. as this phase of the subject 
belongs to the metallurgist or chemist. Nevertheless I 
feel that they are probably due to a bad mixture when it 
was poured, with some of its impurities segregating into 
spots, which only elongate in the hammering and forging. 
Heavy oxide scales on the surface will prevent the water 
coming in contact with the steel, thus leaving soft spots. 


To be successful in treating tool steels with the use of 
a pyrometer, we must work along fixed principles. 

First — The instrument should be supported free from 
vibration, and a sufficient distance from the furnace to 
maintain the temperature of the room. 

Second — The thermo-couples should be tested with 
some standard to see if they read correctly. Often you 
will find that they do not. A very simple method of cali- 
bration is by checking with melting of pure salt, which 
melts at 1474 degrees Fahrenheit. Accuracy can be ob- 
tained by using common table salt, the salt being melted 
in a clean crucible of iron, either in the forge fire, or fur- 
nace. Continue to heat it until a temperature of between 
1500 and i65o degrees Fahrenheit is reached. The cru- 
cible should be clean because a small amount of foreign 
substance might raise or lower the melting point. The 
thermo-couple should be removed from its protecting 
tube, and the "hot" end immersed in the molten salt. 
When this has reached the temperature of the bath re- 
move the crucible from its source of heat and allow to 
cool or freeze, and while cooling the reading can be taken 
every few seconds on the indicating instrument. By using 



April. 1915 






* i 








Time Minutes 

Fig. 1 — Curve Showing Critical Points. 

time and temperature, a curve is plotted and the tempera- 
tures of the melting point of salt, as indicated by the 
thermo-couple, is noted at the point where the tempera- 
ture of the bath remains temporarily constant while the 
salt is freezing. The temperature and the length of time 
depends on the size of the bath, and the rate of cooling, 
and it is not a factor of calibration. By reheating the cru- 
cible the salt will first begin to melt around the edges, but 
will take some time to melt around the thermo-couples. 
Just as soon as the hot end of the thermo-couples gives 
way from the frozen salt check the instrument and if in- 
dicating 1474 degrees Fahrenheit you can feel sure the 
calibration is correct. When heating a large tool or a 
piece of steel in a furnace, the "hot" end of the thermo- 
couples indicates the temperature, but must be given time 
so the heat may soak and become uniform throughout the 
furnace and metal. 


Everyone interested in the hardening of steel probably 
has noticed the increasing frequency with which reference 
is made to the decalescence and recalescence points of 

Brick arch in rear nail to 
foci/Hate the renewal 
of floor slob. 

Top mau be filled with 
fine clou flush with metal 
edge if desired 

2 — Oil Heating Furnace at Beech Grove Shops. 

steel, in articles appearing in technical journals. It has 
only been during the last four years that this peculiarity 
of steel has come to the front. The crude, rudimentary 
and obscure references in the treatises on hardening are 
of little value to the man in the hardening plant. The 
curve will illustrate clearly the "critical points" or the 
decalescence and recalescence. 

Fig. 1 shows a curve which can be taken on a recording 
pyrometer. From this it can be seen that the absorption 
of heat occurred at the point 733 C. on the rising temper- 
ature, and the evolution of heat at point 724 C. on the 
falling temperature. Unless sufficient temperature is pro- 
duced when the first action is reached, so that the pearlite 
carbon will be changed to hardening carbon, and if it is 
not cooled with sufficient rapidity to eliminate the second 
action, no hardening will take place. Steel containing 
hardening carbon heated above the temperature of decal- 
escence becomes non-magnetic. Anyone can demonstrate 
this by heating a piece of steel to a bright cherry red, and 
testing it with an ordinary magnet. While at a bright 

Section of Brickwork 
on line B-B 






Section of Brick Work 
on line A- A . 
3— Sections of OH Furnace at Beech Grove Shops. 

8i" 4- 3?"- 

Sectional Plan at 
Furnace Floor. 

April, 1915 



cherry red you will find it will have no attraction for the 
magnet, but at about a dark cherry red it regains its mag- 
netic attraction. This can be recommended where no in- 
stallation of pyrometers exists ; the only point is to exer- 
cise judgment in the length of time a tool or piece of steel 
should remain in the furnace. After it has become non- 
magnetic, this time can be varied with the cooling surface 
and according to weight and size, leaving very little to 
personal judgment, but it will not be relied upon to de- 
stroy granulation or crystallization of carbon steel. I 
would recommend a special electric furnace for the treat- 
ment of carbon and high speed steels. Electricity offers 
greater advantages. The electric resistance furnace, as 
built in various sizes, has a superiority over coal, coke, 
gas or oil-heated furnaces. The temperature of the elec- 
tric furnace can be accurately and easily regulated and 
held uniform at any point. The superior quality of work 
performed by this kind of equipment more than pays for 
the seemingly higher cost of operation. 

At the Beach Grove shops, one of the largest railroad 
shops in the Central West, H. D. Wright, general fore- 
man of the forge department, has installed an oil-heating 
furnace, from which we are getting efficiency and produc- 
tion with the use of a pyrometer. It can be regulated and 
maintained uniformly at any desired point or tempera- 
ture. Fig. 2 shows the construction of the furnace. A 
device or counterbalance is used for opening and closing 
the furnace door. Fig. 3 shows a section of the brick 
work and combustion chamber. 

The British Thermal Unit 

One B.t.u. is the quantity of heat required to raise 
the temperature of one pound of water one degree. As 
a gallon of water weighs 8^3 pounds, it requires 8^3 B. t u. 
to raise the temperature of one gallon one degree, or 16^3 
B.t.u. to raise the temperature two degrees, and so on. 

Thus, when a given coal is said to have a heat value of 
13,800 B. t. u. per lb., it is meant that if all the heat caused 
by the complete combustion of one pound of that coal 
could be transmitted to 13,800 pounds of water it would 
raise the temperature of that water one degree. Or, if all 
the heat could be transmitted to, say, 138 pounds of 
water, it would raise the temperature of that water just 
100 degrees, because 

138 X 100=13,800. 
The pound of water heated multiplied by the number of 
degrees the temperature has been raised equals the num- 
ber of B.t.u. The standard method of finding the heat 
value of a fuel is to burn a small sample of it in a tight 
steel bomb under water. The heat caused by the burn- 
ing of the sample is then all absorbed by the water and 
by multiplying the weight of the water by its rise in 
temperature and dividing by the weight of the sample, 
the heat value of the coal is calculated direct in B. t. u. 
per pound. Thus, if we burned a small sample weighing 
one five-hundredth of a pound in a bomb immersed in 
5 lbs. of water, and if the temperature of that water in- 
creased from, say, 70.4 degrees to 75.92 degrees, a rise of 
5.52 degrees, the heat value of the coal would be 


=13,800 B.t.u. per lb. 

0.002 — The Valve World. 

Mazda Lamps with Concentrated Filaments 

The distinctive features of the concentrated filament 
Mazda lamps of high wattages have proved so popular 
that the Edison Lamp Works of the General Electric 
Company has developed vacuum Mazda lamps of similar 
appearance in the 25, 40 and 60 watt sizes. This con- 
centrated filament construction gives greater vertical dis- 
tribution of light than the regular Mazda lamps. 

Changing Conditions of Train Operation 

Extracts from a Booklet of the Bureau of Railway Eco- 
nomics, Together with Interesting Figures on the 
Cost of Railway Legislation 

Until within a comparatively recent time trains were 
ordinarily made up at the point of origin by the same 
employees who subsequently handled them on the road. 
The trainmen switched the cars into place, coupled them, 
and did all the work necessary to prepare the train for 
its run, including the inspection of its condition before 
starting. Cars were coupled to each other and to the 
engine by the link and pin couplers. Brakemen had to 
carry links and pins to supply couplers lacking them, and 
to carry those unused back to the caboose or engine. 
Coupling was effected by hand, for which purpose the 
employees had to go between the cars. Trains were con- 
trolled entirely by hand-brakes, which had to be worked 
from the tops of freight cars and from the platforms of 
passenger cars. Practically all trains rendered local as 
well as through service — that is, they not only carried 
through traffic between large terminals, but also stopped 
at stations along the line to put off and take on goods 
or passengers. When a car was taken out of a train or 
taken into a train at one of these local stations, it was 
necessary to use the hand-brake in the switching needed 
to make the requisite changes. The work of trainmen at 
that time was hard and hazardous. The number of cars 
in a train was considerable. More than thirty years ago, 
before the introduction of air-brakes, it was the custom 
of many railways to handle regularly freight trains of 
forty cars or more with two brakemen. That is, the crew 
of a freight train, aside from employees on the engine, 
usually consisted of a conductor and two brakemen. The 
labor of controlling the train exposed the brakemen to 
all kinds of weather and involved strenuous physical 
exertion, for the application of hand-brakes sufficient to 
hold a train often required both strength and quickness 
of action. The brakemen had to spend most of their 
time on the tops of the cars, which in winter were often 
slippery with ice. Going between cars to couple by hand 
necessarily involved danger, so that accidents to train- 
men were numerous. Passenger cars were heated by 
wood and coal stoves, which it was the brakemen's duty 
to take care of. 

In 1868 the first successful application of air-brakes 
to passenger trains was made. In July, 1886, and in 
May, 1887, the Master Car Builders' Association held a 
series of competitive trials, with the result that the air- 
brake was found to be as adaptable to freight trains as to 
passenger trains. Its use in freight service was there- 
after rapidly extended. 

In 1887 the Master Car Builders' Association, after 
several years of investigation, recommended a standard 
type of automatic coupler. In 1890 the type that had 
become known as the "Master Car Builders' Freight 
Coupler" was recognized as standard by the railroad 
companies of the United States through their official 
organization, the American Railway Association. In 
order, however, to compel the adoption of a standard 
type of coupler by all of the railways of the United 
States, federal legislation was enacted. In 1893 trie Rail- 
way Safety Appliance Act was adopted. This law pro- 
vided that after January 1, 1898, it should be unlawful 
for any common carrier to use in interstate commerce 
any car "not equipped with couplers coupling automatic- 
ally by impact, and which can be uncoupled without the 
necessity of men going between the ends of the cars." It 
also provided that it should be unlawful for any carrier 
to use in interstate commerce any locomotive "not 



April, 1915 

equipped with the power driving wheel brake, and ap- 
pliances for operating the train-brake system, or to run 
any train in such traffic after said date that has not a 
sufficient number of cars in it so equipped with power or 
train brakes that the engineer on the locomotive drawing 
such train can control its speed without requiring brake- 
men to use the common hand-brake for that purpose." 
The law was amended in 1903 to provide that at least 50 
per cent of the cars in a train should be controlled by air- 
brakes applied from the engine, and the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission was authorized from time to time, 
after full hearing, to "increase the minimum percentage 
of cars in any train required to be operated with power 
or train brakes which must have train brakes used and 
operated as aforesaid." The commission subsequently 
increased to 75 per cent the proportion of cars in a train 
on which power brakes must be operative, and on Sep- 
tember 1, 1910, raised this minimum to 85 per cent. 

In consequence of these requirements, the use of auto- 
matic couplers and train brakes has become practically 
universal in the United States. For the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1912, 99.05 per cent of the locomotives and 
cars were fitted with train brakes and 99.67 per cent with 
automatic couplers. Today it is exceptional for a train 
to have any cars that are not equipped with air brakes. 

These improvements in equipment have had a far- 
reaching effect upon the work of railway trainmen. The 
engineer of a train, whether passenger or freight, is now 
its real brakeman and, save under exceptional conditions, 
sets and releases the brakes from his cab on the engine. 
The "brakemen," so called, seldom have anything to do 
with the brakes except on detached cars during switch- 
ing operations. Indeed, the term "brakeman" is now a 
misnomer and is being displaced in railway usage by the 
term "trainman." The general substitution of the auto- 
matic coupler for the old link and pin has changed the 
character of the trainman's work in coupling and un- 
coupling and has very greatly diminished the hazard. 
Indeed, railway managers claim that, if the trainmen 
comply with their instructions, the hazard is eliminated 
entirely. Formerly, when coupling cars, the brakeman 
had to stand between the cars at the moment of their 
coming together in order to guide the link into its place. 
This entailed great risk of having his hand crushed, as 
well as of being thrown down and run over. Xow, any 
necessary adjustment of the coupler can be made, and 
ought to be made, before the cars are put in motion to 
effect the coupling. Formerly, when uncoupling, the 
brakeman had to stand between the cars to remove the 
pin. Xow. the pin that locks the coupling can be re- 
moved by a rod extending to the side of the car. Thus 
during neither the coupling nor the uncoupling does the 
trainman need to stand between the cars. These changes 
apply to both freight and passenger cars. How greatly 
they have reduced the hazard of coupling and uncoup- 
ling cars is indicated by the following table: 

Casualities to Trainmen from Coupling Accidents 1890 

and 1913. 

Number Number 

killed injured 

Total for each for each 

number of Total Total 10,000 10,000 

Year. trainmen. killed. injured, trainmen, trainmen. 

1890 153,235 265 6,073 17 396 

1913 339,600 184 3,293 5 97 

In addition to the changes in their work directly re- 
sulting from the introduction of air-brakes and auto- 
matic couplers, there have been other modifications in 
the duties of trainmen which may be briefly noted. In 
the first place, the train crew as a rule no longer makes 
up and inspects the train at terminals. Switching crews 
now make up all trains at all important points of origin 

and, after they have been inspected by inspectors em- 
ployed for that purpose, deliver them to the train crew 
ready for operation. The train crew has no more to do 
with the preparation for the run than to test the brakes. 
At the end of the run the train crew has only to deliver 
a train to the switching crews, which separate the cars 
for further disposition. It may also be noted that the 
work and responsibility of freight conductors en route 
has been lightened by the present practice whereunder a 
yard clerk furnishes them a statement of the cars in 
the train, with the respective destinations, from which 
the conductors check off each car as it is set out and to 
which they add other cars as they are picked up. 
Formerly, the conductors had to prepare these state- 
ments of the cars composing the trains. 

Again, the trainman's duties on passenger trains are 
less arduous because passenger trains are now almost 
universally heated with steam or hot water from the en- 
gine, and the trainman has only to regulate the degree 
of heat. The gradual displacement of the oil lamp by 
gas and electric lighting has relieved the trainman of 
many former duties. 


Coincident with the development of safety appliances 
on trains, there has been a steady and rapid increase in 
the length and load, particularly of freight trains. Gen- 
erally speaking, transportation is conducted most 
economically when traffic is handled in the largest units. 
The larger the loads per car and per train, the less the 
relative investment that must be made in roadway, track 
and equipment, and the less the relative expenditures that 
must be made for maintenance of way and equipment, 
and for conducting transportation. 

Faced with steadily increasing expenditures for wages, 
materials and taxes, with revenues from the transporta- 
tion of freight and passengers not increasing at nearly 
the same rate as expenses, the _ railways have found it 
necessary to practice economies in operation. The great- 
est economies have been secured by increasing the num- 
ber of tons hauled per train, and by increasing the 
amount of traffic handled in proportion to the number of 
men employed. The extent to which, in their efforts to 
handle traffic economically, the railways of the United 
States have increased their trainloads is indicated by the 
fact that the average number of tons per train in this 
country in 1890 was 175 : in 1900. 271, and in 1912, 407. 
In the region of heaviest traffic, that comprising in gen- 
eral the States of Xew York, Pennsylvania, Xew Jersey, 
Delaware and Maryland, the average number of tons per 
train increased from 218 in 1890 to 502 in 1910. On 
some lines the average trainload exceeds 1,100 tons: 
trainloads of minerals ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 tons 
are not uncommon, and sometimes a train has as many 
as 6,000 tons. These heavy increases in trainloads have 
been effected very largely by increasing the capacity of 
cars and their loading, and by increasing the number of 
cars in a train. The average capacity of a freight car 
in this country increased from 28 tons in 1902 to 37 tons 
in 191 2. Loaded freight trains often contain 50 to 75 
cars, and trains containing even larger numbers of empty 
cars and exceeding a half mile in length are run not in- 
frequentlv in some parts of the countrv. 

There has been no such corresponding increase in the 
length of passenger trains, although passenger trains on 
main lines are somewhat longer than they were in past 
years. Often 12 to 16 and even more cars are pulled by 
a single engine ; the passenger cars have increased in size 
and especially in weight. 

With this increase in car loading and train loading 
there has been a decrease in the number of men required 
to handle a given amount of traffic. It has not, however. 

April, 1915 



been accompanied by a decrease in the total number of 
trainmen, for, as is shown later, their number increased 
from 1901 to 1912 at a greater rate than the car mileage 
or the train mileage. 


It is obvious that an increase in the number of men in 
a train crew means an increase in the operating expenses 
and, unless accompanied by a corresponding increase in 
the traffic per train or in rates, means a decrease in net 
operating revenues. The railways are reporting to the 
special committee on relations of railway operation to 
legislation careful estimates of the additional expense 
resulting from operating legislation already enacted. On 
January 26, 1915, the committee made public the follow- 
ing compilation of replies received by it from 166 rail- 
ways, operating 204,610 miles of line, regarding the ex- 
pense caused them in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, 
by legislation, both Federal and State, affecting opera- 
tion : 

Cost of Legislation" Affecting Railway Operation — Summary 
of Replies of 166 Railways, Operating 20-1,610 Miles. 

Cost of Compliance. 
Federal and State Laws. Amount 


Year ending Total to to complete 

June 30. 1914. June 30. 1914. (estimated). 

Hours of service $ 5,013,345 

Full (extra) crew 4,051,533 

Boiler inspection 4,141,051 

28-hour stock law 247,119 

Semi-monthly pay-day 826,586 

Safety appliance ,. . . .5,965,926 $23,845,436 $19,588,408 

Postal car requirements. . . 890,907 4,391,531 3,129,670 

Ash pan 86,818 2,017.562 165,073 

Headlight 1,002,840 2,635,294 624,966 

Caboose 597,206 949,029 2,614,406 

Jim Crow 29,623 659,380 1,468 

Other enactments 2,785,850 12,852,649 96,684,127 

Specific orders, State Com- 
missions 3,065,179 

Total $28,703,983 $47,350,881 $122,808,118 

Number Persons Property 

Killed. Injured. Total. Damage. 
Collisions where third brakeman was 
employed, year ending June 30, 
1914.' ' 30 641 702 $411,228 

It will be seen that the total expense caused by operat- 
ing legislation in the fiscal year 1914 to the railways 
reporting was $28,703,983. This would pay a return of 5 
per cent on an investment of $574,000,000. The total ex- 
pense caused by the extra-crew laws was $4,051,533. 
This would pay 5 per cent on an investment of over 
$80,000,000. This estimate applies to the expense to the 
railroads on account of train-crew laws enacted in only a 
limited number of States. The full effect can be seen 
only from estimates that apply on account of all such 
laws to all the railways in the United States. Four train- 
crew bills were introduced in Congress in 1909 and 19 10. 
The special committee on relations of railway operation 
to legislation made inquiries early in 1910 of all the rail- 
ways as to the cost to them of complying with these Fed- 
eral bills, if enacted, as well as the expense they were 
being put to on account of State legislation then in force 
in 13 States. The following table is a summary of the 
replies received : 

Estimate of 1910. 


of additional 

annual cost of 

compliance with 

Number. Mileage. full-crew bill. 

Roads replying 166 205,547 $18,328,302.32 

Estimated for other roads ex- 
clusive of Canadian and Mex- 
ican roads 126 23,254 1,953,336.00 

fireman, a conductor and three brakemen, "regardless of 
any modern equipment of automatic couplers and air- 
brakes." This bill made no reference to passenger-train 
crews. As a result of inquiries made of the railways by 
the special committee on relations of railway operation 
to legislation, in connection with this proposed Federal 
law. the following compilation was made from the replies 
received from 143 operating companies : 

Estimate of Cost, in 1912, of Train-crew Laws Furnished by 

143 Operating Companies Operating 195,049 Miles. 
Trains affected by State laws then in effect, per 
annum 678,661 a 

Additional trains affected by proposed Federal law in 

States then having full-crew law, per annum 468,483 

Trains affected by proposed law in States then having 

no full-crew law, per annum 3,211,056 

Total trains affected by State laws and proposed 

Federal statute, per annum 4,358,200 

Cost of compliance with State laws then in effect, 
per annum $ 1,797,589.94 a 

Additional cost of compliance with proposed law 

in States then having full-crew law, per annum. 1,342,237.17 

Cost of compliance with proposed law in States 

then having 110 full-crew law, per annum 10,255,790.66 

Total cost per annum of compliance with 

State laws and proposed statute $13,395,617.77 

a Does not include States where laws were passed subsequent to 

It should not be overlooked that this expense is only a 
part of the total increase in operating expenses that has 
been caused by legislative requirements imposed upon 
railroad operation. Such further legislation includes laws 
requiring 8-wheel cabooses in place of 4-wheel cabooses, 
laws limiting the hours of service, requiring electric head- 
lights, requiring the installation of improved safety ap- 
pliances, regulating the stops of passenger trains, the 
speed of stock and freight trains, requiring the abolition 
of grade crossings, or the installation of additional watch- 
men at crossings, requiring double track, and providing 
for days off at the company's expense. Quite independent 
of the question of the defensibility of these laws is the 
fact that they add greatly to the expense of railway op- 
eration, which must eventually find expression in higher 
charges to the public than would otherwise be made. 

However, the fact that such train-crew legislation in- 
creases operating expenses is not a conclusive argument 
against it. The legislation, presumably, is intended to 
promote the interest of the public, and the question at 
issue is whether there are benefits directly or indirectly 
conferred on the public, and, if so, are they commensurate 
with the expense incurred. 

Total 292 228,801 $20,281,638.32 

Another bill was introduced in Congress in 1912 which 
required that on each freight train containing 25 or more 
cars the crew should consist of at least an engineer, a 

Hand Firing Soft Coal 

"Hand Firing Soft Coal Under Power-Plant Boilers" 
is the title of Technical Paper 80, just issued by the 
United States Bureau of Mines, as an aid to the firemen 
employed in manufacturing establishments throughout 
the United States. 

The paper, which contains descriptions of methods of 
firing soft coal under power-plant boilers and of methods 
of handling fire so as to have the least smoke and to get 
the most heat from the fuel, seeks to meet the needs of 
the men, many without a technical education, who are 
employed in small plants of 1,000 to 2,000 horsepower 
capacity. For this reason the language used is plain and 
simple, and technical terms have been avoided as far as 

Copies of this paper may be obtained by addressing the 
Director of the Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. 



April, 1915 

Electric Locomotive Exhibit 

A Large Pennsylvania Locomotive Will Be Mounted on a 

Turntable in the Transportation Building at the 

Panama-Pacific Exposition 

One of the most striking exhibits to be made at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition will undoubtedly be that of 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
which includes one of the Pennsylvania Railroad locomo- 
tives mounted on a turn table. 

The location of the turn table is under the center of 
the dome of the immense Transportation Building at the 
junction of the two main aisles, thus bringing it in full 
view of crowds which are expected to pass through this 
building, which will contain a large number of exhibits 
of great interest to the public at large. 

Some idea of the vast size of the building may be gath- 
ered from an authentic story told of an erecting engineer 
who endeavored to locate the center of the building with 
his eye by standing under the dome, which seemingly was 
an easy task. When accurate measurements were after- 
wards made to verify this it was found the point pre- 
viously selected was 12 feet off from the actual center. 

The turn table is 65 feet long, and weighs 440,000 
pounds, including the locomotive. The height of the 
track is 12 feet above the floor, and steel ties are used, a 
new type of construction for this class of work. 

By means of 10 horsepower, 3-phase, 220-volt motor 
the turn table is caused to revolve at a speed of once 
in three minutes, thus giving the crowds in each end of 
the building different views of the locomotive. The rota- 
tion, which can be reversed in direction, is under the con- 
trol of the operator located in a booth nearby. 

A decidedly unique method of collecting the current 
for lighting the locomotive is employed. This was de- 
signed by the Westinghouse engineers and involves bring- 
ing the leads up through center bearing, to collector rings, 
thus obviating the use of third rail shoes or trolleys. 

The locomotive is arranged and lighted so as to permit 
the people to pass through it and inspect the equipment. 
It is clamped to the turn table by means of steel bands 
so as to prevent any possibility of its becoming dislodged 
in the event of an earthquake. 

This locomotive is said to be the largest in the world in 
passenger service. It consists of two units and weighs 

156 tons, and is the first side-rod gearless locomotive ever 
placed in service. 

It is equipped with two motors having a total capacity 
of 4,000 horsepower, and Westinghouse unit switch con- 
trol equipment of the HBF type, which has made the 
phenomenal record of 99,549 miles per train minute delay 
power control failure. Twelve million passengers an- 
nually are transported over the electrified terminal of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad from Harrison, N. J., to Penn- 
sylvania Station, .New York City, by these locomotives, 
which are capable of attaining a speed of 60 miles per 
hour with full train. 


By W. T. Walters, Memphis, Tenn. 

This rack was designed from ideas set forth by L. L. 
King, division storekeeper of the Illinois Central at 
Memphis, Tenn. At a large storeroom in railway shops 
it is necessary to keep on hand a stock of high-priced 
steel for tools, etc., also copper, rod and pipe. As this 
rack was to be installed in a fireproof building, it was 
necessary to keep it as fireproof as possible in order to- 
conform with the building. Hence, the design of this 

It was built of three-quarter-inch pipe and fittings 
with one-inch pipe as standard. The only part not of 
a fireproof nature are the 2"x4" strips which serve to tie 
it together. 

The total cost of material for this rack amounts to 
$20.60 and the labor charge, which involves reaming 
out tees and crosses, cutting of nipples, threading of 
pipe and erection, is $19.31, making a total charge of 
$39.91, which is exceedingly reasonable when one con- 
siders that a rack of this nature is practically inde- 
structible and will outwear three or four racks of a sim- 
ilar nature made of wood. The upper half of rack holds 
the lengths of tool steel, copper pipe, etc.. while in the 
lower half sheet copper and high-priced sheet metal is 
stored. This rack has been the subject of many favor- 
able comments by various railway officials who have 
seen it. 

THE GRAND TRUNK and Grand Trunk Pacific 
Railways are carrying on their payrolls some six hun- 
dred men who have been enlisted for over-seas service 
with the various military units in the European war. 

Material List 

tig. of 




Floor plates 













5'f 3 M m 


Pes /'pipe 

Ti" long 






8'6" long 



7 fe' Iron 


Lag screws 


Floor line 

mproved Rack for Railway Storeroom. 

April. 1915 



The Advance of Electrification on Heavy Traction Roads 

A Paper Read Before the Western Society of Engineers Containing 
Observations on the Electric Operation of the N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R. 

By W. S. Murray, Consl. Elect. Eng., N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R. 

In the early days when electrical movement was first 
introduced on heavy traction railroads, theory was strong 
and practice severely limited. The guiding principle 
upon which electrical men based their opinion that elec- 
trification had its proper place in the economic world 
was that by its use certain savings could be effected that 
would justify the investment necessary to secure it. 
There was entirely outside of this, but indirectly an 
■economic factor, the advantage accruing to the passenger 
in the form of a clean ride. 

While I have, of course, been keenly interested in 
■electrification that has been applied to other railroads, 
naturally the past ten years' association with the New 
Haven work, during which time over $15,000,000 have 
been expended in this department of betterment, has 
brought the real elements of its progress within very 
close range. 

In June. 191 4. the first New York, New Haven & 
Hartford passenger train was operated from Grand 
Central station to New Haven over a four-track electri- 
fied route 73 miles in length. Between New York and 
(New Haven, measured upon a single-track basis, there 
are some 500 miles of electrified line, of which 184 are 
included in yards and sidings. On these tracks today, 
every class of passenger, freight, and switching move- 
ment is made and electrical statistics are kept of all 
power-house. line or equipment failures, a reference to 
them suggesting the features of electrical operation that 
require first attention for the betterment of service. 

A feature of electrification that at present is the most 
appealing to one who has given the subject some con- 
sideration is in the matter of freight and switching 
movements. Since 1907 the New Haven road has been 
operating its regular 100 per cent electric passenger 
service between Stamford and New York. But recently, 
experience with regard to electric movement in switching 
and classification yards, and more recently that with 
regard to freight movement on main line track, has 
indeed been a revelation in the possibilities of heavy 
electrical traction. For example, during the month of 
January past, on the New Haven over 40,000,000 ton 
miles trailing load were handled by electric locomotives. 
this total tonnage being made up of fast, slow and local 
freight movement. There is installed on all of the 
electric engines wattmeters to register the kilowatt hours 
of consumption. Records of these wattmeters indicate 
that fast freights require on the order of 34 k. w. hours 
per train mile : slow freights on the order of 60 k. w. 
hours per train mile, and local freights on the order of 
36 k. w. hours per train mile. These figures are for 
trains varying in tonnage from 1.000 to 3,000 tons. 

Of interest also are the kilowatt hours per 1.000 ton 
miles of trailing load. For fast freight the kilowatt 
hours per 1.000 ton miles are on the order of 30 ; for slow 
freight, 30 ; and for local freight, 85. I make mention 
of these figures only to illustrate this new and vast sum 
of information that is daily coming to us. The "watt 
hour constants" are of necessity average figures, made 
up of trains having varying weights and schedules, and 
yet the records from which they are taken admit of 
instant segregation into any class of service for which 
a constant is desired. The question that might be asked 
in looking at these constants is: What do they signify? 
and the answer is brief : An electrical ton mile as 

against a steam ton mile reduces the coal pile in a ratio 
of 1 to 2. 

While in the past we have appreciated the economies 
to be secured through electrification, in virtue of lesser 
expenditures required in fuel and maintenance of elec- 
tric engines as against steam, there is fast coming to the 
front what might be called a more visualized economy 
in the reduction of expenses by effective savings in train 

Illustrative of the economic value of a "kilowatt hour" 
in its application to an electrification system, I quote 
from a part of a recent letter which had reference to the 
utilization of some 4,500 k. w. of demand in connection 
with its application to the eastern section of our electri- 
fication zone. I would particularly draw your attention 
to the item of $49,275.00, which has reference to the 
economies to be gained by the double heading of freight 
trains operated between Harlem River and New Haven. 
This economy, and its automatic complement, the in- 
crease of track capacity, are the phases of electrification 
that are striking deep into the consideration of the steam 
operation railroad man. 

"(1) The extension of the station contemplates, as you 
know, supplying a maximum single-phase demand of ap- 
proximately 4,500 k. w. This amount of power meas- 
ured by train units would permit the operation of twelve 
additional daily trains in fast freight service of average 
tonnage or its equivalent in any other class of service 
between Harlem River and New Haven. 

"(2) The number of kilowatt hours which would be 
consumed by the above twelve trains would be 17,500,000 
k. w. h. annually, and, as previously discussed with you, 
upon a coal ratio of 1 to 2 in electric and steam service, 
and a basis of three lbs. per kilowatt hour and $3.00 per 
ton. an annual saving to the railroad company of $78,750 
is indicated. 

"(3) Further translating the above movement into en- 
gine miles, our log sheet records indicate that the number 
of engine miles required for the above movement would 
be 990, which multiplied by the difference in cost of en- 
gine repairs at 5c per engine mile, effects annual savings 
of $18,250. 

"(4) The transfer of twelve daily trains from steam 
to electric service will permit a further extension of our 
present practice of "double heading" trains in electric 
service, thus saving 450 daily train miles, which, as 
shown by our log sheet, will secure an annual reduction 
in train wages of 30c per train mile, corresponding to an 
annual reduction of $49,275.00. 

"(5) A supply of approximately 3,000 k. w. (average) 
to the New Haven end of the line will effect a further 
saving of $16,500.00 in transmission losses, as compared 
with the transmission losses of the same amount of power 
from Cos Cob Station ; the above savings being based 
upon the conservative cost of 5 mills per k. w. h. In ex- 
planation of the apparently large value of the saving in 
transmission losses to be effected by this small installa- 
tion, it will be evident that its value is maximum when 
applied at the extreme end of the transmission system. 

"(6) No tangible values can be assigned for the very 
important effect upon the regulation in line voltage at 
New Haven, which will be reflected in the cost and effi- 
ciency of operation in many ways. 





■'i 7 ) The summary of the total savings as above which 
will be effected is as follows: 

Fuel S 78,750.00 

Engine repairs 18,250.00 

Engine and train wages 49,275.00 

Transmission losses 16.500.00 


If any criticism can be placed with regard to the mat- 
ter of freight movement by electricity. I would say it 
would be in the matter of speed. The electric freight 
locomotives of the Xew York. Xew Haven & Hartford 
were built on specifications that permitted them to oper- 
ate 1,500-ton trains on level track at 35 miles per hour. 
\Yhile the speed element, in as far as the Xew Haven 
service is concerned, may be entirely justified, due to the 
very large ratio of passenger to its total service, thus 
permitting the freight trains to clear more promptly for 
passenger traffic. I would say that where the ratio of 
passenger service is less, the speed element for equal 
horse power could be more valuably thrown into traction. 
For example, the Xew Haven locomotives have draw- 
bar pull characteristics that permit the operation of 3.000- 
ton trains by double-heading. If these engines were re- 
duced in speed by 35 per cent and their traction increased 
by the same percentage, 4.000 tons would be the resulting 
double-header trailing load, which in turn would effect a 
large saving in train miles, were these engines to be oper- 
ated on a property less subject to passenger movement. 

Much valuable information has been developed in the 
past two years in connection with the handling of classi- 
fication and switching yards by electric motive power. 
An idea as to the reliability of this class of service may 
be gained in saying that in 1. 000.000 electric switch en- 
gine miles, there has been but one failure. 

The Xew Haven property includes in it two large 
switching yards : the Oak Point yard containing 35 miles 
of track and the Harlem River yard 25 miles. The intro- 
duction of the electric engine in these yards has increased 
the speed of the yard very greatly, and as near as I can 
gather from the yardma^ters. this increase of speed has 
been secured with a ratio of electric engines to steam 
engines replaced, varying between 4 to 6 and 6 to 10. 

I am a firm believer in the single phase system for 
trunk lines, the governing element in which, from an 
electrical standpoint, has been the transmission svstem. 
In a rigorous determination to adhere to this principle 
as correct for such a field, it has not been to gainsay the 
application of direct current in the territory where it 
rightly belongs : namely, where the governing element 
has been mass ( trains under acceleration and braking in 
close headway ) in translation. As a citation of the two 
examples. I would offer: (1) The electrification from 
Xew York to Xew Haven, and (2) the electrification of 
the X'ew York subways. 

In closing my address. I would speak of two things 
which to my mind are most pertinent to the advance and 
successful utilization of electricity in the field of heavy 

The first is with reference to the mercury arc rectifier, 
and the second is in regard to effective electrical admin- 
istration on the part of railroads electrifying. 

Having reference to the mercury arc rectifier, there 
has been in commercial operation on the Xew Haven 
road a car taking power from the alternating 
current overhead contact system, and converting it into 
direct current for application to its propulsion motors. 
This car has been giving a most successful service, and 
the problem of the production and maintenance of the 
vacuum tube, through the agency of which the alternat- 
ing current is converted to direct, has been electrically 

and commercially solved. "What are the possibilities ac- 
cruing from such a result? This can be epitomized in 
the statement that if the economies in the transmission 
system of the single phase system justified the utilization 
of a heavier and less efficient motive power, today we are 
in a position not only to secure the economies gained in 
this transmission, but operate beneath the contact wires 
of such a system the more efficient and lighter direct cur- 
rent apparatus. As a concrete and practical application 
of this result, the present alternating current motive 
power now in use on the Xew Haven, by the application 
of the rectifier, will be increased 25 per cent, and also 
permit it to enjoy simultaneously transmission and mo- 
tive power facilities of the highest order of efficiency. 

With regard to administration, past experience with 
the engineering, construction and operation of a trunk 
line property of the character of the Xew Haven road 
has indicated with force the necessity of a very complete 
understanding of the difference between the operation of 
a steam and an electric property. In my judgment, there 
will be no necessity for any general change in the ad- 
ministration or organization at present observed in steam 
operated properties to effect proper electric operation, but 
upon the minds of higher officials in the steam roads 
using or contemplating using this new mode of motive 
power, the fact should be impressed that the methods 
pursued in producing a ton mile of any character, pas- 
senger, freight or switching, upon a steam basis, must 
be abandoned when the draw-bar pull comes from elec- 
tricity. The error of holding a steam master mechanic 
responsible for an electric engine mile of any character 
is patent, and equally patent is the error of holding a 
steam railroad shop man responsible for the maintenance 
and repairs of electric engines. Like electric power 
houses and transmission lines requiring the proper elec- 
trical talent, essentially necessary to the success of proper 
maintenance and inspection of electric motive power are 
the electro-mechanics inside and outside of the shop. 
Such an arrangement does not change, but merely af- 
fects the splendid railroad organization and administra- 
tion that has come down to us. A successful operating 
result after electrification has been applied is entirely 
dependent on a clear understanding and observation of 
this real difference between steam and electrical opera- 


The accompanying illustration shows a superheater 
tube sheet. borer in use on the Canadian Xorthern. The 
tube sheet is laid for all holes and these are centered with 
};}" holes which form a guide for the ~$"y.i l / 2 " tool nose. 
The cutter illustrated forms a hole %" smaller in diame- 
ter than the finished size and this y% is then reamed out. 
as is the practice with -mailer tubes. 

Steel Set Screw 

Superheater ■ ube Sheet Bcrer. 

April, 1915 




The file is one of the most indispensable tools of the 
mechanic, and is a product of the highest skill in quality 
of material, workmanship and tempering. In few other 
places is steel given so severe a test of its quality as in 
its use as a file. 

Formerly file makers had to forge the steel down to 
size from the bar, but now steel makers furnish steel in 
exact sizes for all files in common use, and the file maker 
needs only to draw down the tang for the handle and 
taper the point, when necessary, before finishing the sur- 
face and cutting the teeth. This shaping is done very 
rapidly under power hammers in modern shops. 

Many files are named from the shape of their cross- 
section, and are those most generally used, while others 
are named from the particular work they are intended to 
be used upon. 

The "half-round" is about one-third of a full circle, 
but the "pit-saw"' is a full half circle in section. 

The faces of the "three-square" are equal, the angles 
being 60 degrees each, while the angles of the "cant-saw" 
are two of 35 degrees and one of no. and those of the 
"cant file" are two of 30 and one of 120 degrees. 

The "hand" file is the same width from heel to point, 
but is tapered in thickness from middle to point. 

The "mill" file is the same thickness throughout its 
length, but the width is tapered usually, though it is often 
made "blunt" — that is, of equal thickness and width 

The "warding" file is the same thickness, but is tapered 
in width from heel to point. 

The "pillar" file is the same width and thickness 
throughout its length. It is made in standard, narrow 
and extra narrow patterns, and also with one or two 
"safe" edges — that is, faces on which no teeth are cut. 

The "three-square," "square" and "round" are made in 
both the "slim" and blunt forms, the "slim" being of regu- 
lar length, but of smaller cross-section. 

After forging to size and shape the blanks are thor- 
oughly annealed in special furnaces, this operation taking 
from twenty-four to thirty-six hours. After annealing 
they are straightened and the scale removed by grinding 
on grindstones. They are then draw-filed until perfectly 
smooth and even and are then ready for cutting. 

With regard to the shape of their teeth files are classi- 
fied under three heads — "single cut." "double cut" and 
"rasps." The "single cut" has teeth made by single rows 
of parallel chisel cuts across the faces, the cuts being 
made at an angle of from 65 to 85 degrees, according to 
the size of the file and the kind of work it is intended for. 

The "double cut" has two rows of chisel cuts crossing 
each other. The first row, on files intended for general 
work, is at an angle of from 40 to 45 degrees, the second 
being from 70 to 80 degrees, while on the finishing files 
the first row is at an angle of about 30 degrees and the 
second at about 85 degrees. 

In the "single cut" the tooth extends across the entire 
face of the file, while the "double cut" is broken up into 
a great many small teeth inclined toward the point and 
shaped like the end of a diamond point cold chisel. 

The teeth of the "rasp" are entirely separated from 
each other, and are round on top, being formed by raising 
small portions of stock from the surface of the blank with 
a punch. Rasps are used only on the softer materials, 
such as wood, leather, horse's hoofs and sometimes on 
babbitt metal. 

With regard to coarseness of the teeth there are six 
grades of cut — "rough," "coarse," "bastard," "second 
cut," "smooth" and "dead smooth." The "rough" file is 
nearly always single cut and the "dead smooth" double 

cut, while the other grades are made in both single and 
double cut. The coarseness again depends on the length 
of the file, as a four-inch "coarse" file will have much 
finer teeth than an eight-inch "coarse" grade. 

The value of a file depends on the quality of the ma- 
terial used, the workmanship employed in shaping the 
teeth and the temper, but the life depends, in addition to 
these, to the use to which it is put and the care given it. 

If all the teeth on a file were of exactly the same height 
it would require a heavy pressure to make it cut, and it 
was formerly thought that a machine-cut file would have 
that characteristic and for that reason would be inferior 
to a hand-made file. To overcome this machines are now 
made to give them what is known as the increment cut, 
in which there is a slight difference in the distance be- 
tween the cuts. The difference is very slight, however, as 
there is only about one one-hundredth of an inch differ- 
ence between the first and last cuts on a 12-inch file. In 
a hand-cut file, even with the most skillful workman, 
some variations were bound to occur, and these irregulari- 
ties were supposed to make the file cut easier. 

The work is performed very rapidly on machine-made 
files, the chisel receiving from 550 to 3,500 blows per 
minute, according to the size of the file being cut. The 
cutting is from point to heel, and when one side of the 
blank is cut it is placed on lead strips to prevent injury 
to the teeth already formed. 

After cutting, files are inspected and assorted, then 
hardened and tempered, at which time any warping or 
twisting is corrected, then inspected for temper cracks 
and tested for hardness on a piece of hard steel. Finally 
they are coated with oil and wrapped in several layers 
of paper to prevent rusting and injury when packed for 

In filing a narrow surface or a thin piece of metal it 
is better to use a single-cut file, as the teeth of a double- 
cut cut too freely or take too big a bite and are very liable 
to break. The shape of the single-cut tooth gives it more 
strength and it is less liable to break. 

Files are made "tapered," that is, thinner at the point 
than at the middle, or "full tapered," thinner at the point 
and heel than in the middle, for two reasons ; first, to 
permit a fewer number of teeth to come in contact with 
the work, thus making it cut easier, and, second, to per- 
mit the user to file a straight or plane surface. If the file 
is perfectly straight the motion to produce a true surface 
must be absolutely parallel to this surface. This the most 
expert mechanic can scarcely do, the attempt resulting 
in work low at the edges and high in the middle. If the 
file is tapered the surface is slightly convex, and if moved 
entirely across the work a straight surface will result, as 
the workman can allow some deviation from a straight 
line in the motion of the file and still not cut away the 
edges more than the center. 

A sharper file is required to file the non-fibrous metals, 
as brass or cast iron, than for wrought iron or steel, and 
for a broad surface than for a narrow one. A good me- 
chanic will therefore use his files first on broad surfaces 
of brass or cast iron, next on narrow surfaces of these 
metals, then on wrought iron and steel, and finally for 
removing sand and scale from castings and forgings. 

A new file should never be used on rough castings, as 
the scale is very hard and will ruin a file in a very few 
minutes. The edge of a flat file, which frequently is not 
used for other purposes, can be used to advantage for 
this work. 

A file is distorted more or less in hardening, making 
one side more convex, or having more "belly." as it is 
usually called, and this side is used on the most particular 
work by the good mechanic, as he can make it cut just 
where he wants to. 



April, 1915 

In filing, the work is all performed on the forward 
stroke, though the file is not raised during the return 
stroke, but no pressure is applied at this time. As the 
file is pushed forward it should be given a slight side 
motion, alternating after each few strokes to the right 
and left. This makes the file marks cross at quite an 
angle and makes it cut freer and keeps the surface more 
nearly true. 

The handle of the file should be seated against the 
palm of the right hand and the thumb extended along 
the top. The point should be held by the ball of the left 
thumb on top of the file, and the fingers underneath. By 
placing the thumb as far as possible, conveniently, from 
the end. the file, if a flat one, may be sprung slightly, 
thus making it cut better by increasing the "belly" in it. 
This is not a comfortable position for the hand, but is 
necessary sometimes when using a thin file. 

In filing a very broad surface it is necessary to use a 
special handle, which grips the sides of the tang and 
hooks over the point and has a brace in the middle, thus 
leaving the whole under surface clear while the brace 
in the middle prevents the file from springing to a con- 
cave form and cutting on the ends instead of the middle, 
as it should. The work also should be placed low, so 
the workman can reach all parts of it and put the re- 
quired pressure on the file. 

Ordinary work should be placed at about the height of 
the workman's elbow so the forearm will move in almost 
a horizontal line. Fine, delicate work should be placed 
higher, as it is more readily inspected in this position. 

Draw-filing is accomplished by moving the file at right 
angles to its axis, and is used almost exclusively for 
finishing, as it removes the metal very slowly, though it 
leaves a smoofh finish. Draw-filing does not require much 
skill, and creditable work may be performed after a little 
practice, but cross-filing, especially on smooth plane sur- 
faces, requires much experience and skill. 

The character of the work and the finish required, of 
course, determine the coarseness of the file that should 
be used, but the "bastard," "second-cut" and "smooth" 
are generally used on general work. A fine-cut file will 
take hold of the harder metals better than the coarser 
files, and leaves a smoother surface. 

The file should be kept free from cuttings which lodge 
between the teeth. When they cannot be removed by 
tapping the edge of the file against the vise, they should 
be brushed out with a file card or brush, or, as is some- 
times necessary when working on wrought iron or steel, 
with a soft iron or copper scorer. The pieces will some- 
times project above the teeth of the file and cause deep 
scratches in the work. This trouble, or "pinning" as it 
is called, may be lessened by thoroughly chalking the file, 
though this prevents it from cutting so freely. 

Care should be taken when filing work in a lathe that 
it is not run too fast. Ordinarily the motion of a file is 
comparatively slow, averaging probably forty strokes of 
eight inches length per minute, or about fifty feet per 
minute, and. as the teeth do not cut on the back stroke, 
time is allowed for cooling and the file does not become 
hot. In filing work in a lathe, the number of strokes is 
not increased, but the length is greatly increased, as the 
speed of the work must be added to the actual length of 
the file. As the whole length of the file, however, is usual- 
ly used in filing rotating work, the bad effects of the high 
speed are greatly reduced. The file should not be held 
stationary, and the work be allowed to revolve against it, 
as only a few teeth will then do all the work and it is 
very liable to result in grooved work. The side motion 
previously spoken of in cross-filing should also be given 
the file. As it is almost impossible to keep a piece of 

work true when filing it in a lathe, it should not be filed 
more than is necessary to obtain the finish desired. 

A safety edge file is one having one or both edges with- 
out teeth, which enables one to file one of two sides of an 
angle without injury to the other. It is well, however, to 
run the safety edge over an emery wheel before using, as 
the teeth are expanded over the edge in cutting and may 
mar the work. An ordinary file may be made safe by 
grinding the teeth off one side on an emery wheel. 

A new file should never be used on very narrow work, 
as the teeth take hold too freely and will be broken out, 
ruining the file. Narrow work also should be held as 
close to the vise jaws as possible to prevent vibration or 

If a new file is to be used to make a very fine finish, it 
should be rubbed over very lightly with an oil-stone, as, 
in cutting, some of the teeth will be raised slightly above 
the general surface of the file and will score the work. 
In some places, where absolutely true surfaces are pro- 
duced with files, special smooth files are used, and these 
are further prepared by an expert, who makes a light 
stroke with it over a flat brass plate. 

The high teeth can then be told by the brass adhering 
to or discoloring them slightly, and these high teeth are 
now touched with a drop of acid compound and laid 
aside for a few minutes while another is being treated. 
It is then dipped in water to stop the action of the acid 
and again given a stroke on the brass plate and an acid 
treatment until no tooth is higher than the others. With 
files so prepared, one employe of an air-brake company 
will face the seat of a slide valve of part of the air brake 
apparatus while another will face the valve itself. These 
parts are assembled without being fitted together either 
by scraping or grinding, and will be absolutely air-tight 
under an air pressure of eighty pounds per square inch. 
This valve is not lubricated or packed with oil, but is 
perfectly clean and dry except for a very light coat of the 
finest graphite, which is used as a lubricant. 

As it is impossible to file straight and true with a dull 
file, a good mechanic will take care of his files, using 
them on the finest work first and on the rougher work 
when dulled, in this way getting the full use from the file 
and always having a good one when needed for a par- 
ticular job. They should not be thrown in the drawer 
with hammers, wrenches and other tools, nor piled in- 
discriminately together, but be laid away carefully ; if 
possible, being separated by wood partitions, or wrapped 
in cloth. This is particularly so where a workman has 
special files for special work, as these are very expensive 
and should be given good care. 

In filing concave surfaces, as in fitting a driving box 
or rod brass, a half-round file is not so good to use as a 
square or "crossing" file, as either of these is much easier 
to keep from rocking than a half-round. The edges of 
the square file will do all the cutting, of course, but it 
will cut very rapidly, and, as it has considerable "belly," 
it can be made to cut just where it is needed. In using 
the "crossing" file on concave work, use the side with 
the arc of the larger curve, so just the edges will touch 
first and finish with the other side of which the round part 
may be made to do the work. — Scenic Lines Employes' 

Position W "anted: Have filled the position of car 
foreman for past eight years and can furnish highest 
recommendations. Have secured several patents on rail- 
way devices and have others pending. Would like po- 
sition as car foreman or general car foreman. Address 
H. C. S., care Railway Master Mechanic, 431 So. Dear- 
born St., Chicago. 

April, 1915 




Looking back over the course of many years there 
will be found few individual developments in American 
locomotive practice which have enabled such advances to 
be made as those rendered possible by the trailing-truck. 
The American designer is somewhat inclined to go his 
own way, regardless of others, until one day he suddenly 
awakens to the fact that a device well known in other 
countries might be made to help him over his difficulties. 
The Mallet articulated compound locomotive is an in- 
stance of this. This machine has been known to Euro- 
pean practice since 1887. Its existence was ignored in 
the United States until 1903. It made its first appear- 
ance there, after its discovery, so-to-speak, in the form 
of quite a remarkable engine, the precursor of a series 
of machines which eclipsed everything attempted before 
that date. The trailing-truck is another case of the same 

Trailing-wheels with some side-play allowance have 
been used from very early days on "singles" both here 
and in America. They were also employed on suburban 
engines, and also on what we termed "mixed-traffic" 
engines. These are not instances, however, of trailing- 
trucks in which radial motion is arranged for by means 
of guides or radius-bars. Radial trailing-wheels were 
first used here in 1863 ; Mr. Webb's first application of 
them on the London and North-Western Railway was 
made in 1876. Trailing-wheels with side-play allow- 
ance were introduced on main-line express engines with 
more than a single pair of driving-wheels by Mr. Webb 
in 1891, when the "Greater Britain" class was brought 
out at Crewe. They appeared almost simultaneously in 
America on the "Columbia," an engine built by the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works, of Philadelphia. The "Co- 
lumbia" and the "Queen-Empress," sister-engine of the 
"Greater Britain," were exhibited at the Chicago Exhibi- 
tion. Both were of the 2-4-2 wheel arrangement, but 
Mr. Webb's engine, of course, had independent, and not 
coupled, drivers. While promising well at the time, both 
classes were short-lived, though the "Columbia" had the 
honor of ushering in a most interesting era of American 
practice. The engine was the forerunner of the so- 
popular "Atlantic" type, first brought out in 1895. 

It was about this time that American engineers began 
to take advantage of their liberal gauge-limits, and 
inaugurated the policy of applying the principles of rail- 
way economics to daily operation, as well as first con- 
struction. The change, made with a view to reducing 
transportation costs to the lowest possible figures, imme- 
diately bore fruit in the form of a demand for units of 
greater power. The locomotive of that day was progres- 
sively enlarged and made heavier, until the existing 
types could undergo little further expansion. Although 
the "Atlantic" type made rapid headway, all that the 
design implied was not at first realized. On roads using 
anthracite for passenger work, the "Atlantic" type was 
quickly adopted. The Lehigh Valley and Philadelphia 
& Reading engines of this class soon became famous. 
Though greatly facilitating boiler design, on such en- 
gines small trailing-wheels were not, however, absolutely 
essential, since wide and shallow anthracite fire-box 
engines of the 4-4-0 and the 4-6-0 types have been de- 
signed with coupled wheels, J2 in. in diameter, under 
the box. 

Full benefit was not derived from the small trailing- 
wheel idea until it was realized that the further develop- 
ment of bituminous-coal-burning boilers along existing 
lines was impossible. Boilers had been designed with 
large heating surfaces, but proved rather unsatisfactory 
and uneconomical owing to restrictions at the fire-box 

end. The usual bituminous-coal-burning boiler had a 
long and narrow box resting on the top of the bar- 
frames. As an extreme example of this class of boiler 
the large Pittsburgh, Bessemer & Lake Erie "Consolida- 
tions" may be mentioned. This design held the record 
for being the largest in the world for some time. It was 
brought out fifteen years ago, and the engines, which 
weighed 250,300 lb. without tender, had a heating surface 
of 3805 sq. ft. and a grate area of 36.8 sq. ft., the grate 
being 11 ft. long. It was realized that such long and 
narrow grates could not be economically fired, but there 
seemed to be no way of getting over this fact until de- 
signers broke fresh ground and introduced a shorter and 
moderately wide box extending over the frames. But 
the difficulties were not over. Such a box could be 
advantageously applied to the "Atlantic" class, but on 
the other existing classes it was limited, of course, in 
depth, a drawback in the case of bituminous coal. Never- 
theless, it came into use, even where it had to be placed 
over the driving-wheels, as preferable to the narrow 
box, and it has established itself securely in favor. An 
idea of the developments which this change has rendered 
possible may be gathered by comparing the figures given 
above with the chief particulars of recent "Consolidation" 
engines built for the Wheeling & Lake Erie. These 
engines are the largest of this type. They weigh 266,500 
lb., without tender of course, and have 3517 sq. ft. of 
heating surface, and, in addition, 774 sq. ft. of super- 
heating surface, the grate area being 66.75 sq. ft. The 
P. B. & L. E. design of 1900 had a ratio of heating sur- 
face to grate area of about 100 ; in the modern "Con- 
solidation" the ratio is usually about 70. 

Recent investigations have all gone to confirm the 
deductions drawn from early experiments with regard to 
the value of the fire-box end of a locomotive boiler, com- 
pared with the smoke-box end, as regards evaporation. 
American designers have followed this up. About 1900 
an adaptation of the Webb radial box was applied to the 
trailing end of an "Atlantic"-type engine, instead of 
merely allowing the trailing-wheels a certain amount of 
side play. The trailing-truck, as subsequently developed, 
is now a feature of all the larger engines of that class, 
and it has rendered possible immense developments in 
other classes. Before it became popular, the classes were 
practicallv confined to the following: — American type 
(4-4-0) ; Ten-Wheeler (4-6-0) ; "Mogul" (2-6-0) ; "Con- 
solidation" (2-8-0); "Decapod" (2-10-0). The 4-4-0 
type had developed into the 4-4-2 before its adoption. 
The next change came to the "Mogul" class. Fitted with 
a trailing-truck it became a 2-6-2, and was known as the 
"Prairie" type. Though never attaining to any great 
degree of popularity, this type produced some notable 
examples of design. The most famous were perhaps 
some engines on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
with 79-in. drivers, while the heaviest were built for the 
Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe. Alongside the 4-4-0 
type, the "ten-wheeler" (4-6-0) was developed for heavy 
passenger work, but this class was also handicapped as 
regards boiler capacity. The latter remark applies also 
to the 2-8-0 and the 2-10-0 types after they had reached 
a certain size. In all these cases the principal develop- 
ment of late years has been the provision of additional 
boiler capacity, rendered possible, in spite of the long 
wheel-base, by the adoption of the trailing-truck. The 
types have now expanded into the 4-6-2 ("Pacific"), the 
2-8-2 ("Mikado"), and the 2-10-2 ("Santa Fe"). The 
boiler has benefited proportionately. The trailing-truck 
allows an additional weight to the engine of 50,000 lb. 
or more without increasing axle-loading. Most of this 
can be put into the boiler. 
Some years ago the largest examples of freight engines 



April, 1915 

were of the 4-8-0 type. This type was built in some 
numbers, but had manifest disadvantages. Compared 
with the 2-8-0 engine, the ratio of total weight to ad- 
hesive weight was unsatisfactory. It allowed, however, 
an increase in boiler capacity, but only at the front end. 
The modern freight engine of the "Mikado" class, while 
its equal as regards the number of coupled and non- 
coupled wheels, is far superior in boiler power. A large 
twelve-wheeler had about 3500 sq. ft. of heating surface. 
A modern "Mikado" may have 5500 sq. ft. much better 
disposed. The 4-8-0 has been expanded to the 4-8-2 
type, used, as its name implies, on "Mountain" divisions, 
for passenger work, but not to any very great extent. 
The limit to such classes as the 4-4-2, 4-6-2, 2-6-2, 2-8-2, 
is not now concerned with boiler capacity. The trailing- 
truck has enabled boilers to be designed fully up to the 
work required. The limit in these cases is set by the 
allowable wheel-loads. The length to which American 
designers go, however, in this direction may be gauged 
by the fact that the Baltimore & Ohio have some 2-10-2 
engines in service with 67,000 lb. on each pair of drivers. 

Statistics of the American locomotive industry for 
recent years show that the classes of which most are 
now built are the 2-8-2 class for freight, and the 4-6-2 
for passenger work. Some of these freight engines have 
boilers ranging from 5000 sq. ft. to 6900 sq. ft. of heat- 
ing surface, or of heating and superheating surface. A 
little figuring will show that it is beyond the capacity of 
a fireman to keep saturated-steam boilers of such size 
going at maximum capacity. The trailing-truck, there- 
fore, which has rendered such machines possible, has 
made 'it necessary to devote increased attention to other 
points. To lighten the work of the fireman, economy- 
producing systems have been adopted, or resort has been 
had to mechanical operation, or both. The realization 
of the fact that many of the large boilers introduced a 
few years ago have been underfired has probably helped 
superheating along in the States as much as anything 
else. The same may be said of mechanical firing, tests 
on the Pennsylvania Railroad having shown that greatly 
increased output was obtainable from some of their large 
engines when machine-stokers supplied the grate with 
all the coal it could burn, the amount being well beyond 
that which a fireman could handle. 

Everything which helps to increase the output per 
pound of coal, or render the output independent of the 
physical disabilities of the attendant, is, therefore, to be 
considered in a light quite different from that in which 
these things were viewed in days before the locomotive 
had grown to its present size. Then little care was 
taken to ensure the satisfactory use of the coal fired. 
Nowadays, however, the Gaines fire-box, arch-tubes, 
brick arch, combustion-chamber, superheating and feed- 
water heating, are all accepted as helping towards the 
solution sought, and therefore to be studied with a view 
to bringing about further improvements. In addition to 
allowing greater latitude of design and the production of 
more efficient fire-boxes, the trailing-truck has brought 
with it increased tube-lengths, with correspondingly 
lower smoke-box temperatures. Its influence on the size 
of boilers, which we have pointed out, has stimulated the 
evolution of all sorts of mechanical means of performing 
operations formerly effected by hand. The American 
locomotive of today is covered with such contrivances. 
There are power-operated stokers, fire-door openers, 
grate-rockers, reversing-gear, bell-ringers, coal-pushers 
on the tender to keep the supply within reach of the 
fireman, and so on. 

The efforts made to whittle down the weight of ma- 
chine parts, in order to put more into the boiler, which 
first came into evidence just before the possibilities of 

the trailing-truck were realized, have fortunately been 
persisted in the while, and the American locomotive of 
today is, generally speaking, a carefully-thought-out ma- 
chine. Had we space, we might refer to many notable 
examples of very thorough design of recent years ; of 
instances of the saving of weight in directions in which 
formerly certain designs were accepted as orthodox and 
practically unchangeable; and of cases in which excellent 
progress has been made in the matter of applying in 
practice recent teachings of metallurgical research — all 
with the object of benefiting, directly or indirectly, the 
boiler portion of the locomotive. It cannot be claimed 
that all these improvements, which are being carried 
through practically all classes, including the big Mallet 
compounds, are the direct result of the development of 
the trailing-truck. Indirectly, however, they may safely 
be said to be so, as we have been able to show above, 
since had it not been for the great increase in boiler 
power thus rendered possible, it is improbable that these 
matters would have been brought so prominently into 
notice, in a country where coal economy per se was for 
long not seriously considered on the railways.— Engi- 
neering, of London, Eng. 


In a review of the "Safety First" campaign conducted 
by the Baltimore & Ohio system during 1914, a report 
issued by the general safety committee shows that 91 per 
cent of all items recommended to improve safety condi- 
tions was disposed of by the company. Recommendations 
totaling 9,256 items were made by 698 employes who are 
members of safety committees on 23 divisions throughout 
the territory served by the railroad. The Ohio River 
committee, whose headquarters are at Parkersburg, 
W. Va., disposed of 91 out of every 100 of the 892 recom- 
mendations made. The Ohio committee, with offices at 
Chillicothe, O., led in percentage of cases disposed of 
with an average of 97 per cent on a total of 448 items 
recommended. The Chicago Terminal division was sec- 
ond with 96 per cent of the items corrected. Showing the 
co-operation between the employes and management of 
the Baltimore & Ohio, the first American railroad to estab- 
lish a "Safety First" department upon ideas originated 
by the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, the report shows 
that on no division of the system did the percentage of 
recommendations adopted during the year fall below 

Drill Press for University Test Work 

A high production drill press has recently been in- 
stalled in the machine shop of the College of Engineer- 
ing at the University of Illinois. This press is to be 
used in a series of tests on drilling in metals. The ma- 
chine is of heavy construction, weighing 2,600 pounds, 
and has sufficient power to drive drills of high-speed 
steel to their ultimate capacity. 

At the highest rate of production the machine forces 
drills through cast iron at the rate of 53 inches per min- 
ute. This is from three to five times the rate for ordi- 
nary drill presses, and almost equal to the rate of drill- 
ing wood a few years ago. The machine is of the all- 
geared type, no belts being used for power drive for 
any part of the machine. This geared drive eliminates 
the chance of slippage between motor and drill. All 
gears run in a bath of oil, and the machine is equipped 
with a circulating oil pump. This machine is equipped 
with a j x /z horsepower motor. 

April, 1915 



Some Interesting Old -Time Locomotives 

Eight Examples of Types Used in the Period from 
1857 to 1891, Showing Products of the Early Designers 

By Arthur Curran. 

In reviewing some of the more important steps in the 
progress of locomotive engineering, it is advisable to 
confine comment to those engines which have not been 
exploited elsewhere. 

It is on this account that I ignore the very early and 
the very recent history of railway motive power. Fur- 
ther than this it is merely necessary to state, by way of 
introduction, that the eight-wheel, or American, engine 
was the most popular type on the railroads in this country 
up to within comparatively recent years. 

Fig. I shows an interesting old-time example of this 
type built by John Souther of Boston in 1857 for the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway. The cyl- 
inders of this engine were 14x22 inches, the drivers were 

were 72 inches in diameter. Little appears to be known 
about this locomotive, but in view of the fact that she 
had inclined cylinders it would seem probable that the 
date of her construction was not many years later than 
that of the engine shown in Fig. 1. In any case, the 
David Upton is a good example of old-time designing. 

Among the builders who were prominent years ago, 
William Mason was one of the best and most favorably 
known. He was specially noted for his refined design- 
ing; but, aside from this, will be remembered for the 
"bogie" engines which he tried to popularize. As a mat- 
ter of fact, he sold a considerable number of these en- 
gines, and they appeared to get along very well on some 
of the roads that used them. It mav be recalled that 

Fig. 1 — Inside Connected Locomotive Built in 1857. 

56 inches in diameter, and the total weight of engine 
was 60,000 pounds. This engine was an "insider," a 
type much favored by New England builders years ago. 
The merits of the "inside-connected" type were never 
very obvious, and the design was, of course, abandoned. 
But many engines of this type were built while the fad 

Fig. 2 shows the David Upton, an old Hudson River 
engine, built by the Schenectady Locomotive Works. The 
cylinders of this engine were 16x22 inches, and the drivers 

the object sought in designing this style of engine was 
power combined with flexibility. The latter was obtained 
by a form of construction which permitted the drivers 
to swivel like a truck. Lack of space precludes a descrip- 
tion of this feature, but Fig. 3 gives a good idea of the 
general appearance of a "bogie." This engine was com- 
pleted on May 9, 1874, for the Erie, and was the only 
engine that Mason built for that road. The cylinders 
were 15x22 inches, and the drivers were 48 inches in 
diameter. Like most of Mason's "bogies," this engine 

Fig. 2 — The David Upton, an Old Hudson River Engine. 



April, 1915 

Fig. 3 — Locomotive Built for the Erie in 1874, Having Swivel Drivers. 

was very handsomely finished, and the lettering and strip- 
ing were elaborate. 

The "bogie" type did not survive, but the idea which 
it represented reappeared years later when the Mallet 
found favor on some roads. 

Fig. 4 shows No. 237 of the New York Central and 
Hudson River Railroad. This engine is of interest as a 
development of the David Upton, and represents a later 
period, as may be observed by the "cap" stack, extension 
front and horizontal cylinders. Furthermore, it is a de- 
sign which, with gradual increases in weight and minor 
modifications, remained a favorite on the Central clear 
up to 1890. Engines of similar design, but somewhat 
heavier, were hauling important trains as late as 1896- — 
perhaps later. 

Fig. 5 shows No. 39 of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad. This engine was built at the New 
Haven shops in 1876 and was an eight-wheeler belonging 
to class D-16. The cylinders of this engine were 17x22 
inches, drivers 69 inches in diameter, and total weight 
74,000 pounds. It will be observed that the photograph 
was taken when the sand-box of the engine was being 
filled. The method of doing this presents an interesting 

Fig. A — No. 237 of the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. 


-No. 39 of the N. Y., N. H. & H., Built in 1876. 

contrast to the manner of accomplishing the same result 
today at a modern engine terminal. 

Fig. 6 shows No. 65 of the Fitchburg Railroad. This 
engine was turned out by Mason on July 10. 1877, ant * 
had I7x24-inch cylinders and 60-inch drivers. This was 
a typical standard Mason engine, and is an excellent ex- 
ample of that builder's admirable sense of proportion. 

Fig. 7 shows No. 147 of the Old Colony Railroad. 
This was a class H engine built in 1889 at the company's 
shops. The cylinders were 18x24 inches, drivers 66 
inches, and total weight 97,800 pounds. 






1 1 . 1 

■ i ■ 





- 1 

L ^ m 

■ 1 

-^ 1 


^-* W-. «.-. 


— ; 

»». .- ! =*"*■ 

H 3 

1 *' iiM 


-No. 65 of the Fitchburg R. R. 

April. 1915 



The foregoing comment, though brief, should be suf- 
ficient to explain certain phases of motive power develop- 
ment. The photographs tell the story better than pages 
of text possibly could. The pictures are of special value 
because, to the best of my knowledge and belief, they 
have not been published elsewhere. 

To those who find profit and entertainment in an occa- 
sional glance backward at the lessons of the past, as well 
as to those who have happy memories of the "scoop" or 
of the "right side" — or both — this glimpse of the "mills" 
that bossed American railroads from the fifties to the 
nineties may be welcome and acceptable. 

In any case, it is sure to secure the approval of a cer- 
tain "stove committee" which believes that the present 
can never equal the "good old times." 

Fig. 7— No. 147 of the Old Colony R. R. 

The Old Colony appears to have enjoyed a reputation 
for fast running in its palmy days, especially in con- 
nection with its "boat trains" run between Boston and 
Fall River. Many stories are told of wild rides on this 
particular run. and of a Mr. Lauder, whose work as 
head of the motive power department made them pos- 
sible. Judging by the remarks of his admirers, Lauder 
must have been a remarkable man, and capable of per- 
forming the most amazing engineering feats. 

No account of motive power development, however 
brief, would be complete without some mention of the 
splendid work done by William Buchanan during the time 
that he made history on the New York Central. The 
general public will remember him chiefly for his cele- 
brated 999, but that engine represented but a small por- 
tion of his mechanical achievements. 

One of the best engines that he ever designed was the 
870, shown in Fig, 8. This engine was built by the Sche- 
nectady Locomotive Works in 1891, and had I9x24-inch 
cylinders, 78-inch drivers, and a weight of 120,000 
pounds. The photograph was taken about 1895, after the 
engine had been modified in certain minor details. The 
cylindrical headlight, extended piston rods and pilot 
coupler are the principal details referred to ; but the panel 
under the cab windows had also been changed to conform 
to a more recent practice. The finish of the engine was 
somewhat improved, probably because she was used on 
the Empire State Express. 

This engine is of further interest as the subject of 
considerable controversy. It seems that because of the 
changes herein mentioned, some persons got the idea that 
there were two 870s. From what I know of the Central, 
I do not believe that such was the case. However, the 
publication of this photograph — which is rather rare — 
may clear up the mystery. 

Fig. 8— No. 870 of the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., Built In 1891. 


Let your mind for a moment run over the details, 
with which you are all so familiar, of the activities 
that go to make up our profession of railroad service 
of today. From the first conception of a line based upon 
the co-operative needs of a widely dispersed population 
for means of intercommunication, up through every 
grade of preliminary financing, construction, equipping 
and operating, the measure of success depends upon the 
intelligent co-operation of the many minds and wills con- 
cerned in the enterprise, and the more perfect the co- 
operation, the more harmonious the diversified activities 
concerned, the greater the success. Bring home to your- 
self and to your own desk an individual thought on 
what real co-operation means. No one here works alone 
or independently. You all handle phases of questions 
that originate elsewhere or originate matters that are 
handled by others. No one of you begins and ends a 
question or a completed subject. Someone else is con- 
cerned in every professional matter that enters into 
your daily life and work. Do you stop to think how 
you can make it easier for the other man to intelligently 
comprehend and successfully accomplish his duty in the 
work in which you are jointly concerned. That is the 
effort required of you ; that is elemental co-operation, and 
that very effort in its effect upon the other mind sets in 
motion an impulse that never ceases through all eternity, 
for in its acceleration of the activities of the next mind 
it promotes increased efficiency which again and again is 
reflected in the successive hands through which every 
originated thought or act must pass. 

Our work in this great profession of ours takes in 
almost every phase of present day human effort and all 
of it in its great variety passes at some time or other 
through your hands, from the constructive and pro- 
gressive ideas originated by our presidents down to 
the simple duties performed by the humblest laborer on 
our roadways, and through it all in every thought or 
action lies the requirement of intelligent co-operation 
to insure success. The impress of every mind and every 
hand concerned in the progress of each interwoven 
activity is seen or felt by every other mind and hand and 
if the application in each individual case is made with 
the constant thought of helpfulness and thoroughness 
the true spirt of co-operation will have prevailed in 
the work done, with its consequent far-reaching benefit 
to you individually, to all of those equally concerned and 
interested in your work, and to the company to whose 
welfare your best thought is given and to whose success 
your most intelligent effort should be directed. — F. B. 
Lincoln, Genl. Supt., Erie R. R. before the Railroad 
Men's Improvement Society. 



April, 1915 


By Frank J. Borer, Fmn., Cent. K. E. of N. J. 

Don't part the air hose couplings by hand before sepa- 
rating cars, as that would increase the life of the air hose 
and would be a saving for your employer. 

When taking on or discharging passengers always post 
yourself so as to assist young ladies only, as the old people 
can take care of themselves and their hand baggage, or 
maybe some kind passenger will give them a "hand." 

If passengers should ask you for information, stare at 
them first, then realizing that the traveling public really 
knows less about railroading than you do, display an over- 
abundance of anger and contempt and give them as lit- 
tle information as you can, for you are no walking en- 

Don't hang up the steam hose when not in use. because 
by so doing the coupling would not become damaged and 
you might strain your back. 

If there should be some breakdown on the engine, don't 
go anywhere near it, as some one may ask you to help a 
little to shorten up the delay of train, which, however, 
does not bother you, for you are paid to ride on the train. 

If you notice a hot box, don't tell the conductor about 
it, because he may be mean enough to order you to repack 
the box. 

If you notice a stuck brake, keep it to yourself, because 
it cannot do any harm (to you) if you ride on the cars 
ahead of it ; besides, these new engines are used to pull- 
ing "extra" loads, and it gives the shops something to 
do in removing slid flat wheels. 

And last, but not least, don't look out for your em- 
ployer's interests, but expect him to look out for yours. 

An Extensive Electric Exhibit 

The exhibit of the General Electric Company in the 
transportation building at the Panama-Pacific Interna- 
tional exposition is very extensive and comprises electric 
locomotives for various classes of service including steam 
railroad electrification, railway motors and all kinds of 
apparatus and accessories for electric railways, signal 
accessory electric devices, electric apparatus and equip- 
ment for railway shops, electric illumination for cars and 
shops, etc. 

Removing Controlling Valve Chambers 
By F. W. Bentley, Jr. 

The controlling valve chamber of the Leslie steam 
heat reducing valve, class B, is often something of a 
proposition in removal. Various types of socket 
wrenches generally, used to start the chamber out of the 
body are adequate to be sure, if they are a snug fit on 
the wrench lug on top of the chamber casting. It is 
very often found on valves that have been in service 
some length of time, however, that the tops of such 
wrench lugs are rounded off, making it impossible to 
get a socket wrench turned with a bar to loosen the 
chamber. The wrench is prone to, and often does, slip 
off, injuring the thin upper walls of the governor body. 

The sketches show a form of combination, nut and 
wrench for removing the chambers, with the use of 
which there is no opportunity for the wrench to slip off of 
the lug no matter how badly it may be rounded off in 
former mishaps with various types of socket wrench. 

The nut follows the socket end of the wrench down 
until it lacks about 1/32" or 1/16" of becoming tight 
on the top of the chamber. The nut now keeps the 
wrench from slipping up with no danger to any other 


18 Threads 
per inch 

Wrench for Removing Controlling Valve Chambers. 

part of the body. When the chamber has been turned 
until the wrench tightens on the top inside face of the 
nut, the chamber is then invariably loose enough so that 
the retaining nut may be removed and the chamber 
screwed the rest of the way out with the fingers or a 
light monkey wrench. The combination nut wrench is 
also used to hold the socket in reapplying the repaired 
chamber to the inside of the valve. 

The parts of the wrench are easy to make and will 
afford much safety and convenience in this feature of 
the work on the class B valve. 

Wrench for Westinghouse Feed Valve 

In order to facilitate repair work in his department, 
George K.. Dorwart, airbrake foreman of the Colorado 
& Southern shops at Denver, designed a wrench for tak- 
ing apart a Westinghouse feed valve. 

— Z.O 



1"» I 

?y 8oiuek j \ plvtx 

Feed Valve Wrench. 

It is the only tool necessary to completely dismantle 
a feed valve, as by holding the cap nut, pc. 8946, in the 
bench vise the check nut, pc. 1067, and spring box, pc. 
1062, are loosened with the hexagonal opening, A; the 
regulating valve cap nut, pc. 6905, with the square open- 
ing, B ; the flush nut, pc. 18458, with the square pin, 
C, and the body from the cap nut by round pins, D. 
in bracket bolt holes. — Scenic Lines Employes' Magazine. 

The Extent of Electrification 

A writer in the Railway Magazine of London. 
England, in an article dealing with steam railway elec- 
trification summarizes the extent of such projects as 
follows : 

Miles Xo. of 

electrified electric Xo. of 

( reduced to loco- motor- 

single track), motives. cars. 

United States 2,000 400 1,000 

Continent of Europe. . 1,300 300 • 350 

Great Britain 750 25 650 

April, 1915 




By Edward F. Joyce. 

The sketch shows a ladder which has been in use at 
our shop for the past four months. It is made of second- 
hand pipe and the cost of labor and material for con- 
structing it amounts to approximately one dollar. This 

steel point 

Babbit - 

I I aI ». coupling 


■jj, •,'•,', 


,1k' m Pipe 

Detail No. I. 

-} n W.I Pipe 

Section AA 
— V4" 

•« — 14" —Tk 


IZ'^te — a" -* -12 

— 12' ->k— 12" -4f—l2' 

- fi» 



K A 

i'v-i A 




Ladder Made from Second-hand Pipe. 

ladder is more substantial than a wooden ladder, inas- 
much as it is less liable to break, and it is, therefore, a 
great improvement from the standpoint of safety. It has 
proved very satisfactory, particularly in repairs to steel 
cars, where there is an additional strain thereon, due to 
men standing on it while driving or bucking up rivets. 


By Frank J. Borer, Fmn., Cent. K. E. of X. J. 

For those brake repairmen who are not already using 
a device similar to the one illustrated, the device shown 
should be of value as an easy means of adjusting heavy 
brake beams on passenger cars. It may be made at the 

Brake Beam Adjusting Device. 

shop at a small cost and its use is very simple. One hook 
is placed over the brake beam near the center and the 
other end is hooked over the axle. By tightening up 
the turnbuckle the brake beam is drawn against the wheel 
thus enabling the workman to connect the truck lever 
bottom connecting rod with ease. The device may be 
made to suit any kind of truck or brake beam. I con- 
structed one similar to that shown, about six years ago, 
and it has been in constant use ever since. 


The fuel value of two pounds of wood is roughly equiv- 
alent to that of one pound of coal. This is given as the 
result of certain calculations now being made in the for- 
est service laboratory of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, which show also about how many cords of certain 
kinds of wood are required to obtain an amount of heat 
equal to that of a ton of coal. 

Certain kinds of wood, such as hickory, oak, beech, 
birch, hard maple, ash, elm, locust, longleaf pine and 
cherry, have fairly high heat values, and only one cord of 

seasoned wood of these species is required to equal one 
ton of good coal. 

It takes a cord and a half of shortleaf pine, hemlock, 
red gum, Douglas fir, sycamore and soft maple to equal 
a ton of coal, and two cords of cedar, redwood, poplar, 
catalpa, Norway pine, cypress, basswood, spruce and 
white pine. 

Equal weights of dry, non-resinous woods, however, 
are said to have practically the same heat value regard- 
less of species, and as a consequence it can be stated as a 
general proposition that the heavier the wood the more 
heat to the cord. Weight for weight, however, there is 
very little difference between various species ; the average 
heat for all that have been calculated is 4,600 calories or 
heat units per kilogram. A kilogram of resin will de- 
velop 9,400 heat units, or about twice the average for 
wood. As a consequence, resinous woods have a greater 
heat value per pound than non-resinous woods, and this 
increased value varies, of course, with the resin content. 

Causes of Honeycomb on Flue Sheets 

The formation of honeycomb on flue sheets is doubt- 
less contributed to by the presence of excess ash mate- 
rial and sulphur in the fuel. In this connection it is 
interesting to note that the fine material produced in the 
ordinary process of mining has a higher percentage of 
both ash and pyrites (iron sulphide) than is present in 
lump coal taken from the same mine. In a series of 
tests conducted by Prof. S. W. Parr, of the University 
of Illinois, on samples of coal from seventy-five mines 
in that State, each mine being represented by one sample 
of screened lump coal and one of screenings, the results 
showed an almost uniform ash percentage in the screen- 
ings, at least double that of the ash in the lump coal. 
In run-of-mine coal the product is somewhat deceiving, 
having the appearance in the mass of being very largely 
lump material. Of course, it is possible for occasional 
carloads of run-of-mine coal to be fully equal to the best 
screened lump from the same mine, but the fine material 
must sooner or later come along somewhere in the out- 
put. After the blast and the breaking down of the coal 
at the working face the miners enter and clean up the 
rooms by sending out first the coarse or lump material. 
At the clean-up. which is made before the new drill holes 
are started, that part of the underlying floor which has 
been more or less pulverized and loosened in the various 
processes is shoveled up and sent out along with the coal. 
In this way it is evident that the fine material will be 
much higher in ash and will, moreover, contain mineral 
constituents which usually are in themselves higher in 
sulphur. Therefore, in run-of-mine material there will 
often occur exactly those physical conditions of fineness 
of division and high content of iron pyrites which are 
productive of pasty articles that can be made to grow 
by small accretions, finally forming a honeycomb struc- 
ture on the flue sheets. — Electrical World. 


Handbook of Tables and Formulas for Engineers. By 
Clarence A. Peirce and Walter B. Carver. Leather, 4 in. 
x 7 in., 168 pages. Published by the McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., Inc., 239 West 39th St., New York. Price, $1.50. 

This handy little book is exactly what its name implies. 
It was originally intended to meet the needs of engineer- 
ing students at Cornell university and for this reason a 
number of pages are devoted to equations in algebra, 
geometry and calculus, which the practicing engineer 
probably would refer to but infrequently. However, the 
major portion of the book contains a large number of 
formulas and tables which the engineer continually wishes 



April, 1915 

to refer to. The authors do not claim originality for them. 
They are the formulas found in a number of other well 
known volumes, but they are given here without any 
lengthy explanations and are so arranged that they can- 
be referred to quickly. Besides the mathematical sec- 
tions, there are sections on measurement, physical and 
chemical properties of substances, mechanics, strength of 
materials, standard gauges, fastenings and flanges and 
mathematical tables. As a concise book for quick refer- 
ence for the engineer who knows what he wants, this 
book is recommended. 

* * * 

The Art of Estimating. By William B. Ferguson, na- 
val constructor, U. S. N. Cloth, 5 in. x 8 in., 97 pages. 
Published by The Engineering Magazine Co., 140 Nas- 
sau St., New York. 

The author is head of the construction department of 
the Charleston navy yard and while he illustrates his 
ideas by examples of handling navy construction work, 
yet the points brought out are so clear that they can be 
applied in estimating the cost of work in other lines as 
well. As the book states, "the main point to emphasize 
is that each plant must collect its own data," careful anal- 
ysis of which will greatly facilitate estimate work. The 
method of reducing estimating data to the form of curves 
is gone into, together with piece work prices, symboliz- 
ing labor operations, planning and estimating by opera- 
tions, and estimating overhead expense. Several pages 
are devoted to the development of an estimating section. 

* * * 

Universal Safety Standards. By Carl M. Hansen, con- 
sulting safety engineer, American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers. Leather, 5 in. x 8 in., 312 pages, illustrated. 
Published by the Universal Safety Standards Publishing 
Co., 12th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Price, $3.00. 

This volume was compiled under the direction and ap- 
proved by the Workmen's Compensation Bureau and is 
now in its second edition. The volume is divided into 
four sections, namely: general safety standards, the ma- 
chine shop, the foundry and rules for practice. Each of 
the first three sections contains many subdivisions (as 
for instance boring and turning mills), followed by a 
certain number of suggestions for safeguarding the par- 
ticular subject mentioned. The illustrations showing the 
safeguards in green follow at the end of each chapter 
and they explain themselves readily. They show meth- 
ods of safeguarding a great number of danger points in 
machine shop and foundry work and for the many now 
interested in safety work the book should prove very 

Railway Economics. A collective catalogue of books 
in fourteen American libraries. Cloth, 7 in. x 10 in., 446 
pages. Prepared by the Bureau of Railway Economics, 
Washington, D. C. 

The purpose of this volume is to provide those inter- 
ested in the study of railway transportation and econo- 
mics, a catalogue whereby they may be enabled to gain 
access to a majority of the literature on the subject. Al- 
though there are many papers, reports, documents and 
pamphlets buried in various libraries, there has been no 
comprehensive catalogue of this matter. The volume is 
divided into the following catalogue sections: general 
works on special topics ; administration ; construction and 
operation ; traffic ; railways of respective countries, and 
railway periodicals and proceedings. Its compilation was 
a task well worth while and its use should enable students 
of railway economics to gain a better and clearer under- 
standing of railway transportation. The Bureau of Rail- 
way Economics, which undertook the preparation of this 

volume, was established in 19 10 by the railways of the 
United States for the scientific study of transportation 


In the proceedings before Judge Hazel of the U. S. 
District Court of the Western District of New York, in 
Buffalo, March 30, the receivers announced to the court 
that a complete reorganization of the United States Light 
and Heating Company is now assured through the efforts 
of the stockholders' protective committee. It appears 
that the latter represent over $2,000,000 of the $2,500,000 
outstanding preferred stock and about $6,000,000 com- 
mon stock, giving them the majority control. 

The application of the receivers was for the purpose 
of advising Judge Hazel to wind up the receivership and 
transfer the business and the property to the reorganized 

It is understood that necessary notification to the stock- 
holders and others will take some little time, and it ap- 
pears, therefore, that the receivership will be discon- 
tinued some time in June. In the meantime, the busi- 
ness will be conducted without interruption under the 
same operating management as heretofore, and the pros- 
pects for a large volume of business seem unusually 
bright. The receivership was instituted at a time of 
greatest business depression, during July, last year, and 
has continued successfully even despite the adverse cir- 
cumstances of receivership and the war abroad. The 
company has made a showing that has been regarded as 
remarkable. Judge Hazel congratulated the receivers 
and their attorneys upon the successful outcome of the 

The mammoth plant at Niagara Falls has been doing a 
larger volume of business during the present month than 
for a year past, and orders booked for future deliveries 
are considered satisfactory. With the future of the 
company now assured, there will be a larger increase of 
orders that have been pending for some time past on 
account of the uncertainty in connection with the destinies 
of the company, which are now happily settled and which 
will result in the continued employment of a large body 
of men. As is usual in similar cases, the receivers will 
be authorized to sell the assets of the company, and, as 
stated before, the stockholders' reorganization committee 
will purchase same for the benefit of creditors and the 
preferred and common stockholders whom they represent. 

The receivers of the company are James A. Roberts 
of New York City, James O. Moore of Buffalo, and 
J. Allan Smith of Niagara Falls, N. Y. 


J. W. Johnson succeeds J. T. Tadlock as master me- 
chanic of the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, with head- 
quarters at Monroe, La. 

John E. Woods has been appointed general foreman of 
the Baltimore & Ohio (Staten Island Lines), with office 
at Clifton (Stapleton, S. I.), N. Y. 

Charles D. Wilder has been appointed boiler foreman 
of the Baltimore & Ohio (Staten Island Lines), with 
office at Clifton (Stapleton, S. I.), N. Y. 

R. A. Miller succeeds W. G. Rodden as general fore- 
man of the Canadian Northern at Trenton, Ont. 

E. G. Theobald has been appointed car foreman of the 
Canadian Northern at Joliette, Que. 

J. L. Hodgson, car foreman of the Canadian Northern, 
has been transferred from Joliette, Que., to Montreal, 
succeeding R. Moore, assigned to other duties. 

T. W. Marshall succeeds H. Dibley as assistant car 
foreman of the Canadian Pacific at Transcona, Man. 

April, 1915 



Lacey R. Johnson has been appointed general welfare 
agent of the Canadian Pacific with office at Montreal, 
Que. Mr. Johnson was formerly general superintendent 
of the Angus shops district, having risen through the me- 
chanical department. In his new work he will co-operate 
in the development of such organizations as the St. John 
Ambulance Association, the safety first movement, the 
Railroad Y. M. C. A., and the athletic associations. 

A. Young, whose appointment as master mechanic of 
the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul was announced in 
the March issue, was born in 1874 and received his edu- 
cation in the public schools at Milwaukee, Wis. He com- 
menced railway work with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul, later completing a machinist's apprentice course. 
He remained with this road until 1898, serving as a ma- 
chinist and at that time left the railway service to become 
an engineer in the Milwaukee fire department. In 19x32 
he re-entered the employ of the Milwaukee road as a 
machinist at the Milwaukee shops and in 1905 was trans- 
ferred to the roundhouse service, being promoted to gen- 
eral roundhouse foreman in 1909. In July, 1913, he was 
transferred to Chicago as general foreman, where he 
served until his recent appointment. 

G. P. Goodrich, master mechanic of the Fort Smith & 
Western at Fort Smith, Ark., has resigned. 

A. Beardshaw succeeds C. Blackbird as locomotive 
foreman of the Grand Trunk at Richmond, Que. 

D. Ross has been appointed locomotive foreman of the 
Grand Trunk at Durand, Mich. 

C. E. Stewart has been appointed locomotive foreman 
of the Grand Trunk Pacific, with office at Edmonton, 

W. R. Patterson succeeds A. K. Galloway as general 
foreman of the Michigan Central at Detroit, Mich. 

W. L. Scott succeeds N. S. Airhart as master me- 
chanic of the Missouri. Kansas & Texas at Denison, Tex. 

W. G. Humphrey has been appointed purchasing 
agent for the receivers of the Missouri, Oklahoma & 
Gulf, with headquarters at Muskogee, Okla. 

F. T. Hildt of the Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf has 
been appointed general storekeeper, with headquarters at 
Muskogee, Okla. 

M. F. McCarra has been appointed roundhouse fore- 
man of the St. Louis Southwestern at Illmo. Mo., suc- 
ceeding P. H. Dwyer. 

R. R. Young has been appointed general shop foreman 
of the Tennessee Central at Nashville, Tenn. 

A. H. Powell has been promoted to general master 
mechanic of the Western Pacific, with headquarters at 
Sacramento. Cal. He was formerly master mechanic at 
this point. 

William Mcintosh. 

and at Huron, S. D., for about ten years. He was ap- 
pointed master mechanic at Winona, Minn., in July, 1887, 
and was appointed superintendent of motive power on 
the Central of New Jersey in March, 1899, retiring from 
that position in 1909. In 1908 he served as president of 
the American Railwav Master Mechanics' Association. 


The Watson Stillman Company, 50 Church street, New 
York, has added to its line of high pressure hydraulic 
pumps a new type of motor-driven geared triplex single- 
acting pump, which embodies some features of special 
merit. While primarily designed to meet the severe de- 
mands of tunnel service, it will be equally appreciated 
for other conditions. 

To secure unusual compactness and rigidity, and also 
to insure perfect alignment of all the working parts when 
under a severe service, the motor is mounted on an ex- 
tension of a heavy cast-iron base. The driving shaft and 
bearings are large and are amply provided with lubricat- 
ing cups. The gears are heavy cut-tooth type. The drive 


E. P. Gray, formerly general foreman of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe at Arkansas City, Kan., died at La 
Junta, Colo., during the latter part of March. 

Charles McCann, general foreman of the Chicago 
Junction Railway, died at Chicago on March 6, at the age 
of 65 years. 

William McIntosh. formerly superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Central of New Jersey, died on March 
15 at his home in Plainfield, N. J. Mr. Mcintosh was 
born on August 20, 1849. at Franklin, Que., and began 
railway work in 1864 as locomotive fireman on the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, remaining with that road 
until 1 87 1. He then went to the St. Paul & Pacific, now 
a part of the Great Northern, as machinist. From 
August, 1872, to November, 1877, he was locomotive 
engineer on the Chicago & North Western, and was fore- 
man of locomotive repairs on that road at Waseca, Minn., 

Triplex Hydraulic Pump. 

from the shaft is by eccentrics set at 120 , cast in one 
piece and keyed with one key to the driving shaft. The 
eccentric straps are heavy and the plungers are of tool 
steel and are guided in a rigid, crosshead guide, which 
is keyed and bolted to the base. 

The pump body is a machine steel forging with bronze 
valves and bonnets, and designed to eliminate any air 
spaces. The passageways are made large to reduce fric- 
tion of the water to a minimum. The pump as shown is 
operated by a 10 h. p. motor running at 600 r. p. m. and 
delivers 100 cubic inches per minute at 3,500 lbs. pressure, 
with a speed of the crankshaft of 100 r. p. m. Other 
sizes are built to suit operating conditions. 



April, 1915 


The Bird-Archer Company, 90 West street, New York, manu- 
facturer of boiler chemicals, has opened a St. Louis office at 513 
Frisco Building, and a Chicago office at 866 Peoples Gas Building. 
The St. Louis office is in charge of J. A. McFarland, vice-presi- 
dent, and the Chicago office is in charge of L. F. Wilson, vice- 

D. R. Niederlander has purchased the business of the Adreon 
Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, and will continue the same 
under his own name. 

The Remy Electric Company, of Detroit, Mich., is begin- 
ning construction of the first unit of its plant estimated to cost 
$96,075. This unit will be two stories, 50x60 feet, on East Grand 
boulevard. It will be reinforced concrete and will cost $30,000. 

The Stentor Electric Manufacturing Company has moved 
its office from 1790 Broadway, New York, to 126 Fifth avenue. 

The Federal Signal Company, Albany, N. Y., has moved its 
New York office to 52 Vanderbilt avenue. 

Osborn Van Brunt has been appointed manager of the traffic 
and railway sales of the General Roofing Company, St. Louis. 
He was for ten years traffic manager of the Simmons Hardware 
Company, St. Louis, and formerly chief contracting freight agent 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quiney. 

The Decatur Car Wheel Co., according to report, will invest 
$200,000 in additions for the building of rogs and switches. 

Frank N. Griggs, Richmond, Va., will represent the Harlan & 
Hollingsworth Corporation for the sale of that company's prod- 
ucts and especially passenger rolling stock, beginning April 1. Mr. 
Grigg's office is Room 1201 Virginia Railway & Power building, 
Richmond. He also represents the Transportation Utilities Co., 
Heyworth Brothers & Wakefield Co. and Henry Giessel Co. 

The Union Spring & Manufacturing Co. will remove on April 1 
from the Oliver building to Suite 2408 First National Bank build- 
ing, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The American Locomotive Co. has declared the regular quarterly 
dividend of 1% per cent on its preferred stock, payable April 21. 
Books close April 5 and reopen April 22. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. has declared the usual quarterly 
dividend of 1 per cent, payable April 26 to holders of record 
April 15. 

A. Munch, prominently identified with the metallic packing 
business for a great many years and for the past five years fac- 
tory manager of the Maywood plant of the Hewitt Co., has been 
appointed service engineer of the same company. The position 
of service engineer is a new departure in the railway supply 

G. Haven Peabody, western representative of the Lima Loco- 
motive Corporation, Lima, Ohio, has resigned, effective April 15, 
to accept a position with the Lackawanna Steel Co. 

Edward J. Williams, treasurer of McCord & Co., has been 
elected assistant treasurer of the commission for relief in Belgium. 

W. C. Chapman, who for several years has been connected with 
the sales force of the Philadelphia branch office of Manning, Max- 
well & Moore, Inc., has been appointed manager of that office. 

H. C. Hopson, who for the last six years has been at the head of 
a department of the New York State Public Service Commission, 
Second district (Albany), has opened an office at 61 Broadway, 
New York City, where he is prepared to advise concerning financ- 
ing, rates, reorganizations, accounting and valuations of railways 
any other public utilities. At Albany, Mr. Hopson had charge 
of the examinations of the«accounts and records of corporations, 
in connection with the investigation of capitalization, rates and 

E. L. Leeds, who since 1907 has been manager of the railroad 
equipment department of the Niles-Bement-Pond Co., New York, 
has been appointed general manager of sales of that company and 
the Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Ralph V. Sage, formerly connected with the Ralston Steel Car 
Co., Columbus, Ohio, has been made contracting car and structural 
engineer of the Cambria Steel Co. with headquarters at Philadel- 

phia, a newly created position. Mr. Sage resumes a connection 
with the Cambria Steel Co. which he previously had severed to go 
with the Ralston Steel Car Co. Cyrus E. Brown has been made 
assistant contracting car and structural engineer of the Cambria 

W. W. Rosser, manager of western sales of the T. H. Syming- 
ton Company, Rochester, N. Y., has been appointed vice-president 
of the company, with office at Chicago. 

The Pullman Co., at a directors' meeting recently held in New 
York, elected the following officers: Richmond Dean and Le Roy 
Kramer, vice-presidents; Clyde Reynolds, assistant to the presi- 
dent, vice Le Roy Kramer, promoted; L. S. Hungerford, general 
manager, vice Richmond Dean, promoted. 

Henry R. Towne, for 46 years president of the Yale & Towne 
Manufacturing Co., New York, has been elected chairman of the 

Walter C. Allen, vice-president and general manager of the 
Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., has been elected president and 
general manager to succeed Henry R. Towne, who has been elected 
chairman of the board. 

The annual meetings of the Cambria Steel Co. and of the Cam- 
bria Iron Co. were held at Philadelphia on March 16. The retiring 
directors of both companies were re-elected. 

The Locomotive Pulverized Fuel Co. has been granted a char- 
ter in Delaware to manufacture patented fuel saving devices. The 
incorporators are Joel S. Coffin, Englewood, N. J.; John E. 
Muhlfield, Scarsdale, N. Y. ; H. F. Ball and Samuel G. Allen, New 
York, and LeGrand Parish, Mountain View, N. J. 

McCord & Co., manufacturers of railway appliances, have re- 
moved their general offices from the Railway Exchange building, 
Michigan avenue, Chicago, to the plant in West 120th street, West 

The Chicago office of the Terry Steam Turbine Co. is now located 
in the Peoples Gas building and is in charge of A. W. de Revere. 
An office has also been opened in the Michigan Trust building, 
A. L. Searles being in charge. 

The National Positive Lock-Nut Co. has been incorporated 
in New York with $10,000 capital stock. M. Furitz, 1028 Fortieth 
street, Brooklyn, N. Y., is interested. 

At the annual meeting of the National Railway Appliances Asso- 
ciation, held on March 16, the following officers and directors were 
elected: President, Philip W. Moore, P. & M. Co., Chicago; vice- 
president, H. M. Sperry, General Railway Signal Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. ; treasurer, C. W. Kelly, Kelly -Derby Co., Chicago; director, 
R. C. Jacobi, Johns-Manville Co., Chicago; director, R. C. McCloy, 
Wm. Wharton Co., Philadelphia. The directors holding over are 
E. H. Bell, the Railroad Supply Co., Chicago ; J. Alexander Brown, 
Pocket List, New York; E. E. Hudson, Thos. Edison, Inc., Orange, 
N. J.; and M. J. Trees, Chicago Bridge & Iron Works. The 
treasurer's report showed a balance of $8,964.60 on hand, an 
increase of $746.57 over that of last year, all bills being paid. The 
board of directors held a meeting on March 18 and re-elected Bruce 
V. Crandall as secretary for another year. 

George B. Serman, of Watertown, N. Y., has been made a 
director of the New York Air Brake Co., to succeed the late 
George B. Massey, of Watertown. The other directors were 

The Northern Chemical Engineering Laboratories, Madison, 
Wis., are now known as the C. F. Burgess Laboratories. The new 
name implies no change in management or ownership. 


Henry H. Sessions, vice-president of the Standard Coupler Co., 
died at his residence in Chicago, March 14, at the age of 68 years. 

William T. Simpson, vice-president of the American Rolling 
Mill Company, Middletown, Ohio, died in Cincinnati on March 30. 
Mr. Simpson was born in Saratoga county, New York, and was 59 
years of age. 

Frederick A. Hall, formerly head of the chain hoist department 
of the Yale & Towne Co., died at his home in Passaic, N. J., on 
March 16. 

Mav. 1915 



Master Mechanic 

Bruce U. CrandalL Publisher 


Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 5784 

Eastern Office: SO Church Street, New York 
Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, cars, equipment, 

shops, machinery- and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting, make all checks payable to Bruce V. CrandalL 

Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 
latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 
receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Ulinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 


Chicago, May, 1915 

Xo. 5 


Editorial — 

A Central Testing Plant 147 

Flue Cleaning on Superheaters 147 

Atlantic City 148 

Modernizing Shop Machines 148 

Operating Results in Brief 148 

The Car Door Question 149 

The Master Mechanics Office 149 

The Blacksmith and the Scrap Heap 150 

Recreation Facilities for Employes 150 

Applying Motor Drives to Old Machines 151 

Automatic Cylinder Cock 153 

Fuel Economy in Railroad Service 154 

The Mechanical Man 158 

Forged and Rolled Steel Pistons 159 

Making Eccentric Rods 165 

A Correction 165 

Handling Supplies at Engine Houses 166 

A Novel Wood-Boring Machine 169 

How to Get Hurt 169 

The Duties of a Locomotive Engineer 170 

Loosening Packing Rings 171 

Dies for Safety Chain Hooks 172 

A "Wash-Out Diverter 172 

The Micro- Structure of Tool Steel 173 

Reviews of Recent Books 177 

New Literature 178 

Personals 178 

Obituary 178 

Drilling Hints 179 

A Portable Power Plant 179 

The Selling Side 180 

A Central Testing Plant 

The final test of any method or device, of course, is 
the way it behaves in actual service, but this does not 
detract from the value of work done in the experimental 
or testing plant. Tests of this nature cull out the poor- 
est methods and devices, and often result in many im- 
provements being made to the original device before it 
is given practical service. Those roads which maintain 
well established testing plants are looked to as leaders. 
Materials and devices are not placed in service at once 
at a high expense but are tested with all possible accur- 
acy and are compared with similar devices. 

However efficient testing plants are expensive to main- 
tain and only the very large systems can afford them. 
Even the large systems cannot maintain very elaborate 
plants. There are a great many tests which could be con- 
ducted at some central experimental testing plant and 
while the idea is not a new one bv anv means, it would 
seem that such a plant could do much good, especially 
if it was under the auspices of the mechanical associa- 
tions. Possibly the most effective and economical method 
of running such a plant would be in connection with some 
technical school. This would not only cut down the ex- 
pense but would allow it to do work of a broader scope. 

F)ue Cleaning on Superheaters 

The flue cleaning question is always an important one, 
whether on a saturated or superheater engine, and some- 
times the superheater is blamed, when its tubes are in 
a condition which would not be tolerated on a saturated 
engine. The superheater flues constitute a considerable 
percentage of the water heating surface in a locomotive 
equipped with a superheater however, and if they are 
stopped up not only the heating surface but the efficiency 
of the superheater is affected. 

The thorough cleaning of boiler tubes is, of course, 
of vital importance and every mechanical man recognizes 
it, but in the effort to keep the engine in service this 
fact is sometimes lost sight of. The much abused round- 
house foreman is the man who knows whether the tubes 
are being cleaned and he can do a great deal in increasing 
the efficiency of the engine. He is sometimes blamed for 
a poor condition of the engine which he cannot help be- 
cause his force and tiijje are too limited to give more than 
a superficial cleaning. 

Many difficulties have been overcome by the super- 
heater people but one of their greatest troubles has been 
due to the lack of cleaning of superheater flues. Some 
mechanical officers have apparently been of the opinion 
in the past at least, that all they had to do to get greater 
efficiency was to install a superheater and forget all 
about it. Any device worth while must be given atten- 
tion and this is especially true of the superheater which 
when once installed is a vital part of the boiler. 

The value and efficiency of the superheater has been 
proven beyond a doubt but it must be given care and 
attention. It takes hard, conscientious work at frequent 



May, 1915 

If the tubes are allowed to get so bad that some of the 
units have to pulled out, it is frequently the case that 
they are sprung or distorted and the superheater will 
get the blame. The superheater deserves good care and 
if the roundhouse force is not large enough to give the 
tubes the proper care it should be increased. Of course 
periods of cleaning vary on different roads and are in- 
fluenced by the grade of coal used. However, everything 
that can be said about keeping the ordinary boiler tube 
clean should go double for superheater tubes. 

Atlantic City 

In a month or so, the annual meetings of the two 
leading mechanical associations will take place at Atlantic 
City. That the reports and papers will be up to standard 
and will probably excel those of past years is taken for 
granted. As has been the case in past years some will 
go there to work, a few to play, but the majority will 
go to combine business with pleasure. Some will go 
there for the first time, others are among those who 
say, "I've been at these conventions for the last eighteen 

There are two sides of the convention to which the 
newcomer cannot give too much time — the convention 
sessions and the supply exhibits. The sessions of the 
convention constitute his primary object in attending. 
From them he will learn what other men are doing and 
can see the possibilities and progress in his chosen line 
of work. A careful study of the exhibits will show him 
what those who are daily studying his needs are doing 
to improve the tools and equipment with which he has 
to do. The supply men each year gather an instructive 
and expensive exhibit, the like of which the railway 
mechanical man cannot find elsewhere. He owes it to 
himself as well as to the supply men to give this exhibit 
his best attention. 

The man who gets the most out of the time spent at 
Atlantic City is the one who combines business with 
pleasure. Evidence of this is seen among the scattered 
groups chatting together on the boardwalk, on the pier 
before the sessions commence or in some booth after 
the sessions are over, to say nothing of the evening 
entertainments, etc. One of the big things which the 
newcomer to Atlantic City brings back is the remembrance 
of good fellowship and a broader acquaintance among the 
best bunch of people in the country. 

as possible. It is easy for a shop to get into a rut and 
to do the same things in the same old way, day after day. 
The makers of machine tools are constantly improving 
their products : sometimes by entirely new designs but 
more frequently by alterations, or attachments to existing 
designs. No shop of course can afford to throw out a 
machine tool which has many years of usefulness in it, 
but by carefully watching developments in design, changes 
or additions to the machines in use may be made at a 
cost which will be more than offset by the increased 

The application of motor drives to shop tools of course 
has been possibly the most important development in 
modernizing shop machinery during the past few years. 
Interesting examples of recent work along these lines are 
given in an article on another page showing how a number 
of old machines at the Sacramento shops of the Western 
Pacific were equipped with multi-speed motors. In this 
case, the old machines were being placed in new shops 
and perhaps the necessity of modernizing them was 
brought out more forcibly. The work in question is very 
interesting and may point to possibilities at other shops. 

The older shops often are a prolific field for work of 
this sort. At the main shops of one large system, work 
of this character has been carried on for over two years 
and is still being carried on. The work referred to also 
includes a complete rearrangement of the tool layout 
which will enable the work to be handled more economi- 
cally. It is work of this sort that causes some very old 
shops to be ranked among the most efficient. Such shops 
are efficient because somewhere in the organization there 
is a man who is always on the alert to look into the 
latest machine designs and to ascertain if some shop tool 
cannot be modernized with economy. 

Modernizing Shop Machines 

Steady improvements are being made in shop tools, in 
shop methods, and in methods of planning and laying out 
shop plants. The shop which is laid out and built today 
according to the most advanced ideas, will within a year 
or two be outclassed by a still more modern plant. Its 
tools, which today may be the best that the market affords, 
will be lacking in a number of ways after a few years 
have passed. Those in charge of shop plants and shop 
machinery must be always on the alert to see that the 
equipment is made to keep pace with the times, as nearly 

Operating Results in Brief 
The net operating income of the railways of the United 
States for January, 1915, decreased $5 per mile, or 2.8 
per cent, as compared with January, 1914; in January, 
1914, it was 25.6 per cent less than in January, 1913. 

Total operating revenues amounted to $214,196,786, a 
decrease from 1914 of $17,006,859. Operating expenses 
were $163,769,221, a decrease of $16,307,796. Net oper- 
ating revenue amounted to 850,427,565, a decrease of 
$699,063. Taxes amounted to $11,213,928, a decrease 
of $87. This left $39,174,218 for net operating income, 
the amount available for rentals, interest on bonds, ap- 
propriations for improvements and new construction, and 
dividends. Operating revenues per mile of line averaged 
$936, a decrease of 8.3 per cent; operating expenses per 
mile averaged $716, a decrease of 10.0 per cent; net op- 
erating revenue per mile averaged S220. a decrease of 2.4 
per cent, while taxes per mile were $49, a decrease of 1.0 
per cent. Net operating income per mile was $171, a de- 
crease of 2.8 per cent. Railways operating 228.690 miles 
of line are covered by this summary, or about ninety 
per cent of the steam railway mileage in the United 


THE CAR DOOR QUESTION. stop and allows a space for rain and snow to blow in. 

By W. K. Cake, Genl. Car Ins., N. & W. By., Boanoke, Va. The very many cars that are at present in service, and 

The subject of outside hung doors and wood door conditions as mentioned here justify the different rail- 
stops is one that at present is not receiving the atten- way companies owning same to take steps to improve the 
tion by railroad companies that is necessary or that conditions. ( 
should be given it. ^ e would suggest the immediate abandonment of any 

Let us first consider the outside hung door on the and a11 wooden door stops, and the use in its place of a 
older wood underframe cars, and be convinced that its metal bar of the " Z " pattern. There are two or three 
original fastenings, etc., do not afford the protection to ver Y ? ood reasons why this should be done, namely, 
the door that they should have in the present day. Many better protection to door when closed, perfect storm pro- 
of the doors have very poorly designed top hangers, and tection, no splitting or breaking, and better chance to 
they are so made that it is next to impossible to open secure the door fastenings, 
the door or close it. You have only to look at the bottom 

corners of the door and you will find same to be cut THE MASTER MECHANIC'S OFFICE 

away, caused by the use of large iron bars at warehouses By Loi:is Brentnall. 

and sidings, in order to open and close the doors. Efficiency in handling office work depends almost 

Again, the majority of these doors are provided with entirely upon two things, i. e., ability of the clerks, and 

but two guide castings at the bottom ; one located next the office appliances at their disposal in expediting rapid 

to the wooden door stop at forward end of door, and the writing and figuring. 

other at the rear end of door when closed. These two The first requisite in attaining efficiency in handling 
castings afford the only protection the door has to hold the master mechanic's office work is generally fulfilled 
it in position when closed, provided the hasp has not by reason of the master mechanic's good judgment in 
been placed over the staple, or whatever means may be selecting clerks specially adapted for handling mechan- 
provided to engage the hasp in order to lock and seal ical department computations and records. Even good 
the door. When the door is moved back sufficiently to clerks in commercial lines feel like school boys in a shop 
pass the lower guide casting next to the door stop, there office, where locomotive mileage, costs per mile run 
is then only one other casting provided to prevent the for supplies and repairs, and the computation of shops 
door from swinging outward, unless the door is pushed expenses, accounts chargeable, etc., are as foreign to 
back entirely. Thus we find in some cases that a small them as railroading is to a storekeeper. "What railroad 
casting is fastened on the belt rail of the car, which is experience have you had?" is a question which has ex- 
intended to assist in holding the door in place so as to eluded inexperienced mechanical department clerks 
prevent it from swinging away from side of the car from working in the master mechanic's office. This has 
when passing trains on double track roads, or striking generally enabled the master mechanic to handle his office 
cars in yards when shifting, or in handling the cars. It work at a good average efficiency, so far as the ability 
frequently occurs that car inspectors are injured in yards of hie clerks is concerned, 
due to these very conditions. Ordinarily, a master mechanic's chief clerk is a man 

We find that the lower door rail and siding are cut who has had some special mechanical department expe- 

away at the lower corners of door. These should be in rience. He may have been clerk to a foreman, or per- 

condition to hold door in place, but, due to the worn and haps he was a shopman or engineer with clerical ability, 

broken condition of rail and siding, the door can swing who sought office work on account of having lost a hand 

outward and is very dangerous to passing trains. Again, or a foot. At any rate, he is usually a man who has 

it is often the case that the top portion of these lower good mechanical department judgment, as well as cler- 

door castings is broken off, and when such is the case ical ability, for his duties require, at times, that he shall 

the door can and will swing outward. These are the handle matters relating to the division in connection with 

conditions that are confronting one every day, both in his clerical work, especially during temporary absence 

the yards and on cars in transit. The cars are allowed of the master mechanic. The wrecking crew may be 

to run, as owners do not repair them, and foreign lines needed at an outside point, and in such a case there is 

do not have the proper door castings, resulting in con- no time to ask what should be done if the master me- 

ditions getting worse instead of better. The owners of chanic is not within hearing. A chief clerk's efficiency, 

cars so equipped can easily see these conditions and if therefore, depends as much upon his railroad experience 

they would start on their own cars a decided improve- as upon his clerical ability — with a preference for his 

ment would soon be noticed. experience, should he not be "fine at figures." An 

The expense in connection with the improvement would ordinary clerk may work all day in compiling figures, 

be very little, but it is very necessary that the owners a review of which bv a practical chief clerk may bring 

take the initiative, as they are in possession of the repair the comment. "Your figures are wrong!" His practical 

parts. My suggestion would be to add two more bottom judgment enables him to discern errors and irregulari- 

guide castings to each door, so as to have two castings ties. Being a chief, he is, of course, more than a clerk, 

holding the door close to side of car, in whatever position Some master mechanics allow their chief clerks to 

it may be, and to prevent any possibility of the door select the clerks for handling the routine office work, 

swinging outward when passing trains or being handled such as timekeeping, shop distribution, compilation of 

in the yards. statements, handling of reports and keeping records. 

Next, the wooden door stop has also outlived its useful- while other master mechanics prefer to at least see new 

ness. We find that in very many cases the wood door clerks before thev are put at work. Of course, in some 

stop is split, or possibly poorly secured to side of car. respects it is immaterial who does the hiring, so long as 

In case it is split it usually happens near the door fasten- the clerks are of the right kind, and most chief clerks 

ing. In that case it is no hard matter for the car robber are able judges of clerical ability. 

to remove the fastening and replace same without dis- Good stenographers, however, are sometimes "rare 

turbing the seal. The result is when the car arrives at birds." The trouble with most of them is that they do 

its destination, the contents check short and immediately not grasp the meaning of the dictations on account of 

a shortage claim is prevented. It also allows rain to the technicality of mechanical department terms. "You 

beat in at forward end of door, as it is away from the do not seem to get it as I said it," is a common complaint 



May, 1915 

in this connection, sometimes on account of the stenog- 
rapher missing reading his notes, but more generally by 
reason of his not interpreting the meaning of what was 
said. Usually, the best stenographer for the master 
mechanic's office is one who has worked in a foreman's 
office, or who has at least had previous railroad experi- 
ence. A low wage, of course, may deter getting a thor- 
oughly experienced man, but if he is familiar with 
mechanical department terms he may do better than a 
high-priced stenographer. 

Expediting office work by using up-to-date office appli- 
ances is a feature which has not yet reached some of 
the smaller railroad offices. There was a time when 
adding machines, duplicating machines, dictation phono- 
graphs, etc., were considered too expensive for even 
large railroad offices, but when it comes to handling 
office work efficiently, these appliances must be given 
consideration, and no doubt more master mechanics' 
offices will be provided with such equipment in the future 
than has been considered advisable in the past, for com- 
putations can be handled much quicker on an adding, 
multiplying and dividing machine than can be done men- 
tally, and generally with a greater degree of accuracy. 

Computing tables also facilitate rapid calculations, 
while systematizing the rendition of reports and the 
compilation of statements adds to the efficiency of the 
master mechanic's office. 


By H. H. Jones, Sierra Ey., Jamestown, Cal. 

A great many master mechanics in railroad circles have 
thousands of dollars in so-called scrap piles, waiting for 
some one to pick them up. I don't expect my sugges- 
tions will be of material benefit to large and up-to-date 
shops, but believe they will assist the managements of 
the small and middle class shops in cutting down their 
storeroom expenses. 

We will take first "old tire" that is so often allowed 
to pile up and rust away, when it contains thousands 
of pounds of good steel. In shops that have the steam 
hammer, various articles can be made to advantage out 
of this steel. Take first the making of "pinch bars." 
Nick the tire twice in the inside with a cold chisel and 
sledge, the cuts being opposite each other. Place a heavy 
jack inside the tire, only opposite from the cuts, tighten 
it up until a heavy strain is placed on the tire and strike 
a blow over each cut outside the tire. The tire will then 
break at both cuts. Then nick to the proper length and 
break cold under the hammer, draw the pieces down to 
2J/2 sq. in. and heat either in a furnace or hollow fire. 
You will then be able to hold the piece secure while 
drawing down the handle, which can be done in one 
heat with a 1,200-lb. hammer. The other end can be 
forged by hand or a tool made on the same lines as a 
hammer swage and forged in two heats. Bars made out 
of tire have proven good bars, being tough, hard, and 
will not break or bend. Draw the color or temper to a 
pale blue. 

The tire can also be drawn down to 1^2 in. x 1 in. and 
used for pick steel, thus saving another steel bill. We 
do this in our shop and consider it quite a saving, as the 
picks require no tempering and the pieces cut off to the 
proper length can be welded under a belt hammer, with a 
simple lap weld and finished in one heat. 

Various tools can be made out of tire steel, such as 
big sledges, tamping bars for the track, dies of all kinds 
requiring a hard steel, hot cutters for the hammer, etc. 
We made a set of dies for our hammer 16 in. x 6 in. x 
6 in., using axle core for the bottom that is planed out 
10 fit in the die block. The tire was then welded on the 

top of the iron and planed all over. These dies have 
been in constant use for nearly three years and are still 
in good shape, being hard enough not to require temper- 
ing and soft enough to plane when necessary. 

Let us go to the scrap pile and gather up the old coil 
springs and make "jack levers," "buggy bars," platform 
bars and drift pins for the rip track. The flat spring 
steel will make your rip track wrenches if you need any, 
and when you are repairing your old locomotive springs 
don't take the new steel from the rack for your short 
leaves, when the scrap bin is full of steel. 

When you see your blacksmith take a new bar of iron 
out of the rack, see if you do not remember that piece 
of iron laying out alongside the roundhouse that is just 
right for that job he is doing. How about those old 
pilots that have been discarded? You might just as well 
have the roustabout gang knock them to pieces ; there's 
about 12 ft. of 3 in. x y 2 in. iron in them and the wood 
sawed up will fire up your sand house or do for some 
station agent along the line. Don't overlook that pile of 
tie plates that have been accumulating on account of 
being straightened — the steam hammer and a man will 
clean that up for you quick. Those old spikes, too, if 
straightened up, will be O.K. to* use in the yards and 
side tracks. One man can straighten 4 kegs a day. 

Cut up all of those old scrap rails for brake beams, for 
they make fine beams. You may also have a pile of 4J4 
in. x 8 in. worn-out axles. They will make good 4 in. x 
7 in. axles. Have the blacksmith jump a piece of 4 in. x 1 in. 
"scrap material" against the end and use the ram, driving 
the whole end back in a nice ball. Then take a mellow 
welding heat on it, working it down to the proper size, 
and you are an axle ahead. Or, take the 4 in. x 7 in. 
axle that is worn out, forge a collar (out of scrap axle 
iron) &/ 2 in. x 1*4 in-, weld on the worn-out journal 
under the hammer in a V-block, and the machinist can 
do the rest. Will it pay? Well, you have just a certain 
number of men to run your small shop; you cannot lay 
off any, so if you get these jobs done while the men are 
resting rainy days, don't you think you are ahead ? 

Recreation Facilities for Employes 

The Grand Trunk Railway has for many years done 
a most practical kind of welfare work for engine and 
trainmen through the Railway Y. M. C. A. Buildings 
have been erected at fourteen division points, which pro- 
vide meals, beds, baths, recreation, books, magazines, etc. 

The company makes a monthly appropriation of from 
$90.00 to $150.00 per month to these associations, mak- 
ing a total sum of about $1,500.00 per year in addition 
to first cost of the buildings. 

The employes contribute to the support of these asso- 
ciations by a small annual fee for membership, and by 
paying cost price for meals and lodging. Clean beds are 
given for the modest fee of 15 cents, and meals at about 
30 cents. 

This type of work was inaugurated on the Grand 
Trunk fifteen years ago by the late Chas. M. Hays, and 
has been continued and extended by his successor, E. J. 

The popularity of this movement is shown by the fact 
at New Toronto freight yards the building has been en- 
larged five times. Co-operation is the motto of the Rail- 
way Y. M. C. A., the management of the local associa- 
tion being in the hands of a committee made up largely 
of the employes who use the privileges. This sharing in 
the management disarms suspicion, and makes clear to all 
•that the returns to the company are indirect, being only 
through the improved physical and moral condition of 
those who spend their time, when off duty, in a whole- 
some atmosphere. 

May, 1915 



Applying Motor Drives to Old Machines 

How a Number of Belt Driven Machines at the Sacramento 
Cal., Shops of the Western Pacific Were Equipped with Motors 

By W. E. Johnston, Chief Draftsman, Western Pacific Ry., Sacramento, Cal. 

When we built the new shops of the Western Pacific 
at Sacramento, Cal., we had several old machines which 
had been driven by belts, but which were otherwise good 
tools and suitable for the new shops. It occurred to me 
that multi-speed induction motors might be adapted and 
I arranged therefore for the purchase of several for use 
on the old machines in order to convert them into indi- 
vidual motor driven machines. The results of this plan 
have been even better than I expected. 

The application of alternating current motors to old 
machine tools equipped with cone pulleys has always been 
a matter of some difficulty for the reason that squirrel 
cage motors of the standard types operate at only one 
practically constant speed, and the motors with wound 
rotors also tend to approach synchronous speed when 
running light. The multi-speed motors which have now 
been made commercially successful for 3-phase current 
furnish a convenient solution of the difficulty, as they 
can be had with synchronous speeds of 1,800, 1,200, '900 
and 600 R. P. M., the four different speeds in one motor 
being obtained by varying the number of poles by means 
of a drum controller. 

For shops where only 2-phase current is available it 
is necessary to transform the current from 2-phase to 
3-phase, which may be done very conveniently by means 
of two transformers. Any number of the multi-speed 
motors may be operated from a pair of transformers of 

current delivering capacity equal to the maximum de- 
mand of the motors. The motors have good operating 
characteristics, with the exception of a rather low power 
factor at light loads and low speeds, and give quite as 
satisfactory service as the ordinary motors. 

The application of one of these multi-speed motors of 
6 H. P. capacity to an old 36"x33'o" engine lathe orig- 
inally equipped with a cone pulley is shown in Fig. 1. 
The cone pulley was removed entirely and replaced by a 
sleeve carrying the gear driven by the motor pinion. This 
was the only change made in the machine itself, as the 
back gears and triple gears gave satisfactory spindle 
speeds as originally arranged. The no-load spindle speeds 
obtainable are as follows : 

Motor speed. Direct. Back geared. Triple geared. 

18,000 300 42 j. j 

1,200 200 28 5.1 

900 150 21 3.8 

600 100 14 2.5 

The full load speeds are about 5 per cent lower. 

As shown by the drawing, the motor is controlled from 
the apron by a hand-wheel, which operates the controller 
by means of a splined shaft extending the full length of 
the bed. With this arrangement all four motor speeds in 
both directions are instantly available to the operator 
without it being necessary for him to move away from 
the carriage, and the handling of the work is correspond- 

l"Bore with j'xfr key my for longitudinal shaft 

' x £ r 



%' •• ■• &"x^" ■> " • 'shaff to handwheel 

5pllned Mitre ^Controller 

Universal joint coupling ' ^ aft Q ear s wheel 

Fig. 1 — Application of Multi-Sp*>"d Motor to Lathe. 



May, 1915 

Sa!i III 

P,m m^B 


*\ r 3mW4* 

i u 

Tflar T 1 r 




Fig. 2 — Multi-Speed Motor Applied to Radial Drill Press. 

ingly rapid. This is especially convenient in setting up 
long work. 

The application of another 6 H. P. multi-speed motor 
to a large radial drill press is shown in the photograph, 
Fig. 2, and the drawing, Fig. 3. This machine was orig- 
inally equipped with a cone pulley at the base of the 
column. This was removed and a single pulley was 
applied for the belt from the motor. The original back 
gear had a ratio of 12.1, which would have left too large 

Fig. 3 — Multi-Speed Motor Applied to Radial Drill Press. 

a gap between the direct and back geared speeds with the 
multi-speed motor whose maximum speed was three 
times the minimum. One pair of the gears was, there- 
fore, removed and a new pair substituted, giving a ratio 

Mole for 

I- Required A--21 
l-Required A- 3} 

Bearing cast iron 

%" Top courlter bore 
on backside 




Ring to be cast 

SOlid ^yji, — a ■•- — h 

\f/ ?- Required 

5haft /-Required 

n j *T£L %"7-/)a 


I- Required 

] a— L fi 







Finished all over * 

->%'- . 5 J eel . . 

^Q 4 [| 'mwmw m hKequirea 

*—* p3t I n t" 7/7/7 



bolt " 



2- Required 


Cast Iron 

l-Req. A- If B-lp 

l-Req. A- /*£" £•//" 

Fig. 6 — Details of Drive on Nut Facer. 

May, 1915 



Fig. 5 — Application of a 1% 

Motor to Nut Facer. 

of 4^.i. This gave the following spindle speeds, which 
have proven entirely satisfactory: 

Motor speed. Direct. Back geared. 

R. P. M. R. P. M. R. P. M. 

i,8oo 210 47 

1,200 140 31 

900 105 23 

600 70 15 

The controller on this machine, as shown by the photo- 
graph, is mounted in an inverted position directly on the 
head. With this arrangement the entire range of speeds 
is available without the operator moving away from the 
head. In order to convey the current from the line to 
the controller and from the controller to the motor it 
was necessary to make up a special cable, using extra 
flexible stranded wire held together by a braided covering 
of marline. This cable is led first to the vertical sliding 
support for the arm and thence to the head, the cable 
being of sufficient length to permit the arm and head to 
be moved to any position within their range without any 
change in the connections. 

Fig. 4 shows the application of a 4 H. P. multi-speed 
motor to a crank planer. This motor was applied by the 
machine builders and was preferred to a gear box by the 

railroad company. In this case the controller could be 
advantageously mounted directly in front of the motor, 
giving a convenient arrangement for the operator and 
making the wiring very simple. The controller on this 
machine is blocked so that the machine can be operated 
in only one direction. 

The drawing, Fig. 5, shows the application of a 1^ 
H. P. multi-speed motor to an old nut facer. On this 
machine it was desired to reverse quickly to run the nuts 
off the spindle after they were faced. This was accom- 
plished by using the double throw friction clutches, of 
which the details are shown in Fig. 6. The four direct 
speeds given by the motor were considered sufficient on 
account of the limited range in diameter of the work. 

In the wood mill multi-speed motors have a special 
field for driving circular-cut-off and rip sawing machines 
on which saws of different sizes are used, and also for 
circular rip sawing machines on which dado heads are 
used. These machines usually have constant speed drives 
which can be made correct for only one size of saw. 
With the four speed motors, saws of any desired size 
within the range of the machines may be used and an 
approximation to the correct speed obtained by setting the 
handle of the drum controller at the proper notch. 

The starting apparatus for the smaller sizes of these 
motors consists of the drum controller only. For 15 
H. P. sizes and larger compensators with overload relays 
and no voltage releases should be used in addition to the 
controllers. On these larger motors the drum controllers 
are set at the desired speeds while the motors are at rest, 
and the starting and stopping handled by the compen- 
sators in the usual way. 


By H. C. Spicer, Fmn., A. C. L. By., Waycross, Ga. 
The automatic cylinder cock shown herewith is very 
economical and inexpensive. The valve body is made 
from a brass casting and the valve is made of wrought 
iron or brass, whichever is preferred, thus doing away 
with the other expensive devices commonly used on loco- 
motives. This valve is especially suitable for yard service 
engines, as with its length of 2}4 inches overall it 
would not be knocked off so often on places where ob- 
structions were piled close to the tracks. 



/" 5td. pipe thread. 

Valve turned round 
then shape on 
three sides. 

S* Coil spring to have 
just enough tension 
to hold ralv off seat. 

f z Cotter pin 


our H. P. Motor Applied to Crank Planer. 

Automatic Cylinder Cock. 



May, 1915 

Fuel Economy in Railroad Service* 

An Analysis of Seven General Factors Which Influence the Fuel 
Consumption of Locomotives, and Some Deductions Therefrom 

By M. C. M. Hatch, Supt. Fuel Ser., D., L. & W. R. R. 

"Economy" and "Efficiency" are, at present, about the 
most popular words in railroad diction, looked upon as 
pass-words to the province of 20th century operation; as 
powerful in their way as was the "Open Sesame" of Ali 
Baba. To realize their full force, however, they must be 
combined, the somewhat unwieldy result of "Economical 
Efficiency" being obtained. Illustrative of what their 
combination means : You are talking fuel with a locomo- 
tive fireman and you say, "Now the first thing you want 
is steam (efficiency) and you want to get that steam with 
the least posible fuel" (economical efficiency). "Effi- 
ciency," strictly interpreted, does not go back of results; 
"Economy" may be carried so far as to overlook, in a 
measure, results; hence the need of the combination of 
the two, to convey a proper indication of what the rail- 
roads of this country are trying to accomplish along their 
ramified lines of endeavor. Consideration of this has 
caused the writer to coin the word "ecofficiency" as 
covering the entire situation in itself. 

What is the problem involved in locomotive fuel eco- 
fficiency? Simply that of obtaining, at the draw-bar of 
the locomotive, a work equivalent of all the heat units 
present in the fuel consumed in the fire-box. There are 
losses, fundamental in character, which preclude the 
possibility of the attainment of this 100 per cent per- 
formance, but it is, like infinity in mathematics, the limit 
towards which our endeavors should be directed. Other 
losses there are which are "attackable" and which will 
justify such attack as yielding dividends, in results, com- 
mensurate with the time and money spent against them. 
Let us analyze the situation as carefully as may be, to 
determine along what lines our endeavors in this field 
should lead us. 

During the year ending June 30, 1913, there was 
expended for fuel supply on American railroads the sum 
of $241,598,314.00, this amount being 11.4 per cent of 
the total operating expense. The tonnage equivalent was, 
approximately, 130,000,000 tons — truly an enormous 
amount. As an "ocular" demonstration of what this 
tonnage means, consider that the Boston & Maine has 
2,300 miles of track. A pile of this length and with a 
triangular cross section 40 feet at the base and 20 feet 
high would contain about the amount of coal purchased 
for the locomotives in this country yearly, and a train 
of 80,000 pounds capacity steel hopper cars, which would 
girdle the globe at the equator, would be needed to move 
this tonnage. A generally accepted figure of 20 per cent 
is allowed for stand-by losses on road, in engine house, 
en route from cars and tenders, waste at pops, etc. As- 
suming that this is correct, we have then 80 per cent 
of the total, amounting in value to $193,000,000.00 being 
put through our locomotives yearly, while doing useful 
work. The thermal efficiency of the modern locomotive 
is in the vicinity of 5.5 per cent so that, if fully utilized, 
our 100 per cent condition, the cost of fuel for doing the 
present work calling for nearly two hundred millions 
would be about $11,000,000, the tremendous difference 
being made up of wastes, both avoidable and unavoidable, 
which do not. actively, move a ton of freight or a 
passenger. A heat balance will show about where these 

• A paper read before the New England Railroad Club. 

losses, in so far as the boiler is concerned, occur and, 
from analyses of recent tests on modern power, the 
following balance has been made : 

Loss By Equivalent To 

Combustible present in ash 6.00% 

CO 1.20% 

Sparks and Cinders 6.30% 

Heat rejected at stack 13.00% 

Radiation and unaccounted for. . . . 11.00% 

Total loss 37-5o% 

Utilized by boiler and superheater. . . 62.50% 

The modern locomotive steam generating plant, then, 
transfers to the water or steam 62.5 per cent of the heat 
liberated from the fuel in the fire-box. Between the 
boiler and the application of the power, i.e. the rail, there 
are other losses of great magnitude, which reduce the 
over-all performance to the comparatively small figure 
of 5.5 per cent mentioned above. Of these losses the 
most important, as well as the most difficult of reduction 
is that of heat rejected from the engine cylinders at the 
exhaust. With all steam engines, but especially with 
those of single expansion, non-condensing design, this 
thermal waste occurs and would hardly appear to be 
susceptible of much reduction. Friction at the cylinders, 
rods, journals, rail, etc., also reduces the available work, 
and while this is not a thermal loss it still cuts down the 
over-all performance of the power plant. 

We may state, under seven general heads, the factors 
which exercise control over the fuel consumption of loco- 
motives — these are: 

A — Design. 

B — Maintenance, 

C — Engine House attention, 

D— Fuel, 

E — Operating Department, 

F — Engineers, 

G — Firemen, 
and they may be analyzed as follows : . 

a — DESIGN. 

In attacking the design of a locomotive there are cer- 
tain known factors, such as limiting wheel loads, right- 
of-way clearances, topography of road, class of service, 
desired power to be developed at the draw-bar, and in 
connection with wheel loads and power, wheel arrange- 
ment, upon which to build, as a foundation. In the first 
survey of the problem we will, bearing in mind the above, 
be able to determine wheel and cylinder size and boiler 
pressure. From these the maximum horse power output 
of the engine, reached at from 700 (saturated) to 1000 
(superheated) feet per minute piston speed becomes 
known. The boiler, "lungs" of the power plant on 
wheels, should supply steam sufficient to hold the engines 
up to this horse-power delivery-, if most satisfactory 
results are to be obtained. Boilers of this 100 per cent 
capacity, and even considerably more powerful, are now 
the rule, their use generally necessitating the employment 
of trailng wheels in order to allow for a fire-box of 
sufficient size. From the steam delivery desired we may 
determine the boiler heating-surface needed to evaporate 
the necessary water, and from this we come to grate 

May, 1915 



area which must be so proportioned, with regard to the 
heating surface, as to provide for consistent fuel rates 
when the boiler is working to capacity. The fire-box 
volume must be ample, to allow proper mixing and burn- 
ing of hydro-carbon gases, evolved from the combustion 
of all fuels, but especially the volatile bituminous coals. 
The use of combustion chambers in large power boilers 
would seem to be advantageous, increasing fire-box heat- 
ing surface and volume, and shortening what might 
otherwise be excessive tube length. Very long tubes of 
small size, while increasing the total heating surface, will 
so much increase gas friction as to impair the over-all 
efficiency of the design, in other words, setting up a 
greater difference in draft head between the tube sheets 
than is consistent with good practice. A ratio, length 
divided by inside diameter, of no to i, would, from 
present information, seem to be as far as we should go 
and a reduction to ioo to i may prove, in service, to be 
more satisfactory. Further than these, good design must 
include good depth of throat, consistent tube spacing, 
water-leg design to give all possible freedom to circula- 
tion, ample steam space, convenient clean-out facilities 
and first-class workmanship. 

If we follow along these lines the result will be an 
ecofficient boiler which will give the necessary steam out- 
put without excessive fuel rate ; will, therefore, not show 
too alarming spark losses (these being a function of fuel 
rate) ; will not require abnormal draft action in the front 
end in order to maintain good combustion ; will not suffer 
from restricted circulation areas around its tubes or fire- 
box sheets ; will not tend to prime, and will be satisfactory 
to operate as it will steam without undue forcing. 

The engines now merit consideration. As stated above, 
the class of service and topography of the road will enable 
us to fix the wheel size and from this, knowing the desired 
tractive force, the cylinder power can be determined. The 
design of Ihe cylinder as regards clearance volume and 
ratio of stroke to bore will affect the water rate and, 
hence, the coal pile. Piston speed should not exceed 1,500 
feet per minute at the calculated maximum speed, equiva- 
lent to diameter of wheel in inches. The valve motion 
must be positive, rigid, protected from wear by bushings 
and hardened pins, easy of inspection and lubrication, 
non-adjustable, as light as consistent with strength and 
must impart to the valve the motion desired. The valve 
itself, probably piston, may be, especially with super- 
heated steam, of small diameter. One important road 
is now using a 12" valve in all classes of power and this, 
if extraordinary trouble is not experienced with the valve 
rings, would seem to be a step in the right direction. A 
small valve means a light valve and a light valve means 
much reduced stress on the valve motion, especially at 
high speed. The valve should be set so as to give as 
constant turning moment as possible. At high speeds 
the compression should not be allowed to run too high 
at working cut-off, as excessive compression imposes 
additional work on the engines and is also detrimental 
to machinery. Port opening and closing should be 
ample, positive and rapid to reduce wire-drawing to its 
lowest terms. "Tail-rods" may be used to advantage 
with cylinders of 23" diameter and over, helping as they 
do, to reduce cylinder and packing ring wear and, there- 
fore, blows. The internal friction of the entire mechan- 
ism, can, by judicious choice of material, dimensions and 
design be made relatively small, thus increasing the 
machine efficiency. Ample means of lubrication is a 
prime necessity, especially at cylinders and journals. 

The "front-end" is merely a vacuum pump, whose duty 
it is to draw air for combustion through the fire and 
products of this combustion over and through the heating 
surfaces to be discharged, at as low a temperature as 

possible into the atmosphere. This pump has for its 
source of power the exhaust jet from the cylinders. 
Xow, the value of any mechanical device is measured by 
the ratio of work done to power supplied, which law be- 
ing applied to the front-end, means that it should develop 
the needed vacuum at the front tube sheet (back of this, 
boiler design governs) with the least possible back pres- 
sure on the engine pistons. To arrive at this result, the 
gas friction within the front-end itself must be reduced 
to a minimum by providing a well-designed stack, ample 
netting areas, unrestricted gas passages and by eliminat- 
ing, so far as possible, abrupt changes in direction of gas 
flow. The mechanical strength of the design should, 
also, be considered, in order to guard against high tem- 
perature, abrasion and violent motion. The ordinary 
type of front-end consumes much power in doing its 
work. In a paper before the International Railway Fuel 
Association at the 1912 convention, H. B. McFarland, 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, showed some start- 
ling figures on back-pressure horse-power found during 
a very comprehensive series of tests covering this sub- 
ject. As example of this, a 25" x 28" Pacific, with 73" 
wheels and 200 pounds of steam indicated at 50 miles per 
hour, 350 back-pressure horse-power, while a 24" x ^2" 
Consolidated, with 57" wheels and 180 pounds of steam 
gave, at 25 miles per hour, 260 back-pressure horse- 
power. Other engines ran to higher figures than these, 
one large Mallet indicating 1,025 back-pressure horse- 
power at 25 miles per hour. These all go to show that 
there is a very serious loss of power by the use of the 
ordinary front-end and experiments are now being made 
with induced fan draft in the attempt to relieve the cyl- 
inders of this large amount of negative work. 

The grates should have as large percentage of air 
openings as can be obtained without loss of fuel through 
them. They should shake easily and lock level and se- 
curely. They should be well fitted to their bearers and 
these again to the sheets to preclude the loss of fuel at 
these points. Dump grates are often advantageous but, 
when employed, should be placed at the back of box to 
make impossible an influx of cold air against the flue 
sheet, when used on the road. 

Ample air inlet openings under the fire are a prime 
necessity. The desideratum here is atmospheric pres- 
sure in the pan at all times, but this condition can hardly 
be reached in practice, although experiments have been 
made in which, by the use of funnels as air intakes, a 
plenum was attained in the pan while engine was in mo- 
tion. Tests however, show that if, with the ordinary 
pan, 14 per cent of the grate area be allowed for air in- 
let area, with bituminous coal and 8 per cent with anthra- 
cite, further increases of area, within reasonable limits, 
will have very little effect on the ash-pan draft. With 
bituminous burning switching engines it may be best to 
reduce the 14 per cent allowance somewhat, in order to 
prevent too much waste of steam through the safety- 
valves, but in general the figures given will be found to 
give satisfaction. 

The ecoficient locomotive should have a high-degree 
superheater to reduce water rate and hence, fuel con- 
sumption ; a brick arch to improve combustion, increase 
value of fire-box heating surface, assist circulation by 
means of the arch tubes and protect flues ; a power oper- 
ated fire-door to relieve the fireman of unnecessary work 
and to encourage him in light and frequent firing ; some 
means of handling the valve motion other than the time 
honored lever so that the engineer may work his engine 
to the best advantage without fear of his life; good 
"water-works" so that the man is not tempted to carry 
too much in the boiler for insurance against injector 
trouble. The feed-water heater may in time be developed 



May, 1915 

to the dignity of a practical device for locomotives. From 
stationary practice we learn to anticipate a fuel saving 
of i per cent for every n degrees the feed is raised in 
temperature by heat that would otherwise be wasted. 
Cab decks and aprons should be designed with a view 
towards eliminating fuel losses from the engine when in 
service. A general cab arrangement, convenient and safe 
for the crew will also certainly influence the operation 
of the locomotive for the better. 

This paper seems to have been tending towards a hom- 
ily on locomotive design, but the intention is to impress 
the fact that good fuel performance cannot be expected 
from power built without careful consideration of all 
the fundamentals above mentioned. 


The ecoficiently designed locomotive is now in service 
and capable of giving the very best operating results, and 
we may look for such results only just so long as main- 
tenance is followed up and the machine kept, practically 
in its original condition. This means proper back-shop 
and engine-house shop facilities, the latter being very im- 
portant. The road which has a large first-class main 
shop, but is deficient in means for taking care of the nec- 
essary running repairs at its engine houses will find its 
unit locomotive repair cost higher as the engines go 
through for "general," than will one whose main shop is 
perhaps not so elaborate but which is better organized 
at engine division points to keep the day-to-day repairs 
caught up. The importance of proper reports from en- 
ginemen is great. The bald and unadorned statement 
"engine blowing," appearing on the book is not great en- 
couragement for the overworked engine house foreman 
to start on a tour of exploration through cylinders, main 
valves and by-pass valves. The report should state, fully 
and definitely what is wrong and should be made out, 
without fail, immediately on reaching the house. One 
of the most satisfactory ways to handle this matter is to 
have a clerk to whom the engineer, as soon as he has 
registered in, dictates his list of troubles, which are re- 
read to him, or by him, and signed. The defects so 
reported are transcribed by the clerk onto slips which are 
taken in charge by the foreman and the work appor- 
tioned out as usual. Every endeavor should be made 
to do the repairs before engines again go out, the spirit 
of "Well, I guess she'll hold together for another trip," 
being an expensive one and productive of engine fail- 
ures. If our engines are to go over the road at a rea- 
sonable cost the boilers must be tight and cylinders and 
valve packing immune from blows. A bad cylinder blow 
will burn about as much coal unnecessarily as any other 
one thing that can be mentioned. The boiler fronts must 
be tight as must the steam and exhaust pipes in front 
end. Valve motion irregularities, grate work in need 
of repairs, engine out of tram, hard riding engines and 
tanks, etc., all exert a deleterious effect on our precious 
coal pile and should be suppressed as soon as found. The 
drafting should be carefully done to ensure the burning 
of an even, level fire. The tendency, when engine is 
turned in as "not steaming" is to, at once, reduce the 
nozzle size. This should, especially if steam has been made 
satisfactorily with the original nozzle, be however, the. 
last resort as we are at once imposing additional work, 
through the medium of increased back pressure, on the 
engines when the exhaust area is reduced. In general, 
it is not good practice to bridge or split a nozzle when 
reduction in area is desired but the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road is experimenting with a circular nozzle, having four 
short projections of triangular cross-section spaced 90 
degrees apart and the results obtained are said to be most 


The treatment of locomotives at terminals, aside from 
repairs is important. When fires are cleaned the men 
must be taught to waste as little live fire as possible to 
the ashpit ; blower must not be used harder than is nec- 
essary to keep the smoke and gas out of the men's faces 
and the pump should be shut off to keep the ashes and 
dust out of the air end and also to save the flues from 
cold air, which the pump exhaust will draw through them. 
If engine is to stand in house for a period of 36 hours 
or more it will, generally, be cheaper to dump the fire 
on its arrival than to hold under steam. If engines are 
kept under steam, however, the fires should be bright 
and alive next the tube sheet but with the back end 
pushed ahead and the back section of grates bare. With 
this method the fire doors may be kept shut, not allow- 
ing smoke to fill the cab, and the engines will stand for 
a long time without attention, never gaining steam enough 
to open the pop but holding plenty to work the injectors, 
move the engine at short notice or for any other prac- 
tical purpose. Another good point of this method of 
holding fires is that, when it is being prepared for serv- 
ice, the back half is practically clean, as coked coal from 
the front of the box is merely pulled back to cover the 
grates which have been bare. Fire building is a point 
where saving can often be realized if a careful analysis 
of the situation is made. Flue blowing must be followed 
up and pains taken to see that the work is done properly. 
Tanks must not be overloaded at coal chutes as the lump 
of coal which falls overboard on the road and hits the 
poor, but honest track man on the head is of little value 
as a means of keeping the wheels turning. 

d — FUEL. 

In this part of the country when we say "Fuel," we 
mean "Coal." The kind we use will be very largely gov- 
erned by the territory we are in. "The New England 
roads must import their entire supply and the matter of 
transportation rates influences largely the locality and 
hence the kind of coal purchased. Other roads, differ- 
ently situated, may have little or no concern with this 
phase of the problem ; for instance, the Lackawanna gets 
its entire passenger engine supply from a point on its 
main line, of fairly central location. This fuel, anthra- 
cite, would be prohibitive in cost on a New England road. 

Bituminous coal should, no matter where obtained, be 
required to run of uniform quality : it should be low in 
ash and sulphur, of a medium volatile content and, when 
run-of-mine as is generally the case, not over 50 per 
cent in slack. It may pay, under some conditions to buy 
screened coal, but generally run-of-mine will be satisfac- 
tory. It would seem that the ideal way to purchase coal 
would be under specifications, but few, if any, roads fol- 
low this practice. A run-of-mine specification could, 
however, be drawn up on an ash, sulphur and slack basis 
which would not be oppressive to the operator and would 
yet safeguard the consumer's interest satisfactorily. We 
buy about everything from corn brooms to locomotives 
on specifications, rigid and unchangeable, but our coal, 
so long as it is black, generally goes unchallenged for we 
have nothing definite to challenge on. The department 
making the purchase should, especially when lacking spe- 
cifications, consult with the mechanical department as 
to the fuel best suited for its needs and which it is con- 
sistent to procure. One further point in this connection 
is that of check-weighing of supply coal as received, com- 
paring actual scale weights with the bill weight, from 
which they will be found, sometimes to differ materially. 
A lengthy dissertation on this subheading is not of any 
very particular value, however, as we must generally burn 
what we get. 



e— operating depaetment. as we must the engineers and then do our share by paying 
The train operation of a railroad influences the coal all possible attention to the points elaborated under head- 
consumption very materially. To merely mention certain } n S s A, B, C, D, E and F, heading G will take care of 
points, overloaded trains requiring excessive length of itself. No man will shovel a scoop more of coal than 
time between terminals and unreasonable working of en- he has to and circumstances over which he has no con- 
gine ; poorly made meets and passing orders, necessitat- trol compel him, assuming that he is properly instructed, 
ing long delays en route ; failing to give inferior trains to use his 2 ° P er cent, 3° P er cent, 40 per cent or what- 
all possible time ahead of delayed superior trains ; failing ever lt is more that is actually needed to get the train 
to pay due respect to the topography of the road when over the road. This is not to be interpreted as meaning 
laying out regular train schedules ; failing to scheme that all firemen are doing their best, for such is not the 
meets to bring them at the most advantageous points re- case. It does mean, however, that in the writer's opinion, 
garding profile ; stopping trains unnecessarily for orders this part of our problem would be very easy of solution 
or any other reason ; calling engines unreasonably long were the others solved satisfactorily and permanently, 
before they will be needed ; calling helper engines when Now to what does the foregoing lead us ? It is hoped 
not needed and neglecting to call them when they should that by its study, we will be able to analyze the indi- 
be used ; locating water plugs without due regard to road vidual losses we must combat, indicate the parties respon- 
conditions ; all these and more eat into the coal pile and sible f or each, and so be more able to make an intelligent 
can, generally, be classed as unnecessary wastes. The attack upon the whole problem, 
practice of having dispatchers put in a trip or two month- Considering the losses in detail : 
ly over the road riding drag freights and other trains Combustible in Ash. 
which are apt to be unduly long en route would seem to T -r, ., , , s -~ . ,, N ,, . 
be a very good one as in no other wav can such a clear , Loss— Responsible: (a) Design; (b) Maintenance; 
idea of actual conditions be brought home to these men, ( c ) Engine House; (d) Fuel; (e) Operating Depart- 
whose business primarily, is to keep the cars moving. ment , {g) riremen. 

The operating department is generallv a fertile but little * ea . s ons: < a ) Be cause of faulty grate-work design; 

cultivated field by whose exploitation much can be ef- ( b ) Improper grate maintenance; (c) Improper fire 

fected along the lines of our present interest. cleaning; (d) Coal which clinkers instead of burning 

down to ash; (e) Engines called for service and not 

f— engineers. used; (g) Fires brought in not burned down sufficiently. 

The right side of the cab is no mean factor in this Carbon Monoxide 
discussion. A careless or ignorant engineer can just T ^,- , ,, ,. c 
about nullify all the efforts of the designer, shop and en- f Loss-This loss is generalty up to he fireman a fire 
gine house forces, fuel agent, operating department and to° heavy mcreasmg the C O percentage. Usually the 
fireman. He will work his engine with light throttle and total loss m this regard is small, many analyses of smoke- 
long cut-off when she will do better with the throttle }*>* ^ as f es f ho ™ n e but a / raCe of T thlS # S - /^I fi -" n f 
open and the lever back a few notches and vice-versa. Wll j en ^ reh / ta ke care of this Insufficient air admitted 
tj -ii 4- 4. -4.U e i- .■ . •„ , under the fire will, however, militate against the best per- 
He will start with a spasm of slipping which will turn , ' & y 

the well prepared fire bottom side up. He will pump his ' c , , r - , 
boiler full regardless of steam or anything else, and then sparks ana Linaers. 
shut off the injector and run away two gauges before Loss— Responsible : (a) Design; (d) Fuel; (e) Op- 
putting it on again, listening, quite likely with pleasure, erating Department; (f) Engineers; (g) Firemen, 
to the merrv song of the pop. He will never save steam Reasons: (a) Restricted grate area or anything in the 
by setting the heater when it can be done to advantage design which will run the fuel rate too high. Brick arch 
and when he does use it he generally begins by blowing n ot used, (d) Fuel too friable or too high m slack; (e) 
the hose off. He will do many more things which should Schedules arranged or trains loaded so that engines must 
not be done and will leave undone many which should be worked unreasonably; (f) Working engine harder 
be done and the net result is wasted steam, which is than necessary; slipping; (g) Too heavy fire; careless- 
water, the sum of these being coal which is work and ness in placing coal in fire-box ; firing fine soft coal, dry. 
dollars. This man must be educated until he realizes „ . r> ■ > r-, u 
what it is that he is trying to do. Our good engineers, Meat Ke l ectea at * tacR - 
of whom we must thank our stars we have so many, are Loss — Responsible: (a) Design; (c) Engine House, 
coal and money savers for the company and work savers Reason: (a) Boilers so designed that heating surfaces 
for themselves and their mates every time they go out, are insufficient or inefficient to absorb all heat possible ; 
and must have their just recognition as such. insufficient air admitted to fire; (c) Principally through 

failure to keep heating surface clean, scale and soot be- 


ing excellent insulators. 

The poor abused "tallow-pot" on whose more or less 

broad shoulders it seems to be the fashion to lay the Radiation and Unaccounted For. 

blame for poor coal record, low steam, washouts, derail- Loss — Responsible: (a) Design; (b) Maintenance; 

ments and all manner of war, pestilence and grief gener- (g) Firemen. 

ally. There is too much tendency to tell a man going Reasons : (a) and (b) The radiation losses are prob- 

out on some old mill whose boiler "won't hold rocking ably small and can be reduced to a minimum by proper 

chairs,'' and with an engineer who uses only the lowest use and maintenance of covering materials; (g) Prob- 

notch on the quadrant and who believes he should have ably the greatest loss of those "unaccounted for" is that 

"the full of the glass" all the time, to "firelight and of unconsumed hydro-carbon gases, such as Methane, or 

often" and then proclaim to all and sundry that strenu- Marsh Gas and Ethylene or defiant Gas passing out of 

ous efforts are being made along the lines of Fuel Economy, the stack. This loss is occasioned by improper firing. 

I believe that, of the enormous total savings which can generally too heavy, liberating greater volumes of gas 

be made in the fuel bills of the railroads of this country, than can be properly mixed and burned in the fire-box. 

the fireman can not effect more than 20 per cent of the A brick arch will help remedy this, acting as a very effi- 

aggregate at the outside. If we will educate these men, cient "mixer." Smoke is an indication of this condition 



May, 1915 

(although the loss may be present without smoke) as the 
carbon thus made visible is not the fixed carbon of the 
fuel but is evolved from the hydro-carbons volatilized in 
the fire-box, but not properly burned. 

The above items take care, in a general way, of boiler 
losses and from this we come to the engines. As has 
been said, the greatest loss here is by heat rejected at the 
exhaust and this, with a simple engine, cannot be much 
reduced. Compounding will, however, reduce this loss 
materially and, while compounds seem just now to be 
anathema in this country, the writer believes that they 
will ultimately return to favor, as in conjunction with 
high degree superheat, an over-all power plant ecoficiency 
can be realized which will exceed that attainable by any 
other combination. 

"Stand-by" and general losses can be reduced by proper 
loading of coal on cars at the mines and on tenders; by 
elimination of water and steam leaks ; by keeping the 
pops closed ; by getting trains over the road as expedi- 
tiously as possible, etc. 

Concluding, I want to say that I have tried to treat this 
subject as largely as it deserves. It is influenced by and 
influences every phase of railroading. It is larger than 
any man or group of men. It is not too insignificant to 
merit careful attention by the august president at his 
mahogany desk nor too great to be unaffected by the 
humble fire-knocker in the heat and dust of the engine 
deck. The labor of every man who. in any way has to 
do with getting trains ready for the road or over the road 
is reflected in the fuel bill. We must learn to see the 
dollars in the coal pile, not looking upon fuel as merely 
so much black, heavy stuff, but as coin of the realm. We 
must, every one of us, work toward the end that the 
coal we buy shall all be used. Co-operation in and be- 
tween all departments, in combination with hard, intelli- 
gent endeavor must be attained if we are to reach our 
goal, "Fuel Ecoficiency." 

The Mechanical Man 
By A. A. Masters, Genl. Fmn., D. & H. Co. 

The assertion has been made that the mechanical man 
on the railroad, does not send no actual cash into the 
treasury ; that he spends the company's money and keeps 
some money from going out of the treasury ; that about 
25% of the railroads' operating expenses go to his main- 
tainances, and in fact that he is a pensioner on the com- 
pany's resources now and forever. 

Let us look at this in its broadest sense and see how 
this works out. It is true that each month a certain 
amount is set aside out of the earnings to maintain the 
mechanical department, and that he alone does not actu- 
ally send any money into the treasury. 

Xow. who does actually send this money into the 
treasury? Usually some clerk in the treasurer's depart- 
ment, but the act alone of placing the money in the treas- 
ury does not make the clerk the producer. The produc- 
ers are those that are actually engaged in production or 
that makes this possible. 

Considering the strained conditons of the railroads at 
the present time, due to all manners of adverse legisla- 
tion, compulsory inspection, safety equipment, new equip- 
ment, compensation due to injury, increased wages in 
every department, decreased revenue, full crew, arbitrary 
restriction that increases operating expenses, but do not 
increase net earnings, it goes without saying that no rail- 
road will long maintain a non-producing department that 
absorbes 20% of its operating expenses. 

Let us imagine a first class railroad with a crew called 
(not forgetting the third man to make a full crew), to 
transport 500 tons of coal, 300 tons of iron ore and 100 

tons of wheat, 100 miles in, say, 10 hours. Everything 
is in order when at one mighty stroke the mechanical 
man and all his contrivances for transportation are swept 
away. The result would be that every department on 
the railroad would be automatically forced into the non- 
productive class without a ghost of a chance to place one 
dollar in the treasury and they would all be pensioners on 
the company, while they were retained under pay. 

To get a good impression of what transportation and 
travel was before the mechanical man, let us study that 
picture of the man who a few thousand years ago availed 
himself of the first known methods of transportation. 
We see a primitive man, seated on a log, that had fallen 
into the river, floating with the current ; on the log he has 
a few clams tied up in a skin ; such was transportation 
before the arrival of the machine. The thought that ap- 
peals to us, as railroad men, is that this method is not a 
high dividend producer. 

In looking at a train of gears, our first impression is 
that the gear on the end of the train, and that is turning 
the screw in performing all the work and carrying all the 
load. If we remove one gear from the train all produc- 
tion ceases ; even a few teeth out of an intermediate gear 
cripples the entire train, just as poor and inefficient power, 
cars out of repair and poor terminal facilities cripple and 
reduce the earning capacity of the railroad. There is a 
vast difference between the fifth wheel on a wagon or the 
fourth wheel on a wagon, due to the fact that one con- 
stitutes 25% of productive ability and the other is dis- 
tinctly in the non-productive class. 

In other lines of business the mechanical man's pro- 
ductive ability is still more clearly marked. The auto- 
mobile industries (another form of transportation) often 
pride themselves on their efficient sales agencies and 
service stations. But the productive side of the business 
is largely up to the mechanical man, who is entitled to 
the largest amount of the credit, in his organization for 
placing money in the treasury. The financial manager 
and head of one of the largest manufactures of the kind, 
has recognized this and has rewarded his mechanical 
man accordingly. On the western prairies, it is no un- 
common sight to see a giant tractor at work 10 to 12 
furrows at one time. The Syrians still plow with a stick, 
but tens of thousands of bushels of wheat are shipped 
from the West yearly, and we do not hear of Syria being 
a wheat producing country. Evidently the Syrians do 
not know about the possibilities of the mechanical man. 

Let us suppose that a miracle should happen to-mor- 
row and that all the war equipment, produced by mechan- 
ical men in the last 50 years, that belong to one side of 
the contending armies in the present old world war 
should be destroyed. It would not be even necessary to 
declare peace, as sticks and stones do not constitute mod- 
ern implements of warfare. 

Under the present high pressure railroad methods, pro- 
duction devolves equally on all departments, and the 
weakest and most inefficient department gets the most 
harrowing in an effort to bring the productive ability 
of this particular department up to the remainder of 
the organization. 

It is therefore up to every department to obtain the 
highest efficiency and to deliver the best of service pos- 
sible in order that all other departments may be able to 
carry out their destiny, that of bringing in the shares, 
bearing in mind that the hole that is now in the bottom 
of the treasury where the money runs out is nearly as 
large as the hole where the money goes in at the top. 
If you do not believe this, buy some railroad stock and 
watch it go up and unless Billy Sunday soon gets at the 
public for countenancing this condition it will require 
the united effects of all to keep even. 

May, 1915 



Forged and Rolled Steel Pistons 

The Necessity for Reducing the Weight of Reciprocating 
Parts and a Description of a New Method of Manufacture 

By W. W. Scott, Jr. 

It is not the intention nor is it necessary to present in 
this paper any new data as to the effect of the inertia of 
reciprocating parts of a locomotive upon the rails or 
upon the operation of the locomotive itself, but in order 
to freshen our memories as to investigations already 
made on this important subject and to prove the positive 
necessity for reducing the weight of reciprocating parts, 
it is proper at this time to review briefly the various facts 
brought out in the past. 

In 1896 a committee of the Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation filed a report on "Reduction of Weight of Re- 
ciprocating Parts in Locomotives," which ended as fol- 
lows : "It must be borne in mind that these designs 
(referring to built up pistons, wrought iron cross heads, 
etc.) were adopted because of their low first cost and 
cheapness of maintenance and the question of weight was 
considered of secondary importance, and your committee 
has not been able to learn of any method of design or 
construction, that has yet been brought out by means of 
which the weight of reciprocating parts can be materially 
reduced without entailing considerable increased costs 
over former methods of construction." In 1896 then, 
cost came first and weight second, but in 1914, with the 
tremendous increase in tonnage, weight of locomotives, 
wheel loads, etc., the question of weight has become as 
important if not more important, than first cost, and it is 
the intention to explain later, the methods by which the 
views of this committee can be met. 

It is a simple problem to counterbalance the revolving 
parts of a locomotive to obtain a good vertical balance, 
and it would be an easy matter to counterbalance the 
entire weight of the reciprocating parts of a steam loco- 
motive to obtain a perfect theoretical horizontal balance, 
but unfortunately, the vertical disturbance on the rails, 
always dangerous, is increased in proportion to the 
amount added to the counterbalance, necessary for the 
revolving parts. This condition has led to the practice of 
adding an "overbalance" varying from 30% to 75% of 
the total weight of the reciprocating parts, or more, to 
the counterbalance necessary for revolving parts alone. 
The Influence of Heavy Reciprocating Parts. 

So far as balance is concerned, the modern electric 
locomotive is almost perfect, for there are no reciprocat- 
ing parts to be partly or fully balanced. The connection 
rods, where used, are "rotating links between rotating 
elements," and as all weights are revolving the locomo- 
tive can be counterbalanced perfectly for all speeds. 
Hence the draw bar pull is practically constant, the 
weight on drivers is constant, there is no hammer blow 
on the rail and the locomotive is capable of much greater 
speed with safety than the most perfect reciprocating 
steam locomotive. 

As evidence of this the record of over 130 miles per 
hour made by electric locomotive on Berlin-Zossen Lines 
in Germany in 1903 has not been equalled by any recipro- 
cating steam engine in this country or abroad ; the fastest 
time for a steam locomotive of which there is authentic 
evidence being that made on the S. F. & W., March 1st, 
1901, of 107.9 M. P. H., and that for a very short run. 

It is said that the speed of a steam locomotive is lim- 

* A paper read before the Railway Club of Pittsburgh, November 
*7, xyi4. 

ited to the steam capacity of its boiler, and to a certain 
extent it is true, but it is evident that any locomotive 
operated by steam would be liable to "jump the track" 
at a speed of 130 miles per hour for the reason that the 
vertical pressure on the rail, due to the centrifugal force 
of the overbalance in driver, increases as the square of 
the velocity regardless of what proportion of reciprocat- 
ing parts weight is counterbalanced, and in every case 
there is a natural effort on the part of the wheels carry- 
ing the overbalance to rise from the rails at high speed. 
Professor W. F. M. Goss proved this to be an absolute 
fact through experiments in locomotive testing labora- 
tory at Purdue University. It was also proven in the 
locomotive testing plant at St. Louis Worlds Fair in 
1904. In the latter case the drivers of one engine actu- 
ally left the rails at every revolution at ordinary high 
speed, while every engine tested showed great variations 
in weight on the drivers. 

In Vol. XII, Part 3, page 65, proceedings American 
Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Associa- 
tion, 191 1, are given the necessary data to figure the 
counterbalance disturbance of a number of locomotives 
typical of those in use in the United States, and it has 
been shown that at 80 miles per hour, a speed which is 
by no means infrequent for many passenger locomotives, 
the impact due to overbalance. alone in the case of many 
engines, is nearly 100% ; in case of quite a number over 
135%, one engine being over 152%. When the counter- 
balance disturbance is over 100% the drivers actually lift 
from the rail when the counterweight is up, and when 
down, produce a true hammer blow, the force of which 
is actually dangerous. 

F. J. Cole while mechanical engineer of the Baltimore 
& Ohio made some interesting tests which also showed, 
to summarize briefly, that counterbalancing necessary to 
offset the weights of revolving parts and proper propor- 
tion of reciprocating parts lifts the main drivers off the 
rails at ordinary high speeds (50 miles per hour for freight 
locomotives). In making a comparison in effect between 
"light" and "heavy" reciprocating parts, he uses the fol- 
lowing : 

Eight-wheeled engines having four coupled drivers and 
four-wheeled trucks. 

Diameter drivers — 6o" 
Size cylinders — i8"x24" 

Weight on drivers — 72, 300 pounds 
Steam pressure — 160 pounds 
Weights of reciprocating parts : 

Piston and rod — 285 pounds 
Heavy 634 pounds Cross head — 138 pounds 

One-half main rod — 211 pounds 

634 pounds 
Piston and rod — 219.56 pounds 
(using solid plate piston) 
Light 420 pounds Cross head — 92.73 pounds 

One-half main rod — 107. 50 pounds 

419.79 pounds 
and shows that at 60 miles per hour the alternations of 
weight during one-half revolution for heavy parts is 



May, 1915 

63,920 pounds, the actual weight on the drivers being 
40,340 pounds minimum and 104,260 pounds maximum, 
as compared to alternations of weight during one-half a 
revolution for the lighter parts 45,592 pounds, the actual 
weight on drivers being 49,504 pounds minimum and 
95,096 pounds maximum. These determinations were 
made before forged and rolled pistons, and hollow piston 
rods were in vogue. Doubtless the reciprocating parts 
could now be designed to be much lighter than 419.79 

It is necessary, of course, to balance the reciprocating 
parts so that the engine will not buck or plunge and will 
have a fairly constant draw bar pull, but in the light of 
present-day knowledge the old idea of using heavy re- 
ciprocating parts simply because they are strong and 
cheap, seems like putting the cart before the horse. It is 
evident without argument that the maximum weight on 
drivers should be figured for a higher speed than the 
locomotive makes on ordinary runs, because the static 
driver load in steam locomotives, unlike that in electric 
locomotives, is no indication whatever of the blow trans- 
mitted to the rail at speed, and has little to do with the 
effect on track, unless the static load is excessively high 
and causes a crushing of the rails due to rotating effect. 
The important fact is that the overbalance in the driver 
hammers the rail when the locomotive is in motion. The 
greater proportion of broken rails occur during freezing 
temperatures. Many of them are diagnosed as "crystal- 
lized." Let it be here stated that rails do not crystallize ; 
such rails are broken by the centrifugal force of the over- 
balance coming at a time when the track is frozen rigid 
and cannot cushion the shock. To reduce the overbal- 
ance blow is to reduce the number of broken rails. 

The Advantages of the Rolled Steel Piston. 

(a) In reducing weight of reciprocating parts. 

(b) In reducing cylinder wear. 

Would it not be wise to rule that no locomotive (let us 
say passenger at 70 M. P. H., freight at 45 M. P. H.) 
shall have an impact on rail due to overbalance of more 
than 30% of the static weight on the drivers? This is 
much better than the ordinary American practice, al- 
though it is strictly followed by the Pennsylvania Lines 
East of Pittsburgh, whose maximum weight on one driv- 
ing wheel is 32,500 pounds. No engine is allowed to 
show more than 30% dynamic augment (at the speed 
mentioned) or 9,750 pounds per wheel. That such a rule 
is not a hardship is proven by the fact that some of the 
jerman railways allow only 15% dynamic augment at 
high speeds. When one considers the fact that in this 
:ountry the average is about 625^% it is high time that 
t be reduced. 

Having made the rule referred to, it will be an easy 
task to work back to the allowable weights for reciprocat- 
ing parts : it will at once be seen that the ordinary piston 
■od. piston, crosshead, and main rod will not do ; that it 
will be necessary to go deeper into designs and stresses 
:han was the custom when lighter locomotives were in 
ommon use : it will be found that a forged and rolled 
Diston will be from 10^ to 60% lighter than the old 
ypes ; that boring the piston rod will reduce its weight 
ibout 25 °> : that the substitution of a good alloy steel for 
ordinary steel will reduce the weight of cross head from 
ro^ to 30% : that I shaped main rods are not only lighter 
^ut stronger than those of rectangular cross section. 

Through the courtesy of J. T. Wallis of the Pennsyl- 
vania the formula for calculating counterbalances re- 
quired at tread of driving wheel for Pennsylvania Rail- 
-oad locomotives is here given : 

The maintenance of way department has limited the 
maximum dynamic augment at 70 M. P. H. to 9,750 

pounds per wheel, which is 30% of the maximum weight 
of driver on rail. 

Wr = Total weight in counterbalance at radius (r). 

Wr = Total weight in counterbalance at radius (r). 

W x = Weight revolving parts in pounds, per wheel. 

W 2 = Weight reciprocating parts in pounds, per wheel. 

R = Radius driving wheel in inches. 

r = Radius crank pin circle in inches. 

g = Acceleration of gravity in feet per sec. per sec. 

= 32.2. 
1 cox = % reciprocating parts balanced. 
xW 2 = Weight in counterbalance (Wr) above that for 

revolving parts. 

Wr = W, + xW, and Wr = — ( Wr) . 


R. P. M. 
n = Number revolutions per second = 

Dynamic augment = 

4 ir r n 2 x W, 


= 9.750. 

Whence x W, = ■ 


12 g 

Wr = W 1 -f- 


and Wr = ^W 1 + 

rn z 

rn J 

— Desired at tread 
r of wheel. 

This formula is based on dynamic augment of 30%. 
If it is desired to work lower than 30% the figure 9,750 
pounds shown above can be changed to agree with per- 
centage of driver load agreed upon. 

For the benefit of those who may desire to calculate 
the dynamic augment of locomotives already in service, 
constants worked out by Baldwin Locomotive Works will 
be useful and are here given. (It must be borne in mind 
that these figures have been worked out on the basis that 
speed in miles per hour equals diameter of driver in 

Illustration 26" Stroke 

6b M. P. H. 
70" Diameter driver 
60 2 

U) Ud.ll 

11c augnien 

. = 

41./ vv . 

70 2 





29.1 xW" 













*At diameter 














W== Excess weight at stroke distance. 
A rule making necessary the reduction of reciprocating 
weights may, at first thought, seem to be a hardship but 
a little reflection will show that to do othenvise, even 
though it adds a trifle to the first cost of the locomotive, 
is to be "penny wise and pound foolish." (Let it be 
stated here that a forged and rolled steel piston will not 
increase the cost of a locomotive.) The value of all the 
reciprocating parts in all locomotives in this country prob- 
ably does not exceed 1% of the value of the rails in track, 
and it is positive economy to save the greater investment 

May, 1915 



or "bob" weighing about 3,000 pounds to the 
main axles, the main wheel being heavy on pin 
side 590 pounds even with the "bob." These loco- 
motives were duplicated in 19 14 in all respects 
except that the weights of reciprocating and re- 
volving parts in two of them were reduced so 
that not only was the counter weight on main 
axle unnecessary, but the counterbalances in the 
drivers were reduced about 4,000 pounds, mak- 
ing a saving in dead weight of about 7,000 pounds 
each, the rated tractive effort (71,500 pounds) 
remaining the same, and although the main driver 
is still heavy on the pin side, the weight has been 
reduced 35 pounds, making it 555 pounds instead 
of 590 pounds. The total weight of reciprocating 
parts in the locomotives having "bobs" on the 
axles, is 2,315 pounds ; in the locomotives without 
"bobs," 1,936 pounds. The reciprocating parts 
are about 16% lighter in the latter. 

The pistons of the lighter locomotives are Z 
type, the steel center being riveted to a cast iron 
bull ring carrying two packing rings. It is prob- 
in rails by lightening the weights of reciprocating parts able that the weight of reciprocating parts might have 
which represent the smaller investment. been still further reduced had a solid piston been used. 

In this progressive age it behooves every man to ascer- It is interesting to note in passing, that the Pennsyl- 

tain how his decisions affect his entire business and not vania locomotives mentioned, as well as the lighter C. B. 
one particular department. It develops then into the & Q. locomotives, are fitted with bored piston rods, and 
question whether it is cheaper to lessen the dangerous that the main and side rods are I-beam section, while the 
blow on the rails by lightening reciprocating parts, or driving and trailing axles on the P. R. R. locomotives are 

Fig. 1 — Ingots Being Rolled into Round Bloom. 

bored from one end to the other to facilitate quenching 
and tempering. 


If, then, the decided advantage of lightening recipro- 

increase the weight of rail. One thing or the other must 
be done in the near future. 

As evidence that the question of lightening reciprocat- 
ing parts is beginning to receive the attention it deserves, 

it is only necessary to mention two specific cases recently eating parts has been proven it is interesting to note that 
described in the technical papers. The first is that of the a new method of manufacturing pistons has been devel- 
Pennsylvania which, at its Altoona shops, has recently oped by means of which a saving in weight of 10% to 
developed the efficient types E6s — K-4 and Lis locomo- 5°% or possibly more for certain types can be accom- 
tives. They are worthy of most careful study by en- plished. The process has been worked out by the Car- 
gineers and laymen interested in steam engines ; their negie Steel Company at its Homestead car wheel plant 
reciprocating parts are said to be the lightest ever used in where, among other circular sections, pistons are made 
an American locomotive having the same size cylinders, practically from "ore to finished product." 
The pistons are of one piece solid, forged and rolled from The ingots are cast according to usual open hearth fur- 

35% to 50% O. H. steel untreated, made by the process nace practice in moulds 22"x22" and about 6 to 7 feet 
about to be described, and are almost 50% lighter than long. After stripping, and soaking in the furnaces at the 
the type which they superseded, the piston for E6s blooming mills in customary way the ingots are rolled into 
(4-4-2 Type) 23^" cylinders weighing 144 pounds fin- round blooms 15" in diameter (See Fig. No. 1) and, 
ished. Each piston carries two packing rings of cast while hot (See Fig. No. 2) sheared into discs or "cheeses" 
iron sprung into their grooves in the usual manner. Al- of the proper weight to produce the required section by 
though very light, they have proven their ability 
to resist extraordinary shocks, because, while the 
type of piston having a cast iron bull ring bolted 
to a cast steel center sometimes fractures during 
very low temperatures on account of steam con- 
densing in the cylinders, the solid rolled steel 
piston has given no trouble under exactly the 
same conditions ; in fact, one case was reported 
where the shock, instead of bending or breaking 
the piston, was transmitted to the main rod, which 
bent three inches out of line and worked in that 
condition to the end of the division, where the 
deflection was detected. 

The other case is that of 2-10-2 freight locomo- 
tives built by Baldwin Locomotive Works for 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, cylinders 30" di- 
ameter, 32" stroke. In 1912 several of these loco- 
motives were built which proved their efficiency, 
but the revolving and reciprocating parts were so 
massive that the drivers (60" in diameter) could 
not accommodate the proper counterbalance and 

it was found necessary tO key a counter weight Fig. 2— Blooms Being Sheared Into Discs While Hot. 



May, 1915 

further forging and rolling to be described later. 

At this point your attention is called to the 
forging and rolling work done on the steel used, 
through the reduction of a 22"x22" ingot into a 
15" round in the blooming mill (Fig. i). This 
reduction represents a very important refinement 
of the rough cast ingot into a forged product of 
uniform and sound structure, which is far 
superior in its adaptability for the final forging 
operations than a raw casting of steel. 

There may arise in your mind the question why 
these blocks are sheared from rolled rounds into 
the form of discs '^Fig. 2) rather than from flat 
slabs into the form of squares, as made for annu- 
lar sections at Homestead and other plants some 
years ago. The answer is the keynote of the pres- 
ent day success of rolled steel sections, such as 
passenger, tender and freight wheels, gears for 
electric railways, heavy duty double flange crane 
track wheels, etc.. and lies in the fact that 
the outside of the ingot which, according to 
the nature of the elements composing it is its best 
part, finally becomes by this process the outside or periph- 
erv of the section, while the center, naturally the weakest 


-Inspection of Discs for Surface or Rolling Defects. 

Fig. A — Heating Discs in a Continuous Gravity Furnace. 

part, eventually becomes the core and goes back into 
scrap. It is, of course, understood that sufficient discard 
has been made from the rolled round bloom to 
insure freedom from piping. 

The discs when cold are carefully inspected 
(See Fig. Xo. 3) for surface or rolling defects, 
and any present are either chipped out cleanly by 
means of pneumatic chippers or the disc is 
scrapped. From the inspection yards the discs 
are taken to the wheel plants, and in the cases of 
pistons, gear blanks and other sections lighter 
than freight, tender and passenger wheels are 
heated in a continuous gravity furnace, insuring 
the rolling of each disc in its proper order at a 
uniform heat (See Fig. No. 4"). 

By means of a steel dog running between two 
rails the disc is transferred to a hydraulic press, 
whose function is to pierce a hole considerably 
smaller than the rough bore desired about half 
ivay through the center on the axis of the disc in 
Drder that the disc can be held between the rolls. 
Dn a pin. until the hydraulic pressure applied 
grips the piece and forging commences (See Fig. 
5). The mills were designed and patented by 

V.. F. Slick and are uninue in that they are the first of 

their kind ever built and are original in every respect. 
Each mill, of which there lare two, is composed 
of two rolls or dies facing each other, set on the 
ends of two shafts which are out of line; one 
mill having the shafts approximately 14" and the 
other approximately 7 out of parallel. It is evident 
therefore that when the dies are brought together 
before the shafts turn, the disc is subject to a 
forging action. When sufficient forging has taken 
place under a hydraulic pressure starting at about 
700.000 pounds and intensified to 3.000.000 
pounds maximum at the finish in the larger mill, 
to start the piece into the contour of the die, steam 
power furnished by a 2.500 H. P. engine is ap- 
plied t